Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Community-level interactions between plants and soil biota during range expansion
    Koorem, Kadri ; Snoek, Basten L. ; Bloem, Janneke ; Geisen, Stefan ; Kostenko, Olga ; Manrubia, Marta ; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Weser, Carolin ; Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Putten, Wim H. van der - \ 2020
    Journal of Ecology (2020). - ISSN 0022-0477
    bacteria - climate change - fungi - nematodes - plant–plant interactions - plant–soil interactions

    Plant species that expand their range in response to current climate change will encounter soil communities that may hinder, allow or even facilitate plant performance. It has been shown repeatedly for plant species originating from other continents that these plants are less hampered by soil communities from the new than from the original range. However, information about the interactions between intra-continental range expanders and soil communities is sparse, especially at community level. Here we used a plant–soil feedback experiment approach to examine if the interactions between range expanders and soil communities change during range expansion. We grew communities of range-expanding and native plant species with soil communities originating from the original and new range of range expanders. In these conditioned soils, we determined the composition of fungi and bacteria by high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the ITS region and the 16S rRNA gene respectively. Nematode community composition was determined by microscopy-based morphological identification. Then we tested how these soil communities influence the growth of subsequent communities of range expanders and natives. We found that after the conditioning phase soil bacterial, fungal and nematode communities differed by origin and by conditioning plant communities. Despite differences in bacterial, fungal and nematode communities between original and new range, soil origin did not influence the biomass production of plant communities. Both native and range expanding plant communities produced most above-ground biomass in soils that were conditioned by plant communities distantly related to them. Synthesis. Communities of range-expanding plant species shape specific soil communities in both original and new range soil. Plant–soil interactions of range expanders in communities can be similar to the ones of their closely related native plant species.

    Detection of QTLs for genotype × environment interactions in tomato seeds and seedlings
    Geshnizjani, Nafiseh ; Snoek, Basten L. ; Willems, Leo A.J. ; Rienstra, Juriaan A. ; Nijveen, Harm ; Hilhorst, Henk W.M. ; Ligterink, Wilco - \ 2020
    Plant, Cell & Environment 43 (2020)8. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 1973 - 1988.
    high phosphate - low nitrogen - maternal environment - QTL × E - seed quality - seedling establishment - tomato

    Seed quality and seedling establishment are the most important factors affecting successful crop development. They depend on the genetic background and are acquired during seed maturation and therefor, affected by the maternal environment under which the seeds develop. There is little knowledge about the genetic and environmental factors that affect seed quality and seedling establishment. The aim of this study is to identify the loci and possible molecular mechanisms involved in acquisition of seed quality and how these are controlled by adverse maternal conditions. For this, we used a tomato recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 100 lines which were grown under two different nutritional environmental conditions, high phosphate and low nitrate. Most of the seed germination traits such as maximum germination percentage (Gmax), germination rate (t50) and uniformity (U8416) showed ample variation between genotypes and under different germination conditions. This phenotypic variation leads to identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) which were dependent on genetic factors, but also on the interaction with the maternal environment (QTL × E). Further studies of these QTLs may ultimately help to predict the effect of different maternal environmental conditions on seed quality and seedling establishment which will be very useful to improve the production of high-performance seeds.

    WormQTL3.0: supporting more paradigms and analyses
    Sterken, M.G. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Nijveen, H. - \ 2020
    Genomics of Rapid Evolution in Field Crickets
    Pascoal, Sonia ; Risse, Judith ; Zhang, Xiao ; Blaxter, Mark ; Cezard, Timothee ; Challis, Richard J. ; Gharbi, Karim ; Hunt, John ; Kumar, Sujai ; Langan, Emma ; Liu, Xuan ; Rayner, Jack G. ; Ritchie, Michael G. ; Snoek, Basten ; Trivedi, Urmi ; Bailey, Nathan W. - \ 2020
    University of Edinburgh
    PRJEB24786 - ERP106639 - Teleogryllus oceanicus - cricket - genomics
    This study reveals the genomic architecture of a rapidly evolving mutation which segregates as a single-locus, X-linked trait -- flatwing -- in wild Hawaiian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus). Flatwingsilences males by eliminating sound-producing structures on their forewings. Silence protects them from an acoustically-orienting parasitoid fly (Ormia ochracea), but interferes with their ability to attract and court females for mating. Silent crickets spread rapidly on several Hawaiian islands under pressure from the flies, representing one of the fastest rates of evoutionary change documented in the wild. Here we present an annotated genome sequence of T. oceanicus along with a linkage map and QTL analysis of the trait derived from RAD-sequencing of a backcrossed mapping population. RNA-seq was used to probe the functional pathways affected by the mutation during early development, and pleiotropic effects on another signaling trait, cuticular hydrocarbons, were assessed and genetically mapped.
