Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Effect of meat processing on viability of Toxoplasma gondii: Towards replacement of mouse bioassay by in vitro testing
Opsteegh, M. ; Dam-Deisz, C. ; Boer, P. de; Fare, A. ; Hengeveld, P. ; Luiten, R. ; Smits, C.B. ; Verkleij, T. ; Giessen, Judith van der; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2019
Felines are the definitive hosts of T. gondii and primary infection results in fecal shedding of infectious oocysts. Infected intermediate hosts will develop tissue cysts, which are infective to both cats and intermediate hosts. Meat containing viable tissue cysts is considered one of the main sources of human infection. In contrast to fresh meat, raw meat products usually undergo processing, including salting and mixing in additives such as acetate and lactate, which affects the viability of T. gondii. However, the experiments currently described in literature, are not always performed in line with the processing methods applied in industry. Therefore we aimed to study the effect of salting and additives according to the recipes used by commercial producers. Mouse or cat bioassay is the gold standard to demonstrate the presence of viable T. gondii. However, it is costly, time consuming and for ethical reasons not preferred for large-scale studies. Therefore, our second aim was to develop an alternative for mouse bioassay that can be used to determine the effect of processing on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. We focused on a tissue culture method to determine the parasite's ability to multiply, and a PMA-based assay to selectively detect DNA from live cells. Results with the PMA-based method were inconsistent and did not sufficiently discriminate between live and dead parasites. The tissue culture method showed promising results, but further optimization is needed before it can replace or reduce the number of mouse bioassays needed. Small scale experiments with minced meat incubated for 20h with low concentrations of salt, lactate and acetate showed a large but incomplete reduction of the number of infected mice. In future, in vitro methods are needed to allow more extensive testing of product-specific processing methods, thereby providing a better indication of the risk of T. gondii infection for consumers.
Clonal expansion of a virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 9 lineage distinguishable from carriage subpopulations
Willemse, Niels ; Ark, Kees C.H. van der; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert ; Smith, Hilde ; Picavet, Daisy I. ; Solt-Smits, Conny van; Wisselink, Henk J. ; Schultsz, Constance ; Greeff, Astrid de - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Streptococcus suis is a porcine pathogen, causing severe invasive infections. S. suis serotype 9 is increasingly causing disease in Dutch and Chinese pig herds, but it is unknown whether all serotype 9 isolates are equally virulent and markers that can identify virulent strains are not available. Therefore, discrimination between virulent isolates and carriage isolates typically not associated with disease, is currently not possible. We collected tonsillar S. suis isolates from 6 herds not previously diagnosed with S. suis infections, and clinical S. suis isolates of previously diseased pigs. We confirmed the virulence of a virulent type strain and one representative clinical isolate, and the lack of virulence of two carriage isolates, in a pig infection model. Phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences of 124 isolates resulted in 10 groups, of which two were almost uniquely populated by clinical isolates. The population structure of S. suis serotype 9 appears highly diverse. However, analysis of the capsule loci sequences showed variation in a single region which fully correlated with a virulent genotype. Transmission electron microscopy suggested differences in capsule thickness between carriage and clinical genotypes. In conclusion, we found that that the S. suis serotype 9 population in the Netherlands is diverse. A distinct virulence-associated lineage was identified and could be discriminated based on the capsule locus sequence. Whilst the difference in virulence cannot be directly attributed to the DNA sequence, the correlation of capsule locus sequence with virulence could be used in the development of diagnostic tests to identify potential virulent S. suis serotype 9 in pigs.

Older adults’ active involvement in an undergraduate program in gerontology: Motives and meaning
Sliepenbeek, Marjan ; Smits, Carolien ; Spelt, Elisabeth J.H. ; Jukema, Jan S. - \ 2019
Gerontology and Geriatrics Education (2019). - ISSN 0270-1960
cocreation - Gerontological competences - older adults - undergraduate education - volunteers

Two Dutch undergraduate programs in applied gerontology have teamed up with older volunteers to educate students in collaborating with older adults in the field of age-friendly service development. The research question of this study was: What are the motives and meanings of the older volunteers concerning their participation in an undergraduate program? An explorative descriptive qualitative design was used to study the motives and meanings of the older volunteers through semi-structured interviews (n = 11) and a focus group interview (n = 4). Two themes and nine categories emerged: (1) Personal norms and values (categories: responsible life attitude, contribution, self-determination), (2) Personal gain (categories: intergenerational education, personal development, staying healthy, pleasure, feeling appreciated, feeling connected). Personal norms and values and personal gains are meaningful to older volunteers in applied gerontology education. Universities should respect these when designing measures for improving participation methods.

Successional Dynamics in the Gut Microbiome Determine the Success of Clostridium difficile Infection in Adult Pig Models
Jurburg, Stephanie D. ; Cornelissen, Jan J.B.W.J. ; Boer, Paulo de; Smits, Mari A. ; Rebel, Johanna M.J. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 9 (2019). - ISSN 2235-2988 - 11 p.
animal models - bacteria - Clostridium difficile - microbiome - pig

Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It is hypothesized that CDI develops due to the antibiotic-induced disruption of the intestinal microbial community structure, which allows C. difficile to flourish. Here, we pre-treated weaned pigs with the antibiotics Clindamycin or Ciprofloxacin for 1 day, and subsequently inoculated them with a human and pig enteropathogenic C. difficile strain 078 spores. Body temperature, clinical signs of disease, and the fecal microbiome were monitored daily for 15 days. Clindamycin had a stronger effect on the pigs than Ciprofloxacin, resulting in drastic shifts in the fecal microbiome, decreases in microbial diversity and significant increases in body temperature, even in the absence of C. difficile. Fecal shedding of C. difficile was detectable for 3 and 9 days in Ciprofloxacin and Clindamycin treated pigs inoculated with C. difficile, respectively, and in both cases decreased cell proliferation rates were detected in colon tissue. The timing of C. difficile shedding coincided with the decrease in a large cluster of Firmicutes following Clindamycin treatment, a pattern which was also independent of C. difficile inoculation. The observed community patterns suggest that successional dynamics following antibiotic treatment facilitate C. difficile establishment. The similarities between the microbiome responses observed in our study and those previously reported in CDI-infected humans further support the utility of adult pigs as models for the study of CDI.

