Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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CCDC 1904736: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination
Demay-Drouhard, Paul ; Du, Ke ; Samanta, Kushal ; Wan, Xintong ; Yang, Weiwei ; Srinivasan, Rajavel ; Sue, Andrew C.H. ; Zuilhof, Han - \ 2019
Tianjin University
BODJAI : 2,2',2'',2''',2''''-{[26,28,30,32,34-pentamethoxyhexacyclo[,6.28,11.213,16.218,21]pentatriaconta-1(25),3,5,8,10,13,15,18,20,23,26,28,30,32,34-pentadecaene-4,9,14,19,24-pentayl]pentakis(oxy)}penta-acetonitrile unknown solvate Space Group: P 1 (2), Cell: a 12.1203(2)Å b 13.2138(2)Å c 17.0854(3)Å, α 89.7350(10)° β 81.9010(10)° γ 75.3150(10)°
CCDC 1904933: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination
Demay-Drouhard, Paul ; Du, Ke ; Samanta, Kushal ; Wan, Xintong ; Yang, Weiwei ; Srinivasan, Rajavel ; Sue, Andrew C.H. ; Zuilhof, Han - \ 2019
Tianjin University
BODJEM : 26,28,30,32,34-pentakis([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)hexacyclo[,6.28,11.213,16.218,21]pentatriaconta-1(25),3,5,8,10,13,15,18,20,23,26,28,30,32,34-pentadecaene-4,9,14,19,24-pentol acetone unknown solvate Space Group: P 1 (2), Cell: a 16.63130(10)Å b 19.13610(10)Å c 25.19360(10)Å, α 94.5000(10)° β 96.8560(10)° γ 98.2260(10)° BODJEM : 26,28,30,32,34-pentakis([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)hexacyclo[,6.28,11.213,16.218,21]pentatriaconta-1(25),3,5,8,10,13,15,18,20,23,26,28,30,32,34-pentadecaene-4,9,14,19,24-pentol acetone unknown solvate Space Group: P 1 (2), Cell: a 16.63130(10)Å b 19.13610(10)Å c 25.19360(10)Å, α 94.5000(10)° β 96.8560(10)° γ 98.2260(10)°
Functionalization at Will of Rim-Differentiated Pillar[5]arenes
Demay-Drouhard, Paul ; Du, Ke ; Samanta, Kushal ; Wan, Xintong ; Yang, Weiwei ; Srinivasan, Rajavel ; Sue, Andrew C.H. ; Zuilhof, Han - \ 2019
Organic Letters 21 (2019)11. - ISSN 1523-7060 - p. 3976 - 3980.

The development of an efficient synthetic route toward rim-differentiated C 5 -symmetric pillar[5]arenes (P[5]s), whose two rims are decorated with different chemical functionalities, opens up successive transformations of this macrocyclic scaffold. This paper describes a gram-scale synthesis of a C 5 -symmetric penta-hydroxy P[5] precursor, and a range of highly efficient reactions that allow functionalizing either rim at will via, e.g., sulfur(VI) fluoride exchange (SuFEx) reactions, esterifications, or Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. Afterward, BBr 3 demethylation activates another rim for similar functionalizations.

Agent-oriented simulation framework for handling disruptions in chemical supply chains
Behdani, Behzad ; Lukszo, Zofia ; Srinivasan, Rajagopalan - \ 2019
Computers and Chemical Engineering 122 (2019). - ISSN 0098-1354 - p. 306 - 325.
Agent-based simulation - Disruption management - Risk management - Supply chain disruption

To cope with increasing vulnerability, global business especially chemical manufacturing companies need to actively manage (the risk of) disruptive events in their supply chains. This calls for systematic frameworks to guide their efforts. Further, due to the complexity of today's global supply chains, decision making tools are needed to provide support in different stages of the supply chain disruption management process. This paper presents an agent-oriented simulation framework for disruption management in supply chains. This simulation framework provides a flexible modelling and simulation environment for decision makers to experiment with different types of disruptions and disruption management strategies. The application of the simulation model to support decision-making in different steps of the pre- and post-disruption management processes is illustrated using a lube oil supply chain case study.