    Flavour and nutrition of fruits and vegetables create added value to consumers
    Labrie, C.W. ; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Snoek, H.M. ; Raaijmakers, I. ; Aramyan, L.H. - \ 2020
    Acta Horticulturae 1277 (2020). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 425 - 432.
    Conjoint analysis - Fruit quality - Nutritional health claims - Price - Strawberry - Sweet pepper - Tomato

    Flavour and nutritional claims are a chance to create added value of fresh fruits and vegetables. The aim of this research was to define the most important product characteristics in purchasing tomato, sweet pepper and strawberry, according to consumers. Data were collected using an online questionnaire in the Netherlands. Research has been carried out for fruit or vegetable products tomato (n=584), strawberry (n=288) and sweet pepper (n=296). The characteristics, such as flavour, health, nutritional value and price were used in a choice-based conjoint analyses to test the importance of these characteristics to consumers in a forced choice between specific products. Results differ between tomato, strawberry and sweet pepper. For strawberry the relative importance of information about flavour was about the same as the importance of price, while for tomato and especially sweet pepper the importance of price was higher than flavour. For nutritional claims more specific, quantified claims, such as percentage of recommended daily intake (RDI) were preferred over more qualitative ‘source of’ claims, even when the ‘source of’ claims were combined with a health claim. Although products with nutritional claims were still preferred over products without any nutritional claim. The results revealed that adding product information about flavour and nutritional health claims do create added value to consumers. This finding is especially important when it comes to information about flavour in strawberry.

    Field cricket genome reveals the footprint of recent, abrupt adaptation in the wild
    Pascoal, Sonia ; Risse, Judith E. ; Zhang, Xiao ; Blaxter, Mark ; Cezard, Timothee ; Challis, Richard J. ; Gharbi, Karim ; Hunt, John ; Kumar, Sujai ; Langan, Emma ; Liu, Xuan ; Rayner, Jack G. ; Ritchie, Michael G. ; Snoek, Basten L. ; Trivedi, Urmi ; Bailey, Nathan W. - \ 2020
    Evolution Letters 4 (2020)1. - ISSN 2056-3744 - p. 19 - 33.
    Evolutionary adaptation is generally thought to occur through incremental mutational steps, but large mutational leaps can occur during its early stages. These are challenging to study in nature due to the difficulty of observing new genetic variants as they arise and spread, but characterizing their genomic dynamics is important for understanding factors favoring rapid adaptation. Here, we report genomic consequences of recent, adaptive song loss in a Hawaiian population of field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus). A discrete genetic variant, flatwing, appeared and spread approximately 15 years ago. Flatwing erases sound‐producing veins on male wings. These silent flatwing males are protected from a lethal, eavesdropping parasitoid fly. We sequenced, assembled and annotated the cricket genome, produced a linkage map, and identified a flatwing quantitative trait locus covering a large region of the X chromosome. Gene expression profiling showed that flatwing is associated with extensive genome‐wide effects on embryonic gene expression. We found that flatwing male crickets express feminized chemical pheromones. This male feminizing effect, on a different sexual signaling modality, is genetically associated with the flatwing genotype. Our findings suggest that the early stages of evolutionary adaptation to extreme pressures can be accompanied by greater genomic and phenotypic disruption than previously appreciated, and highlight how abrupt adaptation might involve suites of traits that arise through pleiotropy or genomic hitchhiking.