The social license to operate of oil and gas development in Greenland
Smits, Coco C.A. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.P.M. van Tatenhove, co-promotor(en): J. van Leeuwen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463950459 - 221
Kun je je alvast wapenen tegen verkoudheid en griep?
Wichers, Harry - \ 2019
Circulaire economie en hergebruik van grondstoffen – de casus fosfaat
Kistenkas, F.H. ; Smits, M.J.W. - \ 2019
Landwerk 2019 (2019)3. - ISSN 1567-1844 - p. 18 - 22.
Akkermansia muciniphila Exerts Lipid-Lowering and Immunomodulatory Effects without Affecting Neointima Formation in Hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP Mice
Katiraei, Saeed ; Vries, Margreet R. de; Costain, Alice H. ; Thiem, Kathrin ; Hoving, Lisa R. ; Diepen, Janna A. van; Smits, Hermelijn H. ; Bouter, Kristien E. ; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Quax, Paul H.A. ; Nieuwdorp, Max ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Cani, Patrice D. ; Belzer, Clara ; Dijk, Ko Willems van; Berbée, Jimmy F.P. ; Harmelen, Vanessa van - \ 2019
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2019). - ISSN 1613-4125
Akkermansia muciniphila - atherosclerosis - immunity - lipid metabolism - mesenteric lymph nodes

Scope: Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) is an intestinal commensal with anti-inflammatory properties both in the intestine and other organs. The aim is to investigate the effects of oral administration of A. muciniphila on lipid metabolism, immunity, and cuff-induced neointima formation in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L).CETP mice. Methods and results: Hyperlipidemic male E3L.CETP mice are daily treated with 2 × 108 CFU A. muciniphila by oral gavage for 4 weeks and the effects are determined on plasma lipid levels, immune parameters, and cuff-induced neointima formation and composition. A. muciniphila administration lowers body weight and plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. A. muciniphila influences the immune cell composition in mesenteric lymph nodes, as evident from an increased total B cell population, while reducing the total T cell and neutrophil populations. Importantly, A. muciniphila reduces the expression of the activation markers MHCII on dendritic cells and CD86 on B cells. A. muciniphila also increases whole blood ex vivo lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-10 release. Finally, although treatment with A. muciniphila improves lipid metabolism and immunity, it does not affect neointima formation or composition. Conclusions: Four weeks of treatment with A. muciniphila exerts lipid-lowering and immunomodulatory effects, which are insufficient to inhibit neointima formation in hyperlipidemic E3L.CETP mice.

Experiences and views of older people on their participation in a nurse-led health promotion intervention: “community health consultation offices for seniors”
Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther ; Madjdian, Dónya S. ; Vet, Emely de; Mensen, Monique W.M. ; Visscher, Tommy L.S. ; Ranchor, Adelita V. ; Slaets, Joris P.J. ; Smits, Carolien H.M. - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)5. - ISSN 1932-6203

The growing number of community-dwelling older adults and the increased risks of adverse health events that accompany ageing, call for health promotion interventions. Nurses often lead these interventions. The views and experiences of older adults participating in these interventions have rarely been studied. To understand the views of targeted older adults, qualitative studies are essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the views and experiences of older adults on their participation in a nurse-led intervention, taking into account their views on healthy aging. Methods In a qualitative study, nineteen Dutch older adults aged 62 to 92 years participated in semi-structured interviews. These were transcribed verbatim and coded with the Qualitative Data Analysis Miner software program. The Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven was used for data analysis. Results Based on the analysis of the interviews, the following main themes emerged from the data reflecting the experiences of the participants: 1) awareness of aging, 2) experienced interaction with the nurse, and 3) perception of the consultations as a check-up and/or personal support. Conclusions This study underscores the importance of nurse-led interventions that match older adults’ personal views concerning healthy living, and their views and experiences concerning these interventions. Older adults’ holistic views of healthy living were not always assessed and valued by the nurses. Also, our study shows a wide variety of expectations, views and experiences among the participating older adults. This implies that health professionals should adjust their working and communication methods to the older adult’s views on life.

Multimodal Tracking of Controlled Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Mice
Welling, Mick M. ; Korne, Clarize M. De; Spa, Silvia J. ; Willigen, Danny M. Van; Hensbergen, Albertus W. ; Bunschoten, Anton ; Duszenko, Nikolas ; Smits, Wiep Klaas ; Roestenberg, Meta ; Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. Van - \ 2019
Bmc Infectious Diseases 5 (2019)7. - ISSN 1471-2334 - p. 1160 - 1168.
bacterial infection - cell-tracking - fluorescence - multimodal - SPECT - ubiquicidin

There is a need to develop diagnostic and analytical tools that allow noninvasive monitoring of bacterial growth and dissemination in vivo. For such cell-tracking studies to hold translational value to controlled human infections, in which volunteers are experimentally colonized, they should not require genetic modification, and they should allow tracking over a number of replication cycles. To gauge if an antimicrobial peptide tracer, 99m Tc-UBI 29-41 -Cy5, which contains both a fluorescent and a radioactive moiety, could be used for such in vivo bacterial tracking, we performed longitudinal imaging of a thigh-muscle infection with 99m Tc-UBI 29-41 -Cy5-labeled Staphylococcus aureus. Mice were imaged using SPECT and fluorescence-imaging modalities at various intervals during a 28 h period. Biodistribution analyses were performed to quantitate radioactivity in the abscess and other tissues. SPECT and fluorescence imaging in mice showed clear retention of the 99m Tc-UBI 29-41 -Cy5-labeled bacteria following inoculation in the thigh muscle. Despite bacterial replication, the signal intensity in the abscess only modestly decreased within a 28 h period: 52% of the total injected radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ID/g) at 4 h postinfection (pi) versus 44%ID/g at 28 h pi (15% decrease). After inoculation, a portion of the bacteria disseminated from the abscess, and S. aureus cultures were obtained from radioactive urine samples. Bacterial staining with 99m Tc-UBI 29-41 -Cy5 allowed noninvasive bacterial-cell tracking during a 28 h period. Given the versatility of the presented bacterial-tracking method, we believe that this concept could pave the way for precise imaging capabilities during controlled-human-infection studies.