Research idea to science for impact : Tracing the significant moments in an innovation based irrigation study
Srinivasan, M.S. ; Jongmans, C. ; Bewsell, D. ; Elley, G. - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 212 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 181 - 192.
Co-innovation - Co-learning - Irrigation - Stakeholder management - Weather forecast

Uptake of irrigation scheduling tools by New Zealand (NZ) farmers has remained static for many years and some researchers consider the use of linear, tech-transfer approaches as the main reason for this. To understand the controls and drivers that influence the uptake of these tools and to evaluate the effectiveness of a co-innovation approach in improving their (tools) uptake, a team of biophysical (hydrologists) and social researchers undertook a pilot study in an irrigation scheme in the South Island of NZ. Co-innovation offers a multi-directional, multi-level, multi-actor approach, in which input from stakeholders is valued in every part of the process, from problem definition to solution adoption. In this study, we focused on the adaptive aspect of co-innovation that allows stakeholders to periodically review their actions and respond to it in a way that is inclusive others’ views and reflective of feedback received. The pilot study activities were analysed retrospectively to develop a systemic view to the implementation of a co-innovation-based multi-stakeholder hydrology project. While implementing a co-innovation approach, five chronologically-distinct yet overlapping phases emerged in the project: 1. concept development, where the hydrologists came up with the research idea and seed concept; 2. trust building, where researchers (hydrologists and social) interacted with key on-farm stakeholders in developing and implementing the research idea into a pilot field study; 3. knowledge synthesis, where researchers collected on-farm biophysical and behavioural data to record practice change; 4. extended outreach, where stakeholders, including researchers, devised pathways to sustain the lessons learned and practices changed, and disseminated the learnings to the wider irrigation community; and 5. project legacy, where the researchers, after the development of the seed concept into a practice change, evolved an exit strategy. Apart from core research activities, such as data collection on irrigation water use and changes in irrigation scheduling practices, each one of the five phases included actions that were unique to that phase as well as to achieving the wider pilot study goal of improving water use efficiency. This paper discusses the learnings from these phases, including insights, and key identifiers and indicators of pilot study progression during each phase, which may serve as an example to other biophysical studies that propose to employ co-innovation-based multi stakeholder approach.

Population and fertility by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1950–2017 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
Murray, Christopher J.L. ; Callender, Charlton S.K.H. ; Kulikoff, Xie Rachel ; Srinivasan, Vinay ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2018
The Lancet 392 (2018)10159. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1995 - 2051.
Population estimates underpin demographic and epidemiological research and are used to track progress on numerous international indicators of health and development. To date, internationally available estimates of population and fertility, although useful, have not been produced with transparent and replicable methods and do not use standardised estimates of mortality. We present single-calendar year and single-year of age estimates of fertility and population by sex with standardised and replicable methods.
Multispecies methods and encounters in the field, including the findings of a collective search for nonhuman life in the AAG convention center
Driessen, C.P.G. ; Srinivasan, K. - \ 2018
What is the role of the model in socio-hydrology? Discussion of “Prediction in a socio-hydrological world”*
Melsen, Lieke Anna ; Vos, Jeroen ; Boelens, Rutgerd - \ 2018
Hydrological Sciences Journal 63 (2018)9. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 1435 - 1443.
modelling - prediction - socio-hydrology - socio-natural relationships - transdisciplinarity

Srinivasan et al. provide an interesting overview of the challenges for long-term socio-hydrological predictions. Although agreeing with most of the statements made, we argue for the need to take socio-hydrological analysis a step further and add some fundamental considerations, especially concerning the crucial importance of many (conscious and unconscious) assumptions made upfront of the modelling exercise. Eventual assumptions of technological determinism need correction: Models are not “value-free”, but uncertain, subjective and a product of the society in which they were shaped. It is important to acknowledge this uncertainty and bias when making decisions based on socio-hydrological models, considering also that these models are “social and political actors” in and by themselves. Furthermore, socio-hydrological models require a transdisciplinary approach, since physical water availability is only one of the boundary conditions for society. Last but not least, interaction with stakeholders remains important to enable understanding of what the variable of interest is.