    WormQTL2: an interactive platform for systems genetics in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Snoek, Basten L. ; Sterken, Mark G. ; Hartanto, Margi ; Zuilichem, Albert-Jan Van; Kammenga, Jan E. ; Ridder, Dick De; Nijveen, Harm - \ 2020
    Database : the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation 2020 (2020). - ISSN 1758-0463
    Quantitative genetics provides the tools for linking polymorphic loci to trait variation. Linkage analysis of gene expression is an established and widely applied method, leading to the identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). (e)QTL detection facilitates the identification and understanding of the underlying molecular components and pathways, yet (e)QTL data access and mining often is a bottleneck. Here, we present WormQTL2, a database and platform for comparative investigations and meta-analyses of published (e)QTL data sets in the model nematode worm C. elegans. WormQTL2 integrates six eQTL studies spanning 11 conditions as well as over 1000 traits from 32 studies and allows experimental results to be compared, reused and extended upon to guide further experiments and conduct systems-genetic analyses. For example, one can easily screen a locus for specific cis-eQTLs that could be linked to variation in other traits, detect gene-by-environment interactions by comparing eQTLs under different conditions, or find correlations between QTL profiles of classical traits and gene expression. WormQTL2 makes data on natural variation in C. elegans and the identified QTLs interactively accessible, allowing studies beyond the original publications.
    RNA-seq data from Teleogryllus oceanicus embryos of silent and singing morphs
    Pascoal, Sonia ; Risse, Judith ; Zhang, Xiao ; Blaxter, Mark ; Cezard, Timothee ; Challis, Richard J. ; Gharbi, Karim ; Hunt, John ; Kumar, Sujai ; Langan, Emma ; Liu, Xuan ; Rayner, Jack G. ; Ritchie, Michael G. ; Snoek, Basten ; Trivedi, Urmi ; Bailey, Nathan W. - \ 2019
    University of St Andrews
    PRJEB27235 - ERP109294 - Teleogryllus oceanicus
    RNA-seq data collected from Teleogryllus oceanicus of silent and singing morphs at embryonic stages
    SBfI RADseq of Teleogryllus oceanicus F3 cross between Daintree and Kailua flat-wing crickets
    Pascoal, Sonia ; Risse, Judith ; Zhang, Xiao ; Blaxter, Mark ; Cezard, Timothee ; Gharbi, Karim ; Hunt, John ; Kumar, Sujai ; Langan, Emma ; Liu, Xuan ; Rayner, Jack G. ; Ritchie, Michael G. ; Snoek, Basten ; Trivedi, Urmi ; Bailey, Nathan W. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University
    PRJEB29921 - ERP112280 - Teleogryllus oceanicus
    Genetic background modifies phenotypic and transcriptional responses in a C. elegans model of α-synuclein toxicity
    Wang, Yiru ; Snoek, Basten ; Sterken, Mark ; Riksen, Joost ; Stastna, Jana J. ; Kammenga, Jan ; Harvey, Simon C. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University and Research
    Natural variation - Gene expression profile - Protein aggregation - alfa-Synuclein - Genetic background - Caenorhabditis elegans
    Accumulation of protein aggregates are a major hallmark of progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes expressing the human synaptic protein α-synuclein in body wall muscle show inclusions of aggregated protein, which affects similar genetic pathways as in humans. It is not however known how the effects of α-synuclein expression in C. elegans differs among genetic backgrounds. Here, we compared gene expression patterns and investigated the phenotypic consequences of transgenic α-synuclein expression in five different C. elegans genetic backgrounds. Results Transcriptome analysis indicates that α-synuclein expression effects pathways associated with nutrient storage, lipid transportation and ion exchange and that effects vary depending on the genetic background. These gene expression changes predict that a range of phenotypes will be affected by α-synuclein expression. We confirm this, showing that α-synuclein expression delayed development, reduced lifespan, increased rate of matricidal hatching, and slows pharyngeal pumping. Critically, these phenotypic effects depend on the genetic background and coincide with the core changes in gene expression. Conclusions Together, our results show genotype-specific effects and core alterations in both gene expression and in phenotype in response to α-synuclein expression. We conclude that the effects of α-synuclein expression are substantially modified by the genetic background, illustrating that genetic background needs to be considered in C. elegans models of neurodegenerative disease.