De betekenis van mestverwerking in een circulaire economie
Woltjer, Geert ; Smits, Marie-José - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2019-029) - 23
What is the role of manure processing in the transition to a circular economy? To this end, it is first of all important to get a clear picture of what manure processing is and how (manure) policy influences this. Current manure processing fits within a system that is primarily focused on solving current problems. However, the question is whether there is a role for manure processing if the transition to a circular economy is more advanced and, if so, what that role is.
Fluorescent imaging of bacterial infections and recent advances made with multimodal radiopharmaceuticals
Welling, Mick M. ; Hensbergen, Albertus W. ; Bunschoten, Anton ; Velders, Aldrik H. ; Scheper, Henk ; Smits, Wiep Klaas ; Roestenberg, Meta ; Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van - \ 2019
Clinical and Translational Imaging 7 (2019)2. - ISSN 2281-5872 - p. 125 - 138.
Bacterial infection - Fluorescence imaging - Infectious diseases - Molecular imaging - Radioactivity

Background: Today, both radioactive SPECT and PET imaging radiopharmaceuticals are used for clinical diagnosis of bacterial infections. Due to the possible applications in image-guided surgery, fluorescent imaging of infections has gained interest. We here present the highlights and recent developments in the use of fluorescence imaging for bacterial infections. In this overview, we also include the latest developments in multimodal bacterial imaging strategies that combine radioactive and fluorescent imaging. Based on this literature, we present our future perspectives for the field including the translational potential. Methods: In the current review, we complement earlier reports with the most recent fluorescent and multimodal radiopharmaceuticals for bacterial infection imaging. Where possible, in this review, the chemical structure of the compounds and clinical images were shown. Results: A total of 35 out of 77 original articles on pre-clinical and clinical imaging of bacterial infections with fluorescent tracers and multimodality radiopharmaceuticals were included for reviewing. Conclusion: In our view, the highest translational potential lies with compounds that are based on targeting vectors that are specific for bacteria: e.g., fluorescently labelled UBI 29–41 , polymyxin B, vancomycin, ZnDPA and a M. tuberculosis-specific β-lactamase-cleavable linker CNIP800. Multimodal concepts using dually labelled UBI 29–41 , vancomycin, and ZnDPA help connect optical imaging to the more traditional use of radiopharmaceuticals in infectious diseases. Multimodal bacterial imaging is a promising strategy not only to diagnose bacterial infections but also to evaluate the effectivity of surgical treatment for infections.

Natuurinclusieve landbouw: van niches naar mainstream (fase 1)
Smits, Marie-José ; Polman, Nico ; Michels, Rolf ; Migchels, Gerard ; Schrijver, Raymond ; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Visser, Andries ; Vogelzang, Theo ; Kistenkas, Fred - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2019-033) - 31
In deze studie wordt bekeken hoe natuurinclusieve landbouw op de middellange termijn kan uitgroeien van een niche naar de meest gangbare wijze van productie. Centraal staan de vragen: •Welke verdienmodellen zijn er denkbaar om opschaling van natuurinclusieve landbouw naar mainstream financieel mogelijk te maken?•Welk aandachtspunten zijn van belang om de transitie te faciliteren zodat op de middellange termijn natuurinclusieve landbouw kan uitgroeien van niche naar mainstream?
Cold chains in Hanoi and Bangkok: Changing systems of provision and practice
Rinkinen, Jenny ; Shove, E. ; Smits, M. - \ 2019
Journal of Consumer Culture 19 (2019)3. - ISSN 1469-5405 - p. 379 - 397.
social practice - systems of provision - urbanisation - refrigeration - food
We know that patterns of domestic consumption are situated within broader systems of provision and that home appliances like the fridge freezer bridge between practices of cooking, shopping and eating, on one hand, and increasingly global systems of food production, distribution and diet on the other. In analysing the uses of fridge freezers in Hanoi and Bangkok as expressions, in microcosm, of complex and evolving processes of urbanisation and food provisioning, this article provides new insight into how specific configurations, dependencies and patterns of consumption take hold and how they vary and change. Our analysis of systems and practices in flux has the dual function of showing how household strategies reflect and contribute to more extensive transformations, and of demonstrating how these are shaped by ongoing tensions and relations between new and established forms of urban food supply and associated concepts of freshness and safety. The result is a subtle account of the multiple routes through which consumer ‘needs’ evolve.
Prevalence of tick-borne viruses in Ixodes ricinus assessed by high-throughput real-time PCR
Gondard, Mathilde ; Michelet, Lorraine ; Nisavanh, Athinna ; Devillers, Elodie ; Delannoy, Sabine ; Fach, Patrick ; Aspan, Anna ; Ullman, Karin ; Chirico, Jan ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Wal, Fimme Jan van der; Koeijer, Aline de; Solt-Smits, Conny van; Jahfari, Seta ; Sprong, Hein ; Mansfield, Karen L. ; Fooks, Anthony R. ; Klitgaard, Kirstine ; Bødker, Rene ; Moutailler, Sara - \ 2018
Pathogens and Disease 76 (2018)8. - ISSN 2049-632X
Europe - microfluidic analysis - molecular epidemiology - surveillance - tick borne viruses

Ticks are one of the principal arthropod vectors of human and animal infectious diseases. Whereas the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks in Europe is well studied, there is less information available on the prevalence of the other tick-borne viruses (TBVs) existing worldwide. The aim of this study was to improve the epidemiological survey tools of TBVs by the development of an efficient high-throughput test to screen a wide range of viruses in ticks. In this study, we developed a new high-throughput virus-detection assay based on parallel real-time PCRs on a microfluidic system, and used it to perform a large scale epidemiological survey screening for the presence of 21 TBVs in 18 135 nymphs of Ixodes ricinus collected from five European countries. This extensive investigation has (i) evaluated the prevalence of four viruses present in the collected ticks, (ii) allowed the identification of viruses in regions where they were previously undetected. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the capabilities of this new screening method that allows the detection of numerous TBVs in a large number of ticks. This tool represents a powerful and rapid system for TBVs surveillance in Europe and could be easily customized to assess viral emergence.