Geographic and research center origins of rice resistance to asian planthoppers and leafhoppers: implications for rice breeding and gene deployment
Horgan, F.G. ; Srinivasan, Thanga Suja ; Bentur, Jagadish S. ; Kumar, R. ; Bhanu, K.V. ; Singh Sarao, Preetinder ; Chien, Ho Van ; Almazan, M.L.P. ; Bernal, Carmencita C. ; Ramal, Angelee Fame ; Ferrater, J.B. ; Huang, Shou Horng - \ 2017
Agronomy 7 (2017)4. - ISSN 2073-4395 - 21 p.
This study examines aspects of virulence to resistant rice varieties among planthoppers and leafhoppers. Using a series of resistant varieties, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, virulence was assessed in seedlings and early-tillering plants at seven research centers in South and East Asia. Virulence of the whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, in Taiwan and the Philippines was also assessed. Phylogenetic analysis of the varieties using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicated a clade of highly resistant varieties from South Asia with two further South Asian clades of moderate resistance. Greenhouse bioassays indicated that planthoppers can develop virulence against multiple resistance genes including genes introgressed from wild rice species. Nilaparvata lugens populations from Punjab (India) and the Mekong Delta (Vietnam) were highly virulent to a range of key resistance donors irrespective of variety origin. Sogatella furcifera populations were less virulent to donors than N. lugens; however, several genes for resistance to S. furcifera are now ineffective in East Asia. A clade of International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)-bred varieties and breeding lines, without identified leafhopper-resistance genes, were highly resistant to the green leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens. Routine phenotyping during breeding programs likely maintains high levels of quantitative resistance to leafhoppers. We discuss these results in the light of breeding and deploying resistant rice in Asia.
Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment : A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Gowachirapant, Sueppong ; Jaiswal, Nidhi ; Melse-Boonstra, Alida ; Galetti, Valeria ; Stinca, Sara ; Mackenzie, Ian ; Thomas, Susan ; Thomas, Tinku ; Winichagoon, Pattanee ; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari ; Zimmermann, Michael B. - \ 2017
The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 5 (2017)11. - ISSN 2213-8587 - p. 853 - 863.
Background: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy might be associated with reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score in offspring. We assessed the effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment of their offspring in areas where schoolchildren were iodine sufficient. Methods: In this randomised, placebo-controlled trial, pregnant women in Bangalore, India, and Bangkok, Thailand, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 200 μg iodine orally once a day or placebo until delivery. Randomisation was done with a computer-generated sequence and stratified by site. Co-primary outcomes were verbal and performance IQ scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition (WPPSI-III) and the global executive composite score from the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) in the children at age 5-6 years. The trial was double-blinded; some unmasking took place at age 2 years for an interim analysis, but participants and nearly all investigators remained masked to group assignment until age 5-6 years. Analysis was by intention to treat using mixed-effects models. This trial is registered with, number NCT00791466. Findings: Between Nov 18, 2008, and March 12, 2011, 832 women entered the trial at a mean gestational age of 10·7 weeks (SD 2·7); median urinary iodine concentration was 131 μg/L (IQR 81-213). Mean compliance with supplementation was 87%, assessed by monthly tablet counts. 313 children (iodine group, n=159; placebo group, n=154) were analysed for verbal and performance IQ with WPPSI-III and 315 (iodine group, n=159; placebo group, n=156) for overall executive function with BRIEF-P. Mean WPPSI-III scores for verbal IQ were 89·5 (SD 9·8) in the iodine group and 90·2 (9·8) in the placebo group (difference -0·7, 95% CI -2·9 to 1·5; p=0·77), and for performance IQ were 97·5 (12·5) in the iodine group and 99·1 (13·4) in the placebo group (difference -1·6, -4·5 to 1·3; p=0·44). The mean BRIEF-P global executive composite score was 90·6 (26·2) in the iodine group and 91·5 (27·0) in the placebo group (difference -0·9, -6·8 to 5·0; p=0·74). The frequency of adverse events did not differ between groups during gestation or at delivery: 24 women in the iodine group and 28 in the placebo group reported adverse events (iodine group: abortion, n=20; blighted ovum, and n=2; intrauterine death, n=2; placebo group: abortion, n=22; blighted ovum, n=1; intrauterine death, n=2; early neonatal death, n=1; and neonatal death, n=2). Interpretation: Daily iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women had no effect on child neurodevelopment at age 5-6 years. Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation, Nestlé Foundation, Wageningen University and Research, and ETH Zurich.
Managing supply chain disruptions: an integrated agent-oriented approach
Behdani, B. ; Srinivasan, Rajagopalan - \ 2017
In: 27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering / Espuña, Antonio, Graells, Moisès, Puigjaner, Luis, Elsevier (Computer Aided Chemical Engineering ) - ISBN 9780444639653 - p. 595 - 600.
This paper presents an agent-based modelling framework for handling disruptions in supply chains. This framework includes the conceptualization for the main aspects of supply chain disruption management (i.e., supply chain, disruption and disruption management practices). We also discuss the application of simulation framework to manage supply chain disruptions in a case of lube oil supply chain.
Addressing complex challenges using a co-innovation approach : Lessons from five case studies in the New Zealand primary sector
Vereijssen, Jessica ; Srinivasan, M.S. ; Dirks, Sarah ; Fielke, Simon ; Jongmans, C.T. ; Agnew, Natasha ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Pinxterhuis, Ina ; Moore, John ; Edwards, Paul ; Brazendale, Rob ; Botha, Neels ; Turner, James A. - \ 2017
Outlook on Agriculture 46 (2017)2. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 108 - 116.
Agricultural innovation systems - Co-innovation principles - Innovation projects - Primary industries - Transdisciplinary research