    Groente op wielen
    Achterbosch, Thom ; Snoek, Harriette - \ 2019
    Let’s Talk about Circular Economy: A Qualitative Exploration of Consumer Perceptions
    Sijtsema, Siet J. ; Snoek, Harriëtte M. ; Haaster-de Winter, Mariët A. Van; Dagevos, Hans - \ 2019
    Sustainability 12 (2019)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Consumer involvement plays a major role in the circular economy (CE), which requires a new and more active role of consumers. However, consumer awareness of and interest and involvement in the CE is low. Therefore, we aimed to find the starting points for consumer involvement in activities that promote a CE by exploring consumers’ general perceptions of the CE and several practice cases. Four focus group discussions were conducted (N = 24) in the Netherlands. The group discussions showed that most consumers did not have a clear understanding of the term “circular economy,” although their associations pointed in the right direction. Perceptions, attitudes, motives and barriers in terms of advantages and disadvantages varied among the participants and were related to (1) the functionalities of the products, (2) the production system, (3) economic aspects and (4) emotions such as concern about risks. We identified four key messages: targeting with regard to behaviours, attitudes and product functionalities; aligning with emotions; linking to practical cases; and applying multidimensional CE-related behaviour in everyday life and involving consumers in its innovation. These key messages are helpful in overcoming obstacles and barriers, raising awareness and providing input for sustainable consumption and production in the CE. View Full-Text
    Leveraging genetic complexity of inbred populations for understanding eQTL complexity in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Sterken, Mark ; Snoek, Basten ; Bevers, Roel ; Volkers, Rita ; Riksen, Joost ; Kammenga, Jan - \ 2019
    A multi-parent recombinant inbred line population of C. elegans allows identification of novel QTLs for complex life history traits
    Snoek, Basten ; Volkers, Rita ; Nijveen, Harm ; Petersen, Carola ; Dirksen, Philipp ; Sterken, Mark ; Nakad, Rania ; Riksen, Joost ; Rosenstiel, P.C. ; Stastna, J.J. ; Braekman, B.P. ; Harvey, S.C. ; Schulenburg, Hinrich ; Kammenga, Jan - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    Multi-parent RILs - Caenorhabditis elegans - QTL - life-history - natural variation - genetic map
    Background The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively used to explore the relationships between complex traits, genotypes, and environments. Complex traits can vary across different genotypes of a species, and the genetic regulators of trait variation can be mapped on the genome using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from genetically and phenotypically divergent parents. Most RILs have been derived from crossing two parents from globally distant locations. However, the genetic diversity between local C. elegans populations can be as diverse as between global populations and could thus provide means of identifying genetic variation associated with complex traits relevant on a broader scale. Results To investigate the effect of local genetic variation on heritable traits, we developed a new RIL population derived from 4 parental wild isolates collected from 2 closely located sites in France: Orsay and Santeuil. We crossed these 4 genetically diverse parental isolates to generate a population of 200 multi-parental RILs and used RNA-seq to obtain sequence polymorphisms identifying almost 9000 SNPs variable between the 4 genotypes with an average spacing of 11Â kb, doubling the mapping resolution relative to currently available RIL panels for many loci. The SNPs were used to construct a genetic map to facilitate QTL analysis. We measured life history traits such as lifespan, stress resistance, developmental speed, and population growth in different environments, and found substantial variation for most traits. We detected multiple QTLs for most traits, including novel QTLs not found in previous QTL analysis, including those for lifespan and pathogen responses. This shows that recombining genetic variation across C. elegans populations that are in geographical close proximity provides ample variation for QTL mapping. Conclusion Taken together, we show that using more parents than the classical two parental genotypes to construct a RIL population facilitates the detection of QTLs and that the use of wild isolates facilitates the detection of QTLs. The use of multi-parent RIL populations can further enhance our understanding of local adaptation and life history trade-offs.