Insights from the Circular Impacts case studies : Work package 4
Woltjer, G.B. ; Smits, M.J.W. ; Duin, Laurens ; Best, Aaron ; Hasenheit, Marius ; Drabik, Eleanor ; Rizos, Vasileios - \ 2018
EU - 61 p.
Phosphorus Recycling from manure – A Case Study on the Circular Economy : Work package 4
Smits, M.J.W. ; Woltjer, G.B. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Beekman, V. ; Koeijer, T.J. de; Daatselaar, C.H.G. ; Duin, Laurens - \ 2018
EU - 61 p.
Innovatieproject Hondsbossche Duinen
Ouwerkerk, Sonja ; Bodde, W. ; Smit, Marije ; Verheijen, Anne ; Leenders, Jakolien ; Wegman, Carolien ; Lagendijk, Georgette ; Scholl, Michaela ; Kuiters, A.T. ; Smits, N.A.C. ; Vries, Daisy de; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Kramer, Henk ; Valk, Bert van der; IJff, Stéphanie - \ 2018
Ecoshape - 101 p.
Simulations of osmotic events in vitrification of equine oocytes and porcine embryos
Woelders, H. ; Guignot, Florence ; Oritiz-Escribano, Nerea ; Soom, A. van; Smits, Katrien - \ 2018
Holstein Friesian mid-lactation Milk Polar Metabolite Composition in relation to Dietary Fat Composition and DGAT1 Genotype
Pas, M.F.W. te; Vervoort, J. ; Kruijt, L. ; Calus, M.P.L. ; Smits, M. - \ 2018
BioRxiv
Background: The metabolite composition of cow milk is dependent on a large variety of animal associated factors including diet, genotype and gut microbiome composition. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in cow milk polar metabolite composition resulting from dietary and DGAT1 (Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1) genotype perturbations. Methods and Results: Cows were fed a standard diet and a diet supplemented with (poly)unsaturated fatty acids (experimental diet) for ten weeks. Metabolite profiles were determined using 1H NMR (1-Hydrogen Nuclear magnetic resonance) technology. The results showed that the diet affected the polar metabolite composition of milk via the metabolism of the cow and via the metabolism of the gut and rumen microbiota. The experimental diet reduced the metabolic rate, especially the energy metabolism and the amino-sugar and amino acid metabolism, of the cows. Conclusion: Our results suggests the DGAT1 genotype affects both the diet related polar metabolite metabolism of the cow as well as that of the rumen microbiota. Milk metabolite levels in animals with more DGAT1 A-alleles were higher than milk metabolite levels in animals with more K-alleles.
Monitoringsrapportage 2017 : HPZ innovatieproject, document v0.1
Bodde, Willem ; Jansen, Maarten ; Smit, Marije ; Scholl, Michaela ; Lagendijk, Georgette ; Kuiters, Loek ; Vries, Daisy de; Kramer, Henk ; Smits, Nina ; Leenders, Jakolien - \ 2018
Den Haag : Rijkswaterstaat, Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu - 84
Changes in Plasma Protein Expression Indicative of Early Diet-induced Metabolic Disease in Male Pigs (Sus scrofa).
Pas, M.F.W. te; Koopmans, Sietse Jan ; Kruijt, L. ; Boeren, J.A. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2018
Comparative Medicine 68 (2018)4. - ISSN 1532-0820 - p. 286 - 293.
Recognition of the preclinical stages of metabolic diseases such as diabetes helps to prevent full development of the disease. In our research, we alter the diet composition of pigs to create a model of human metabolic disease. The objective of the current study was to identify plasma proteins and biologic mechanisms that differed in expression between pigs fed a 'cafeteria diet' (considered unhealthy; high in saturated fats) and those fed a 'Mediterranean diet' (considered healthy; high in unsaturated fats). Pigs fed the cafeteria diet showed increased plasma levels of proteins related to LDL ('bad cholesterol'), immune processes, blood clotting, and metal binding. The Mediterranean diet was associated with increased plasma quantities of proteins associated HDL particles ('good cholesterol'), binding of LDL particles, regulation of immune processes, and glycolysis. Pigs fed a cafeteria diet showed molecular signs of diabetes and atherosclerosis-even in the absence of clinical symptoms-which seemed to protect against the development of metabolic disorders. The current results suggest potential biomarkers of the early onset of metabolic syndromes. These biomarkers can help to reveal specific metabolic changes that precede the onset of diabetes, thus enabling the initiation of patient-specific interventions early during pathophysiologic development.
Verkenning potentiële bijdrage pacht natuurgrasland aan natuurinclusieve landbouw : Een modelmatige bedrijfseconomische analyse
Koeijer, Tanja de; Blokland, Pieter Willem ; Bos, Ernst ; Greijdanus, Auke ; Smits, Marie Jose - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2018-058) - ISBN 9789463434133 - 69
In the context of the development towards nature-inclusive agriculture, the relationship between the costs and benefits of management of natural areas by Staatsbosbeheer (national forest service) in conjunction with nature-inclusive measures on individual farmland areas was investigated. The analysis was completed for two representative dairy farms and a sample farm for suckler cows. The analysis reveals that, when the proportion of nature-inclusive agriculture increases, it becomes economically attractive for beef farmers to lease a larger area of natural grassland in order to compensate for the decrease of individual roughage production as a result of the nature-inclusive agricultural measures. Additionally, the factors of success or failure in the management of a profitable business were outlined in a qualitative analysis. Interviews support the insights gained from the model analysis in that the lease costs, the agricultural utility value, and the absent need for investment play an important role from a business economy standpoint in the optimum size of leased natural grassland in conjunction with nature-inclusive agriculture.
A Pig model to access the effect of nutritional interventions on intestinal Clostridium difficile expansion and the identification of a potential microbiome-based biomarker of CDI risks
Jurburg, S.D. ; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J. ; Boer, J.B.W.J. de; Smits, M.A. ; Rebel, J.M.J. - \ 2018
Can we solve it in the workshop? : Learning in river restoration and climate policy implementation
Rudberg, Peter M. - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.P.J. Mol, co-promotor(en): M. Smits. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463433808 - 212
Situating Electrification : Examples of infrastructure-practice dynamics from Thailand and Laos
Smits, M. - \ 2018
In: Infrastructures in Practice / Shove, Elizabeth, Trentmann, Frank, London : Routledge - ISBN 9781138476042 - p. 38 - 47.
Rapidly changing situations allow for insight into how infrastructures trigger the emergence, disappearance and transformation of specific practices, and of how these developments are, in turn, important for infrastructural configurations. This chapter explores features of this infrastructure-practice dynamic through two village-level case studies of rural electrification in Thailand and Laos. In both cases, different ‘layers’ of electricity infrastructure entered the villages in time frames of a few decades. In-depth fieldwork provides insight into how infrastructures, practices and demand co-evolved in these two cases. Specifically, the chapter examines the emergence and development of new and ‘electrified’ practices, such as watching television and lighting. The cases illustrate that the consequences of electrification are sometimes mediated by pre-existing material arrangements or by their absence, and that these consequences spill over into various aspects of life. By considering systems and politics of provision alongside shifting relations between variously electrified practices, the chapter bridges between concepts associated with socio-technical innovation, with political ecology, and with accounts of emerging complexes of social practice. It shows that systems and technologies of supply are not simply outcomes or expressions of ‘large’ political-economic forces, but are constituted and reproduced through the practices of different stakeholders.
IAG ring test animal proteins 2018
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Hedemann, B. ; Smits, C.P.A.F. ; Vliege, J.J.M. - \ 2018
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2018.008) - 33
Plant Selenium Hyperaccumulation Affects Rhizosphere: Enhanced Species Richness and Altered Species Composition
Cochran, Alyssa T. ; Bauer, Jemma ; Metcalf, Jessica L. ; Lovecka, Petra ; Jong, Martina S. de; Warris, S. ; Mooijman, P.J.W. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Knight, Rob ; Pilon-Smits, E.A.H. - \ 2018
Phytobiomes Journal 2 (2018)2. - ISSN 2471-2906 - p. 82 - 91.
Little is known about the microbiomes associated with plants with unusual properties, including plants that hyperaccumulate toxic elements such as selenium (Se). Se hyperaccumulators contain up to 1.5% of their dry weight in Se, concentrations shown to affect ecological interactions with herbivores, fungal pathogens and neighboring plants. Hyperaccumulators also enrich their surrounding soil with Se, which may alter the rhizobiome. To investigate whether plant Se affects rhizobacterial diversity and composition, we used a combination of culture-independent and culture-based approaches. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons using the Illumina platform revealed that the rhizosphere microbiomes of Se hyperaccumulators were significantly different from nonaccumulators from the same site, with a higher average relative abundance of Pedobacter and Deviosa. Additionally, hyperaccumulators harbored a higher rhizobacterial species richness when compared with nonaccumulators from the same family on the same site. Independent from Se present at the site or in the host plant, the bacterial isolates were extremely resistant to selenate and selenite (up to 200 mM) and could reduce selenite to elemental Se. In conclusion, Se hyperaccumulation does not appear to negatively affect rhizobacterial diversity, and may select for certain taxa in the rhizosphere microbiome. Additionally, Se resistance in hyperaccumulator-associated bacteria and archaea may be widespread and not under selection by the host plant.
Learning-based intervention for river restoration: analyzing the lack of outcomes in the Ljusnan River basin, Sweden
Rudberg, P.M. ; Smits, M. - \ 2018
Ecology and Society 23 (2018)4. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 14 p.
hydropower - learning-based intervention - outcomes - river restoration - Sweden
We focus on a large and sustained stakeholder process for river restoration related to hydropower production that failed to reach any significant natural resource management outcomes. We explore to what extent the stakeholder process can be characterized as a learning-based intervention as well as the reasons for the lack of outcomes. The analysis draws on insights from existing literature of procedural and institutional factors identified to foster and hinder social learning in stakeholder processes. The analysis finds that the stakeholder process featured virtually all fostering procedural factors as well as various fostering institutional factors identified in the literature. The main hindering institutional element consisted of strong pre-existing water rights, granted by the legislation governing hydropower production and river restoration in Sweden. Existing legislation provided a key stakeholder with the power to successfully reach its objective through the unilateral action of exiting the stakeholder process. Our results demonstrate that various learning outcomes, including knowledge acquisition, trust building, and the creation of networks are possible in stakeholder processes that feature power imbalances. The results also suggest that, ultimately, the power imbalance limited the process from reaching significant natural resource management outcomes, both in the short and longer terms. Based on comparison with international cases, the results reveal the need to focus attention on the national scale to remediate power imbalances in stakeholder processes that arise from a share of stakeholders possessing strong prior rights to the use of natural resources. In such cases, sustainable management of natural resources could be better served by efforts to modify existing legislation, rather than investments in resource-intensive learning-based interventions.
Release of major peanut allergens from their matrix under various pH and simulated saliva conditions—Ara h2 and ara h6 are readily bio-accessible
Koppelman, Stef J. ; Smits, Mieke ; Tomassen, Monic ; Jong, Govardus A.H. De; Baumert, Joe ; Taylor, Steve L. ; Witkamp, Renger ; Veldman, Robert Jan ; Pieters, Raymond ; Wichers, Harry - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)9. - ISSN 2072-6643
Allergen - Arachis hypogaea - Bio-accessibility - Peanut - Saliva