Co-innovation can be effective for complex challenges – involving interactions amongst multiple stakeholders, viewpoints, perceptions, practices and interests across programmes, sectors and national systems. Approaches to challenges in the primary sector have tended to be linear, where tools and outputs are developed by a few, mostly scientists/researchers, and then extended to stakeholders. A co-innovation approach first deciphers and delineates the biophysical, societal, regulatory, policy, economic and environmental drivers, constraints and controls influencing these challenges at multiple levels. Second, stakeholder interactions and perspectives can inform and change the focus as well as help in co-developing solutions to deliver agreed outcomes. However, there is limited systematic and comparative research on how co-innovation works out in different projects. Here we analyse the results of applying a co-innovation approach to five research projects in the New Zealand primary sector. The projects varied in depth and breadth of stakeholder engagement, availability of ready-made solutions and prevalence of interests and conflicts. The projects show how and why co-innovation approaches in some cases contributed to a shared understanding of complex problems. Our results confirm the context specificity of co-innovation practices.

Identification of genomic biomarkers for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes: an in vitro repeated exposure toxicity approach for safety assessment
Chaudhari, U. ; Nemade, H. ; Wagh, V. ; Ellis, J.K. ; Srinivasan, S. ; Louisse, J. - \ 2016
Archives of Toxicology 90 (2016)11. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 2763 - 2777.
The currently available techniques for the safety evaluation of candidate drugs are usually cost-intensive and time-consuming and are often insufficient to predict human relevant cardiotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro repeated exposure toxicity methodology allowing the identification of predictive genomics biomarkers of functional relevance for drug-induced cardiotoxicity in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). The hiPSC-CMs were incubated with 156 nM doxorubicin, which is a well-characterized cardiotoxicant, for 2 or 6 days followed by washout of the test compound and further incubation in compound-free culture medium until day 14 after the onset of exposure. An xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyser was used to monitor doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity while also monitoring functional alterations of cardiomyocytes by counting of the beating frequency of cardiomyocytes. Unlike single exposure, repeated doxorubicin exposure resulted in long-term arrhythmic beating in hiPSC-CMs accompanied by significant cytotoxicity. Global gene expression changes were studied using microarrays and bioinformatics tools. Analysis of the transcriptomic data revealed early expression signatures of genes involved in formation of sarcomeric structures, regulation of ion homeostasis and induction of apoptosis. Eighty-four significantly deregulated genes related to cardiac functions, stress and apoptosis were validated using real-time PCR. The expression of the 84 genes was further studied by real-time PCR in hiPSC-CMs incubated with daunorubicin and mitoxantrone, further anthracycline family members that are also known to induce cardiotoxicity. A panel of 35 genes was deregulated by all three anthracycline family members and can therefore be expected to predict the cardiotoxicity of compounds acting by similar mechanisms as doxorubicin, daunorubicin or mitoxantrone. The identified gene panel can be applied in the safety assessment of novel drug candidates as well as available therapeutics to identify compounds that may cause cardiotoxicity.