    Transcriptome resilience predicts thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Jovic, Katharina ; Grilli, Jacopo ; Sterken, Mark G. ; Snoek, Basten L. ; Riksen, Joost A.G. ; Allesina, Stefano ; Kammenga, Jan E. - \ 2019
    BMC Biology 17 (2019)1. - ISSN 1741-7007
    The detrimental effects of a short bout of stress can persist and potentially turn lethal, long after the return to normal conditions. Thermotolerance, which is the capacity of an organism to withstand relatively extreme temperatures, is influenced by the response during stress exposure, as well as the recovery process afterwards. While heat-shock response mechanisms have been studied intensively, predicting thermal tolerance remains a challenge.
    Results: Here, we use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to measure transcriptional resilience to heat stress and predict thermotolerance. Using principal component analysis in combination with genome-wide gene expression profiles collected in three high-resolution time series during control, heat stress, and recovery conditions, we infer a quantitative scale capturing the extent of stress-induced transcriptome dynamics in a single value. This scale provides a basis for evaluating transcriptome resilience, defined here as the ability to depart from stress-expression dynamics during recovery. Independent replication across multiple highly divergent genotypes reveals that the transcriptional resilience parameter measured after a spike in temperature is quantitatively linked to long-term survival after heat stress.
    Conclusion: Our findings imply that thermotolerance is an intrinsic property that pre-determines long-term outcome of stress and can be predicted by the transcriptional resilience parameter. Inferring the transcriptional resilience parameters of higher organisms could aid in evaluating rehabilitation strategies after stresses such as disease and trauma.
    Histone Deacetylase 9 stimulates auxin-dependent thermomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana by mediating H2A.Z depletion
    Woude, Lennard C. van der; Perrella, Giorgio ; Snoek, Basten L. ; Hoogdalem, M.D. van; Novák, O. ; Verk, Marcel C. van; Kooten, Heleen N. van; Zorn, Lennert E. ; Tonckens, Rolf ; Dongus, Joram ; Praat, Myrthe ; Stouten, Evelien ; Proveniers, Marcel C.G. ; Vellutini, Elisa ; Patitaki, Eirini ; Shapulatov, Umidjon ; Kohlen, W. ; Balasubramanian, Sureshkumar ; Ljung, Karin ; Krol, A.R. van der; Smeekens, S. ; Kaiserli, Eirini ; Zanten, Martijn van - \ 2019
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019)50. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 25343 - 25354.
    Many plant species respond to unfavorable high ambient temperatures by adjusting their vegetative body plan to facilitate cooling. This process is known as thermomorphogenesis and is induced by the phytohormone auxin. Here, we demonstrate that the chromatin-modifying enzyme HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 (HDA9) mediates thermomorphogenesis but does not interfere with hypocotyl elongation during shade avoidance. HDA9 is stabilized in response to high temperature and mediates histone deacetylation at the YUCCA8 locus, a rate-limiting enzyme in auxin biosynthesis, at warm temperatures. We show that HDA9 permits net eviction of the H2A.Z histone variant from nucleosomes associated with YUCCA8, allowing binding and transcriptional activation by PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4, followed by auxin accumulation and thermomorphogenesis.
    Syntheserapport Voedselverspilling bij huishoudens in Nederland in 2019
    Ooijendijk, T. ; Janmaat, O. ; Soethoudt, J.M. ; Snoek, J. ; Palland, K. ; Dooren, C. van; Schrijnen, M. ; Huigens, M. - \ 2019
    Den Haag : Stichting Voedingscentrum Nederland
    food wastage - consumers - consumer behaviour - food wastes
    Snoek in Forumvijver is 'bespreekgeval'
    Beijer, J.A.J. - \ 2019
    Latitudinal variation in soil nematode communities under climate warming-related range-expanding and native plants
    Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Geisen, Stefan ; Martens, Henk ; Kostenko, Olga ; Hollander, Mattias de; Hooven, Freddy C. ten; Weser, Carolin ; Snoek, L.B. ; Bloem, Janneke ; Caković, Danka ; Čelik, Tatjana ; Koorem, Kadri ; Krigas, Nikos ; Manrubia, Marta ; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Tsiafouli, Maria A. ; Vreš, Branko ; Putten, Wim H. van der - \ 2019
    Global Change Biology 25 (2019)8. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2714 - 2726.