The oral mucosa is the first immune tissue that encounters allergens upon ingestion of food. We hypothesized that the bio-accessibility of allergens at this stage may be a key determinant for sensitization. Light roasted peanut flour was suspended at various pH in buffers mimicking saliva. Protein concentrations and allergens profiles were determined in the supernatants. Peanut protein solubility was poor in the pH range between 3 and 6, while at a low pH (1.5) and at moderately high pHs (>8), it increased. In the pH range of saliva, between 6.5 and 8.5, the allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 were readily released, whereas Ara h1 and Ara h3 were poorly released. Increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 slightly increased the release of Ara h1 and Ara h3, but the recovery remained low (approximately 20%) compared to that of Ara h2 and Ara h6 (approximately 100% and 65%, respectively). This remarkable difference in the extraction kinetics suggests that Ara h2 and Ara h6 are the first allergens an individual is exposed to upon ingestion of peanut-containing food. We conclude that the peanut allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 are quickly bio-accessible in the mouth, potentially explaining their extraordinary allergenicity.

Genome-based population structure analysis of the strawberry plant pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae reveals two distinct groups that evolved independently before its species description
Gétaz, Michael ; Krijger, M.C. ; Rezzonico, F. ; Smits, Theo ; Wolf, J.M. van der; Pothier, Joël F. - \ 2018
Microbial Genomics 2018 (2018)4. - ISSN 2057-5858
Xanthomonas fragariae is a quarantine organism in Europe, causing angular leaf spots on strawberry plants. It is spreading worldwide in strawberry-producing regions due to import of plant material through trade and human activities. In order to resolve the population structure at the strain level, we have employed high-resolution molecular typing tools on a comprehensive strain collection representing global and temporal distribution of the pathogen. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat regions (CRISPRs) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) were identified within the reference genome of X. fragariae LMG 25863 as a potential source of variation. Strains from our collection were whole-genome sequenced and used in order to identify variable spacers and repeats for discriminative purpose. CRISPR spacer analysis and multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) displayed a congruent population structure, in which two major groups and a total of four subgroups were revealed. The two main groups were genetically separated before the first X. fragariae isolate was described and are potentially responsible for the worldwide expansion of the bacterial disease. Three primer sets were designed for discriminating CRISPR-associated markers in order to streamline group determination of novel isolates. Overall, this study describes typing methods to discriminate strains and monitor the pathogen population structure, more especially in the view of a new outbreak of the pathogen.
Supplementation of fructooligosaccharides to suckling piglets affects intestinal microbiota colonization and immune development
Schokker, Dirkjan ; Fledderus, Jan ; Jansen, Rutger ; Vastenhouw, Stephanie A. ; Bree, Freddy M. de; Smits, Mari A. ; Jansman, Alfons A.J.M. - \ 2018
Journal of Animal Science 96 (2018)6. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 2139 - 2153.
Emerging knowledge shows the importance of early life events in programming the intestinal mucosal immune system and development of the intestinal barrier function. These processes depend heavily on close interactions between gut microbiota and host cells in the intestinal mucosa. In turn, development of the intestinal microbiota is largely dependent on available nutrients required for the specific microbial community structures to expand. It is currently not known what the specificities are of intestinal microbial community structures in relation to the programming of the intestinal mucosal immune system and development of the intestinal barrier function. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a nutritional intervention on intestinal development of suckling piglets by daily oral administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) over a period of 12 d (days 2–14 of age). At the microbiota community level, a clear “bifidogenic” effect of the FOS administration was observed in the colon digesta at day 14. The former, however, did not translate into significant changes of local gene expression in the colonic mucosa. In the jejunum, significant changes were observed for microbiota composition at day 14, and microbiota diversity at day 25. In addition, significant differentially expressed gene sets in mucosal tissues of the jejunum were identified at both days 14 and 25 of age. At the age of 14 d, a lower activity of cell cycle–related processes and a higher activity of extracellular matrix processes were observed in the jejunal mucosa of piglets supplemented with FOS compared with control piglets. At day 25, the lower activity of immune-related processes in jejunal tissue was seen in piglets supplemented with FOS. Villi height and crypt depth in the jejunum were significantly different at day 25 between the experimental and control groups, where piglets supplemented with FOS had greater villi and deeper crypts. We conclude that oral FOS administration during the early suckling period of piglets had significant bifidogenic effects on the microbiota in the colon and on gene expression in the jejunal mucosa by thus far unknown mechanisms.
Effect of vegan fecal microbiota transplantation on carnitine- and choline-derived trimethylamine-N-oxide production and vascular inflammation in patients with metabolic syndrome
Smits, Loek P. ; Kootte, Ruud S. ; Levin, Evgeni ; Prodan, Andrei ; Fuentes, Susana ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Wang, Zeneng ; Levison, Bruce S. ; Cleophas, Maartje C.P. ; Kemper, E.M. ; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M. ; Groen, Albert K. ; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Stroes, Erik S.G. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Hazen, Stanley L. ; Nieuwdorp, Max - \ 2018
Journal of the American Heart Association 7 (2018)7. - ISSN 2047-9980
Atherosclerosis - Cardiovascular disease - Cardiovascular imaging - Inflammation - Metabolism
Background--Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly absent TMAO production on carnitine challenge. Methods and Results--We performed a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study in which 20 male metabolic syndrome patients were randomized to single lean vegan-donor or autologous fecal microbiota transplantation. At baseline and 2 weeks thereafter, we determined the ability to produce TMAO from d6-choline and d3-carnitine (eg, labeled and unlabeled TMAO in plasma and 24-hour urine after oral ingestion of 250 mg of both isotope-labeled precursor nutrients), and fecal samples were collected for analysis of microbiota composition. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans of the abdominal aorta, as well as ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production assays, were performed. At baseline, fecal microbiota composition differed significantly between vegans and metabolic syndrome patients. With vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation, intestinal microbiota composition in metabolic syndrome patients, as monitored by global fecal microbial community structure, changed toward a vegan profile in some of the patients; however, no functional effects from vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation were seen on TMAO production, abdominal aortic 18Ffluorodeoxyglucose uptake, or ex vivo cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions--Single lean vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome patients resulted in detectable changes in intestinal microbiota composition but failed to elicit changes in TMAO production capacity or parameters related to vascular inflammation.
Transitions to Energy and Climate Security in Southeast Asia? Civil Society Encounters with Illiberalism in Thailand and Myanmar
Simpson, Adam ; Smits, Mattijs - \ 2018
Society & Natural Resources 31 (2018)5. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 580 - 598.
Climate - energy - illiberalism - Myanmar - Thailand