Domestication selected for deceleration of the circadian clock in cultivated tomato
Müller, Niels A. ; Wijnen, Cris L. ; Srinivasan, Arunkumar ; Ryngajllo, M. ; Ofner, I. ; Lin, Tao ; Ranjan, Aashish ; West, Donelly ; Maloof, J.N. ; Sinha, Neelima R. ; Huang, Sanwen ; Zamir, Dani ; Jimenez-Gomez, J.M. - \ 2016
Nature Genetics 48 (2016). - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 89 - 93.
Plant breeding - Plant genetics - Transcriptomics
The circadian clock is a critical regulator of plant physiology and development, controlling key agricultural traits in crop plants1. In addition, natural variation in circadian rhythms is important for local adaptation2, 3, 4. However, quantitative modulation of circadian rhythms due to artificial selection has not yet been reported. Here we show that the circadian clock of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has slowed during domestication. Allelic variation of the tomato homolog of the Arabidopsis gene EID1 is responsible for a phase delay. Notably, the genomic region harboring EID1 shows signatures of a selective sweep. We find that the EID1 allele in cultivated tomatoes enhances plant performance specifically under long day photoperiods, suggesting that humans selected slower circadian rhythms to adapt the cultivated species to the long summer days it encountered as it was moved away from the equator.
Lensink, R. ; Bedi, A. ; Gangopadhyay, S. ; Ghosh, N. ; Goderis, B. ; Kumar Yadav, B. ; Meesters, A. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. ; Rao Sahib, P. ; Sethi, S. ; Sharma, P. ; Srinivasan, S. ; Klaver, D.C. ; Desalos, C.B. ; Hofstede, M. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Pandey, R. ; Madaan, A. ; Kalra, A. ; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Bhargava, S. ; Buizer, N.N. ; Kishore Das, A. ; Wilson Bhatra, R. ; Sen, P. ; Bulte, E. ; Pradhan, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI Rapporten ) - 1860
This report on India is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (covering the eight country studies); and - A report with the results of the international lobbying and advocacy programmes. This series of reports assessed the 2011-2015 contribution of the Dutch Co-Financing System (MFS II) towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, strengthening international civil society, setting the international agenda and changing decision-makers’ policy and practice, with the ultimate goal of reducing structural poverty. On July 2nd, 2015, the reports were approved by the independent steering committee (see below), which concluded that they meet the quality standards of validity, reliability and usefulness set by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Effect of iodine supplementation in Indian pregnant women on maternal and newborn thyroid function and cognitive development
Jaikrishna, N. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Alida Melse-Boonstra; K Srinivasan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573338 - 244
jodium - maternale voeding - zwangerschap - voeding - hypothyreoïdie - schildklierziekten - schildklierwerking - jodiumhoudend zout - minerale supplementen - kenvermogen - cognitieve ontwikkeling - mineraaltekorten - voedingsstoffentekorten - iodine - maternal nutrition - pregnancy - nutrition - hypothyroidism - thyroid diseases - thyroid function - iodized salt - mineral supplements - cognition - cognitive development - mineral deficiencies - nutrient deficiencies