    Centaurea stoebe - enemy release hypothesis - plant-pathogenic nematodes - range expansion - range-expanding plant species - root-feeding nematodes

    Current climate change has led to latitudinal and altitudinal range expansions of numerous species. During such range expansions, plant species are expected to experience changes in interactions with other organisms, especially with belowground biota that have a limited dispersal capacity. Nematodes form a key component of the belowground food web as they include bacterivores, fungivores, omnivores and root herbivores. However, their community composition under climate change-driven intracontinental range-expanding plants has been studied almost exclusively under controlled conditions, whereas little is known about actual patterns in the field. Here, we use novel molecular sequencing techniques combined with morphological quantification in order to examine nematode communities in the rhizospheres of four range-expanding and four congeneric native species along a 2,000 km latitudinal transect from South-Eastern to North-Western Europe. We tested the hypotheses that latitudinal shifts in nematode community composition are stronger in range-expanding plant species than in congeneric natives and that in their new range, range-expanding plant species accumulate fewest root-feeding nematodes. Our results show latitudinal variation in nematode community composition of both range expanders and native plant species, while operational taxonomic unit richness remained the same across ranges. Therefore, range-expanding plant species face different nematode communities at higher latitudes, but this is also the case for widespread native plant species. Only one of the four range-expanding plant species showed a stronger shift in nematode community composition than its congeneric native and accumulated fewer root-feeding nematodes in its new range. We conclude that variation in nematode community composition with increasing latitude occurs for both range-expanding and native plant species and that some range-expanding plant species may become released from root-feeding nematodes in the new range.

    Data from: Relationships between fungal community composition in decomposing leaf litter and home-field advantage effects
    Veen, G.F. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Bakx-Schotman, Tanja ; Wardle, David A. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2019
    Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW)
    decomposition - microbial community - fungi - sequencing - ITS - home-field advantage
    Increasing evidence suggests that specific interactions between microbial decomposers and plant litter, named home field advantage (HFA), influence litter breakdown. However, we still have limited understanding of whether HFA relates to specific microbiota, and whether specialized microbes originate from the soil or from the leaf microbiome. Here, we disentangle the roles of soil origin, litter types, and the microbial community already present on the leaf litter in determining fungal community composition on decomposing leaf litter and HFA. We collected litters and associated soil samples from a secondary succession gradient ranging from herbaceous vegetation on recently abandoned ex‐arable fields to forest representing the end stage of succession. In a greenhouse, sterilized and unsterilized leaf litters were decomposed for 12 months in soils from early to late successional stages according to a full factorial design. At the end, we examined fungal community composition on the decomposing litter. Fungal communities on decomposed late‐successional litter in late‐successional soil differed from those in early‐ and mid‐successional stage litter and soil combinations. Soil source had the strongest impact on litter fungal composition when using sterilized litter, while the impact of litter type was strongest when using unsterilized litter. Overall, we observed HFA, as litter decomposition was accelerated in home soils. Increasing HFA did not relate to the dissimilarity in overall fungal composition, but there was increasing dissimilarity in the relative abundance of the most dominant fungal taxon between decomposing litter in home and away soils. We conclude that early, mid and late succession litter types did not exert strong selection effects on colonization by microorganisms from the soil species pool. Instead, fungal community composition on decomposing litter differed substantially between litter types for unsterilized litter, suggesting that the leaf microbiome, either directly or indirectly, is an important determinant of fungal community composition on decomposing leaves. HFA related most strongly to the abundance of the most dominant fungal taxa on the decomposing litter, suggesting that HFA may be attributed to some specific dominant fungi rather than to responses of the whole fungal community.
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