All states, whether governed by liberal or illiberal regimes, face the prospect of momentous and potentially catastrophic environmental impacts due to climate change. Historically, energy policy has been directed towards simply achieving energy security. This goal has now been significantly complicated by the need to achieve it while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental non governmental organizations (ENGOs) could play a crucial role in promoting the transition to energy and climate security but the relative (il)liberalism of the political regime they operate under influences their effectiveness. This article assesses how ENGOs have impacted on the transition to energy and climate security in Myanmar and Thailand, two Southeast Asian countries highly susceptible to climate impacts and characterized by illiberal rule. It finds that the impact of ENGOs was highly dependent on their strategies, tactics and operation, with community-level projects providing a key route to effect change under conditions of extreme illiberalism.
IAG ring test animal proteins 2017
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Smits, C.P.A.F. ; Vliege, J.J.M. ; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. - \ 2018
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2017.012) - 33
IAG ring test feed composition 2017
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Smits, C.P.A.F. ; Vliege, J.J.M. ; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. - \ 2018
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2017.011) - 31
An improved vitrification protocol for equine immature oocytes, resulting in a first live foal
Ortiz-Escribano, N. ; Bogado Pascottini, O. ; Woelders, H. ; Vandenberghe, L. ; Schauwer, C. De; Govaere, J. ; Abbeel, E. Van den; Vullers, T. ; Ververs, C. ; Roels, K. ; De Velde, M. Van; Soom, A. van; Smits, K. - \ 2018
Equine Veterinary Journal 50 (2018)3. - ISSN 0425-1644 - p. 391 - 397.
Cumulus cells - Horse - Oocytes - Vitrification
Background: The success rate for vitrification of immature equine oocytes is low. Although vitrified-warmed oocytes are able to mature, further embryonic development appears to be compromised. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare two vitrification protocols, and to examine the effect of the number of layers of cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte during vitrification of immature equine oocytes. Study design: Experimental in vitro and in vivo trials. Methods: Immature equine oocytes were vitrified after a short exposure to high concentrations of cryoprotective agents (CPAs), or a long exposure to lower concentrations of CPAs. In Experiment 1, the maturation of oocytes surrounded by multiple layers of cumulus cells (CC oocytes) and oocytes surrounded by only corona radiata (CR oocytes) was investigated. In Experiment 2, spindle configuration was determined for CR oocytes vitrified using the two vitrification protocols. In Experiment 3, further embryonic development was studied after fertilisation and culture. Embryo transfer was performed in a standard manner. Results: Similar nuclear maturation rates were observed for CR oocytes vitrified using the long exposure and nonvitrified controls. Furthermore, a lower maturation rate was obtained for CC oocytes vitrified with the short exposure compared to control CR oocytes (P = 0.001). Both vitrification protocols resulted in significantly higher rates of aberrant spindle configuration than the control groups (P<0.05). Blastocyst development only occurred in CR oocytes vitrified using the short vitrification protocol, and even though blastocyst rates were significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.001), transfer of five embryos resulted in one healthy foal. Main limitations: The relatively low number of equine oocytes and embryo transfer procedures performed. Conclusions: For vitrification of immature equine oocytes, the use of 1) CR oocytes, 2) a high concentration of CPAs, and 3) a short exposure time may be key factors for maintaining developmental competence.
Exploring target-specific primer extension in combination with a bead-based suspension array for multiplexed detection and typing using Streptococcus suis as a model pathogen
Wal, F.J. van der; Achterberg, R.P. ; Smits, C.B. ; Bergervoet, J.H.W. ; Weerdt, M. de; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2018
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 30 (2018)1. - ISSN 1040-6387 - p. 71 - 77.
We investigated the feasibility of an assay based on target-specific primer extension, combined with a suspension array, for the multiplexed detection and typing of a veterinary pathogen in animal samples, using Streptococcus suis as a model pathogen. A procedure was established for simultaneous detection of 6 S. suis targets in pig tonsil samples (i.e., 4 genes associated with serotype 1, 2, 7, or 9, the generic S. suis glutamate dehydrogenase gene [gdh], and the gene encoding the extracellular protein factor [epf]). The procedure was set up as a combination of protocols: DNA isolation from porcine tonsils, a multiplex PCR, a multiplex target-specific primer extension, and finally a suspension array as the readout. The resulting assay was compared with a panel of conventional PCR assays. The proposed multiplex assay can correctly identify the serotype of isolates and is capable of simultaneous detection of multiple targets in porcine tonsillar samples. The assay is not as sensitive as the current conventional PCR assays, but with the correct sampling strategy, the assay can be useful for screening pig herds to establish which S. suis serotypes are circulating in a pig population.
The Multidimensional Nature of Women's Empowerment : Beyond the Economic Approach
Bayissa, Fitsum W. ; Smits, Jeroen ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2018
Journal of International Development 30 (2018)4. - ISSN 0954-1748 - p. 661 - 690.
Economic dimension - Ethiopia - Multidimensional - Women's empowerment
Most interventions promoting women's empowerment focus on the economic dimension. Economic improvement is supposed to lead automatically to improvements in other dimensions. To test this assumption, we collected data from 508 women working in women groups in Addis Ababa. Besides the economic dimension, five other dimensions of empowerment were studied (familial, legal, psychological, political and socio-cultural). Findings show that the relationships between these six dimensions of empowerment are weak and that the psychological dimension is most central. The economic dimension is hardly connected to other dimensions. Hence, a broad package of interventions seems needed to achieve empowerment in all respects.
Amine Metabolism Is Influenced by Dietary Protein Source
Kar, Soumya K. ; Jansman, Alfons J.M. ; Schokker, Dirkjan ; Kruijt, Leo ; Harms, Amy C. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Smits, Mari A. - \ 2017
Frontiers in Nutrition 4 (2017). - ISSN 2296-861X
Growth in world population will inevitably leads to increased demand for protein for humans and animals. Protein from insects and blood plasma are being considered as possible alternatives, but more research on their nutritional quality and health effects is needed. Here, we studied the effect of dietary protein source on metabolism and metabolic amine profiles in serum and urine of mice. Groups of mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 300 g/kg of soybean meal, casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray-dried plasma
protein, wheat gluten meal, and yellow mealworm. Feed and water intake as well as body weight gain were measured for 28 days. After 14 and 28 days, serum and urine samples were collected for measurement of a large panel of amine metabolites. MetaboAnalyst 3.0 was used for analysis of the raw metabolic data. Out of 68 targeted amine metabolites, we could detect 54 in urine and 41 in blood serum. Dietary protein sources were found to have profound effects on host metabolism, particularly in systemic amine profiles, considered here as an endophenotype. We recommend serum over urine to screen for the amine metabolic endophenotype based on partial least squares discriminant analysis. We concluded that metabolites like alpha-aminobutyric acid and methylhistidine are sensitive indicators of too much or too little availability of specific amino acids in the different protein diets. Furthermore, we concluded that amine metabolic profiles can be useful for assessing the nutritional quality of different protein sources.
Monitoringsrapportage : HPZ innovatieproject, groeidocument v0.1
Bodde, W. ; Groot, A.V. de; Smits, N.A.C. ; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Vries, D. de; Kuiters, A.T. ; Leenders, J. ; Brandenburg, P. ; Wittebrood, Marloes ; Goessen, Petra - \ 2017
Ecoshape - 115 p.
Methods and means for determining treatment of subjects with exogenous somatotropin