Background: Iodine is a key nutrient in neurodevelopment, and the fetus is entirely dependent on the iodine intake of the mother to fulfill this important requirement for proper brain function. While this is clearly known, it is uncertain if maternal iodine nutrition should be monitored separately against what is in current practice in public health programs to control iodine deficiency. Also, it is unclear whether it is beneficial to supplement pregnant women with iodine in mild-to moderately iodine deficient and also iodine sufficient areas. Finally, the role of thyroid dysfunction in depression during pregnancy is uncertain.

Objectives: 1) to determine whether iodine supplementation to pregnant women improves maternal and newborn thyroid function, pregnancy outcome, birth weight, infant growth and cognitive performance; 2) to assess iodine intake and potential determinants of intake, in pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals; 3) to measure thyroid status during pregnancy and assess potential determinants of maternal thyroid function including iodine status, thyroid autoimmunity, body weight and anemia; 4) to assess the association of maternal depression, and thyroid function during pregnancy.

Methods: 1) In a randomized placebo controlled trial (RCT), the MITCH (Maternal Iodine Supplementation and its Effects on Thyroid function and CHild Development) study, pregnant women, gestational age ≤14 weeks, in Bangalore, India, were randomized to receive either a daily supplement of 200 µg oral iodine or placebo from enrolment until delivery. Women were followed through delivery, and then with postnatal follow-up of their infants at 6 weeks, 1 and 2 year. Early neonatal development was assessed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 6 weeks of age; neurocognitive assessment was done using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID III) at 1 and 2 years, and BRIEF-P (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function) at 2 years; 2) A cross-sectional study comparing iodine status of pregnant women and their children, who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India; 3) A cross-sectional study among 334 pregnant women ≤14 weeks of gestation, in Bangalore, India, who were screened for the RCT; 4) Secondary analysis of the longitudinal data on 318 pregnant women in the RCT.

Results: 1) In the RCT, there were no significant differences between groups in maternal thyroid function tests or thyroid volume during gestation. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction or anti-TPO antibodies did not differ significantly during gestation and postpartum. Postpartum, there were no significant differences between the maternal and infant groups in thyroid function, birth outcomes or UIC. Neonates whose mothers received iodine supplementation during pregnancy had better orientation scores at 6 weeks of age and lower scores of inhibition suggesting better executive function at 2 years of age although neurocognitive development on the BSID III were not significantly different between groups; 2) In the pilot study, a) median UIC in pregnant women was 172 µg/L, b) the median UIC was >150 µg/L in all trimesters and c) thyroid size was not significantly different across trimesters; the median UIC in children was 220µg/L, indicating ‘more than adequate’ iodine intake at this age. Median UIC was significantly higher in children than in their mothers (p=0.008). 3) In the cross-sectional study, 21% women were vegetarian, 19% were anemic and 23% were overweight or obese. Iodized salt was used by 98% of women and they were iodine sufficient, median UIC was 184.2 µg/L and all had normal thyroid volume. However, 18% of women had thyroid insufficiency: 3.7% had overt hypothyroidism (83% with positive TPO-Ab), 9.2% had subclinical hypothyroidism and 5.2% had hypothyroxinemia. Women consuming vegetarian diets did not have significantly lower iodine intakes or higher risk of hypothyroidism than those consuming mixed diets, but overweight/obesity and anemia predicted thyroid insufficiency; 4) In the longitudinal study, there was no significant difference in depressive symptoms between the iodine intervention and placebo groups. Women with depressive symptoms had significantly lower serum TSH compared to women without depressive symptoms in the first trimester. Pregnant women with prenatal depressive symptoms had a significantly higher number of medical symptoms.