Smits, N.G.E. ; Blokland, M.H. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2017
Octrooinummer: US2017354717, verleend: 2017-12-14.
Described are methods for determining whether a subject has been treated with exogenous somatotropin. The disclosure further relates to kits for determining whether a subject has been treated with exogenous somatotropin, and to the use of such kits for determining whether a subject has been treated with exogenous somatotropin.
Perturbation of microbiota in one-day old broiler chickens with antibiotic for 24 hours negatively affects intestinal immune development
Schokker, D. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Veninga, Gosse ; Bruin, Naomi de; Vastenhouw, S.A. ; Bree, F.M. de; Bossers, A. ; Rebel, J.M.J. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2017
chicken - gut - microbiota - gene expression - immune development
Background Gut microbial colonization and development of immune competence are intertwined and are influenced by early-life nutritional, environmental, and management factors. Perturbation of the gut microbiome at young age affects the crosstalk between intestinal bacteria and host cells of the intestinal mucosa. Results We investigated the effect of a perturbation of the normal early life microbial colonization of the jejunum in 1-day old chickens. Perturbation was induced by administering 0.8Â mg amoxicillin per bird per day) via the drinking water for a period of 24Â h. Effects of the perturbation were measured by 16S rRNA profiling of the microbiome and whole genome gene expression analysis. In parallel to what has been observed for other animal species, we hypothesized that such an intervention may have negative impact on immune development. Trends were observed in changes of the composition and diversity of the microbiome when comparing antibiotic treated birds with their controls. in the jejunum, the expression of numerous genes changed, which potentially leads to changes in biological activities of the small intestinal mucosa. Validation of the predicted functional changes was performed by staining immune cells in the small intestinal mucosa and a reduction in the number of macrophage-like (KUL01+) cells was observed due to a direct or indirect effect of the antibiotic treatment. We provide evidence that a short, early life antibiotic treatment affects both the intestinal microbiota (temporarily) and mucosal gene expression over a period of 2Â weeks. Conclusion These results underscore the importance of early life microbial colonization of the gut in relation to immune development and the necessity to explore the capabilities of a variety of early life dietary and/or environmental factors to modulate the programming for immune competence in broilers.
The effects of a multispecies probiotic on migraine and markers of intestinal permeability-results of a randomized placebo-controlled study
Roos, N.M. De; Hemert, S. Van; Rovers, J.M.P. ; Smits, M.G. ; Witteman, B.J.M. - \ 2017
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 (2017)12. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 1455 - 1462.
Background/Objectives:Migraine, associated with several gastrointestinal disorders, may result from increased intestinal permeability, allowing endotoxins to enter the bloodstream. We tested whether probiotics could reduce migraine through an effect on intestinal permeability and inflammation.Subjects/Methods:In total, 63 patients were randomly allocated to the probiotic (n=31) or the placebo group (n=32). Participants ingested a multispecies probiotic (5x10 9 colony-forming units) or placebo daily for 12 weeks. Migraine was assessed with the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS), the Headache Disability Inventory (HDI) and headache diaries. At baseline and 12 weeks, intestinal permeability was measured with the urinary lactulose/mannitol test and fecal and serum zonulin; inflammation was measured from interleukin (IL) -6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein in serum.Results:The MIDAS migraine intensity score significantly decreased in both groups (P<0.001) and the HDI score significantly decreased in the probiotic group (P=0.032) and borderline in the placebo group (P=0.053). In the probiotics group, patients had a median of 6 migraine days in the first month, 4 in the second month (P=0.002) and 5 in the last month, which was not significantly different from the 5, 4, and 4 days in the placebo group. A ≤3/42day reduction in migraine days was seen in 12/31 patients in the probiotics group versus 7/29 in the placebo group (ns). Probiotic use did not significantly affect medication use, intestinal permeability or inflammation compared to placebo.Conclusions:In this study, we could not confirm significant benefit from a multispecies probiotic compared to a placebo on the outcome parameters of migraine and intestinal integrity.
Nutritional strategies to establish a responsible use of antibiotics in swine
Hartog, L.A. den; Hees, H. van; Ferguson, N. ; Smits, C. - \ 2017
In: Proceedings Banff Pork Seminar. - University of Alberta (Advances in Pork Production ) - p. 177 - 188.
Dietary protein sources differentially affect microbiota, mTOR activity and transcription of mTOR signaling pathways in the small intestine
Kar, Soumya K. ; Jansman, Alfons J.M. ; Benis, Nirupama ; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier ; Schokker, Dirkjan ; Kruijt, Leo ; Stolte, Ellen H. ; Taverne-Thiele, Johanna J. ; Smits, Mari A. ; Wells, Jerry M. - \ 2017
PLoS ONE 12 (2017)11. - ISSN 1932-6203
Dietary protein sources can have profound effects on host-microbe interactions in the gut that are critically important for immune resilience. However more knowledge is needed to assess the impact of different protein sources on gut and animal health. Thirty-six wildtype male C57BL/6J mice of 35 d age (n = 6/group; mean ± SEM body weight 21.9 ± 0.25 g) were randomly assigned to groups fed for four weeks with semi synthetic diets prepared with one of the following protein sources containing (300 g/kg as fed basis): soybean meal (SBM), casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal and yellow meal worm. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed to collect ileal tissue to acquire gene expression data, and mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, ileal digesta to study changes in microbiota and serum to measure cytokines and chemokines. By genome-wide transcriptome analysis, we identified fourteen high level regulatory genes that are strongly affected in SBM-fed mice compared to the other experimental groups. They mostly related to the mTOR pathway. In addition, an increased (P < 0.05) concentration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was observed in serum of SBM-fed mice compared to other dietary groups. Moreover, by 16S rRNA sequencing, we observed that SBM-fed mice had higher (P < 0.05) abundances of Bacteroidales family S24-7, compared to the other dietary groups. We showed that measurements of genome-wide expression and microbiota composition in the mouse ileum reveal divergent responses to diets containing different protein sources, in particular for a diet based on SBM.
Innovatieproject Hondsbossche en Pettemer Zeewiering (HPZ): monitoringsrapportage 2016
Smits, N.A.C. ; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Vries, Daisy de; Kuiters, A.T. ; Scholl, M.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen Marine Research - 37 p.
Monitorings-rapportage: HPZ innovatieproject, groeidocument
Bodde, Willem ; Groot, A.V. de; Smits, N.A.C. ; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Vries, Daisy de; Kuiters, A.T. ; Leenders, Jakolien ; Brandenbrug, Peter ; Wittebrood, Marloes ; Goessen, Petra - \ 2017
Wageningen Marine Research - 115 p.
Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity after Lean Donor Feces in Metabolic Syndrome Is Driven by Baseline Intestinal Microbiota Composition
Kootte, Ruud S. ; Levin, Evgeni ; Salojärvi, Jarkko ; Smits, Loek P. ; Hartstra, Annick V. ; Udayappan, Shanti D. ; Hermes, Gerben ; Bouter, Kristien E. ; Koopen, Annefleur M. ; Holst, Jens J. ; Knop, Filip K. ; Blaak, Ellen E. ; Zhao, Jing Hua ; Smidt, Hauke ; Harms, Amy C. ; Hankemeijer, Thomas ; Bergman, Jacques J.G.H.M. ; Romijn, Hans A. ; Schaap, Frank G. ; Olde Damink, Steven W.M. ; Ackermans, Mariette T. ; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M. ; Zoetendal, Erwin ; Vos, Willem M. de; Serlie, Mireille J. ; Stroes, Erik S.G. ; Groen, Albert K. ; Nieuwdorp, Max - \ 2017
Cell Metabolism 26 (2017)4. - ISSN 1550-4131 - p. 611 - 619.e6.
fecal microbiota transplantation - insulin sensitivity - intestinal microbiota composition - plasma metabolites