Conclusion: 1) Iodine supplementation in mildly iodine deficient and in iodine sufficient pregnant women was well-accepted and safe and did not increase the risk of excess iodine intake, hyper- or hypothyroidism, or thyroid autoimmunity. Though there were no significant effects of iodine supplementation on neonatal and maternal thyroid function and birth outcomes, there were modest effects on neurocognitive development of children as assessed by executive function of children at 2 years. Thus, additional follow-up of these children for neurocognitive testing at a later age when development and cognitive testing is more reliable would provide valuable add on information; 2) The iodized salt program in Bangalore, India was providing adequate iodine to women throughout pregnancy, at the expense of higher iodine intake in their children, suggesting that the current WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD cut-off for median UIC in children indicating more-than-adequate intake may need to be reconsidered; 3) Despite iodine sufficiency, many pregnant women had thyroid insufficiency predicted by low hemoglobin and higher BMI. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism was >5-fold higher than reported in other iodine-sufficient populations of pregnant women, thus, screening of maternal thyroid function should be considered in antenatal care at hospitals in Bangalore, India; 4) Although iodine supplementation did not affect maternal depression, we highlighted the need for systemic screening for prenatal depression during antenatal visits as it is an independent risk factor for later development of clinical depression

The iodized salt programme in Bangalore, India provides adequate iodine intakes in pregnant women and more-than-adequate iodine intakes in their children
Jaiswal, N. ; Boonstra, A. ; Sharma, S.K. ; Srinivasan, K. ; Zimmerman, M.B. - \ 2015
Public Health Nutrition 18 (2015)3. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 403 - 413.
school-aged children - urinary iodine - dietary iodine - deficiency - iodization - fortification - excretion - bread - nutrition - rajasthan
Objective To compare the iodine status of pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India. Design A cross-sectional study evaluating demographic characteristics, household salt iodine concentration and salt usage patterns, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in women and children, and maternal thyroid volume (ultrasound). Setting Antenatal clinic of an urban tertiary-care hospital, which serves a low-income population. Subjects Healthy pregnant women in all trimesters, aged 18–35 years, who had healthy children aged 3–15 years. Results Median (range) iodine concentrations of household powdered and crystal salt were 55·9 (17·2–65·9) ppm and 18·9 (2·2–68·2) ppm, respectively. The contribution of iodine-containing supplements and multi-micronutrient powders to iodine intake in the families was negligible. Adequately iodized salt, together with small amounts of iodine in local foods, were providing adequate iodine during pregnancy: (i) the overall median (range) UIC in women was 172 (5–1024) µg/l; (ii) the median UIC was >150 µg/l in all trimesters; and (iii) thyroid size was not significantly different across trimesters. At the same time, the median (range) UIC in children was 220 (10–782) µg/l, indicating more-than-adequate iodine intake at this age. Median UIC was significantly higher in children than in their mothers (P=0·008). Conclusions In this selected urban population of southern India, the iodized salt programme provides adequate iodine to women throughout pregnancy, at the expense of higher iodine intake in their children. Thus we suggest that the current cut-off for median UIC in children indicating more-than-adequate intake, recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders may, need to be reconsidered.
High Prevalence of Maternal Hypothyroidism Despite Adequate Iodine Status in Indian Pregnant Woman in the First Trimester
Jaiswal, N. ; Boonstra, A. ; Thomas, T. ; Basavaraj, C. ; Sharma, S.K. ; Srinivasan, K. ; Zimmerman, M.B. - \ 2014
Thyroid 24 (2014)9. - ISSN 1050-7256 - p. 1419 - 1429.
school-age-children - thyroid-function - free-thyroxine - subclinical hypothyroidism - urinary iodine - deficiency - risk - postpartum - iron - dysfunction