The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in insulin resistance, although evidence regarding causality in humans is scarce. We therefore studied the effect of lean donor (allogenic) versus own (autologous) fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to male recipients with the metabolic syndrome. Whereas we did not observe metabolic changes at 18 weeks after FMT, insulin sensitivity at 6 weeks after allogenic FMT was significantly improved, accompanied by altered microbiota composition. We also observed changes in plasma metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid and show that metabolic response upon allogenic FMT (defined as improved insulin sensitivity 6 weeks after FMT) is dependent on decreased fecal microbial diversity at baseline. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of lean donor FMT on glucose metabolism are associated with changes in intestinal microbiota and plasma metabolites and can be predicted based on baseline fecal microbiota composition. Kootte et al. show that fecal microbiota transplantation from lean donors to obese patients with metabolic syndrome improves insulin sensitivity, a transient effect associated with changes in microbiota composition and fasting plasma metabolites. Baseline fecal microbiota composition in recipients predicts the response to lean donor fecal microbiota transplantation.

Alternatieve vloeren voor vleeskalveren
Heeres-van der Tol, Jetta ; Wolthuis, Maaike ; Bokma, Sjoerd ; Smits, Dolf ; Stockhofe, Norbert ; Vermeij, Izak ; Reenen, Kees van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1056) - 103
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - vleeskalveren - huisvesting - diergedrag - diergezondheid - animal welfare - animal production - veal calves - housing - animal behaviour - animal health
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