Background: Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy to maintain maternal and fetal euthyroidism. There have been recent improvements in iodized salt coverage in India, but whether iodized salt is sufficient to sustain iodine requirements during pregnancy remains uncertain. Our aims were to measure thyroid status in first trimester pregnant women in southern India and assess potential determinants of thyroid function, including iodine status, thyroid autoimmunity, dietary patterns, body weight, and anemia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among 334 pregnant women of =14 weeks' gestation, in Bangalore, India. We measured anthropometrics, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), maternal thyroid volume (by ultrasound), and thyroid function. We applied a thyrotropin (TSH) upper limit of 2.5¿mIU/L to classify thyroid insufficiency. Using a questionnaire, we obtained sociodemographic and dietary data, obstetric history, and use of iodized salt and iodine supplements. Results: Among the women, the mean (standard deviation) gestational age was 10.3 (2.5) weeks, 67% were nulliparous, 21% were vegetarian, 19% were anemic, and 23% were overweight or obese. Iodized salt was used by 98% of women, and they were iodine sufficient: median UIC (range) was 184.2¿µg/L (8.1–1152¿µg/L) and all had a normal thyroid volume. However, 18% of the women had thyroid insufficiency: 3.7% had overt hypothyroidism (83% with positive TPO-Ab), 9.2% had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 5.2% had hypothyroxinemia. Women consuming vegetarian diets did not have significantly lower iodine intakes or higher risk of hypothyroidism than those consuming mixed diets, but overweight/obesity and anemia predicted thyroid insufficiency. Conclusion: In this urban population of southern India, pregnant women have adequate iodine status in the first trimester. Despite this, many have thyroid insufficiency, and the prevalence of overt hypothyroidism is more than fivefold higher than reported in other iodine sufficient populations of pregnant women.
Applicability of product-driven process synthesis to separation processes in food
Jankowiak, L. ; Goot, A.J. van der; Trifunovic, O. ; Bongers, P. ; Boom, R.M. - \ 2012
In: 11th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering. - Elsevier (Computer Aided Chemical Engineering ) - ISBN 9780444595058 - p. 210 - 214.
The demand for more sustainable processing in the food industry is rising but requires structured methodologies to support the fast implementation of new economic and sustainable processes. Product-driven process synthesis (PDPS) is a recently established methodology facilitating the rapid development of feasible process alternatives for structured products, such as in mayonnaise, ice-cream, or margarine. Here, we present the application of the PDPS methodology to valorize okara, which is a by-product from soy milk production. It is produced in large amounts, but its use as food or feed is not fully exploited. Besides fibers, protein, and fat, it contains substantial amounts of isoflavones, which are high value components. This paper evaluates the PDPS-methodology for the design of an economic and sustainable process for the production of isoflavones from okara. The main challenge is to adapt the method in such a way that it is able to deal with a complex matrix as starting material. Therefore, the PDPS methodology may require extension. Nevertheless, it promises to be a useful tool also for fractionation of food materials.
Iodine supplementation in pregnancy and its effest on child cognition
Boonstra, A. ; Gowachirapant, S. ; Jaiswal, A.K. ; Winichagoon, P. ; Srinivasan, K. ; Zimmerman, M.B. - \ 2012
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 26 (2012)2-3. - ISSN 0946-672X - p. 134 - 136.
deficiency disorders - mental performance - endemic goiter - iodized oil - school-age - schoolchildren - intelligence - countries - women - mothers
Maternal hypothyroidism and hypothyroxenemia due to iodine deficiency have been shown to affect development of the newborn negatively. Maternal iodine supplementation may therefore improve cognitive performance of the offspring, even in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (ID). Several iodine supplementation studies have been performed in mildly ID pregnant women in Europe. These studies have shown that iodine supplementation increases maternal urinary iodine (UI) excretion and reduces thyroid volume, as well as prevents increases in infant thyroid volume and thyroglobuline. However, randomized controlled studies with long-term outcomes are lacking. Therefore, two trials were started in 2008 in areas of low iodine status; one in Bangalore, India (n = 325), and another in Bangkok, Thailand (n = 514). Pregnant women were recruited
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