Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Costs of regulating ammonia emissions from livestock farms near Natura 2000 areas - analyses of case farms from Germany, Netherlands and Denmark
Jacobsen, Brian H. ; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe ; Luesink, Harry ; Michels, Rolf ; Ståhl, Lisa - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Management 246 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 897 - 908.
Abatement costs - Ammonia emissions - Livestock regulation - Natura 2000 - Nitrogen deposition

Natura 2000 areas are designated according to the EU's Birds and Habitats Directives in order to protect particular habitats and species. A variety of these habitats and species are particularly sensitive to deposition of nitrogen caused by ammonia emissions. Livestock farming is the primary source of this pollution. The purpose of this paper is to compare the costs of reaching the ammonia emission targets for different livestock farms near Natura 2000 sites in the Netherlands, Germany (Schleswig-Holstein), and Denmark. These countries have some of the highest NH3 deposition rates in Europe, and Germany in particular will have to implement new measures to reach the NEC requirements for 2030. This will also benefit nature sites in Denmark as a large share of the ammonia emissions is dispersed over long distances. The general regulation includes implementation of BAT technologies and emission ceilings. The analysis looks at regulatory aspects, the emission requirements and the cost of implementing the technologies to reduce emissions further. The selected case farms are a finisher farm and a dairy farm, and the distance to a Natura 2000 site is 400 and 2000 m. In all three countries, relatively few livestock farms are situated near or inside Natura 2000 areas. The regulatory approach is very different in the three countries and key issues are: additional deposition from projects, neighbouring livestock farms (cumulation), the inclusion of background deposition and the use of the critical loads concept. The Dutch PAS system is interesting as projected reductions in emissions are distributed as additional “room for development” today. The costs for the case farm with finishers in Schleswig-Holstein are the highest as the Filter Decree requires the use of air scrubbers. The findings suggest that farms 400 m from a Natura 2000 site in the Netherlands face lower and less costly constraints than in the other countries, whereas the opposite is the case for farms 2000 m from Natura 2000 sites. The requirements near Natura 2000, where strict requirements apply, are so high that farms will expand at a different site instead.

The Chromatin-Associated Protein PWO1 Interacts with Plant Nuclear Lamin-like Components to Regulate Nuclear Size
Mikulski, Pawel ; Hohenstatt, Mareike L. ; Farrona, Sara ; Smaczniak, Cezary ; Stahl, Yvonne ; Kalyanikrishna, ; Kaufmann, Kerstin ; Angenent, Gerco ; Schubert, Daniel - \ 2019
The Plant Cell 31 (2019)5. - ISSN 1040-4651 - p. 1141 - 1154.

Spatial organization of chromatin contributes to gene regulation of many cellular processes and includes a connection of chromatin with the nuclear lamina (NL). The NL is a protein mesh that resides underneath the inner nuclear membrane and consists of lamins and lamina-associated proteins. Chromatin regions associated with lamins in animals are characterized mostly by constitutive heterochromatin, but association with facultative heterochromatin mediated by Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins has been reported as well. In contrast with animals, plant NL components are largely not conserved and NL association with chromatin is poorly explored. Here, we present the connection between the lamin-like protein, CROWDED NUCLEI1 (CRWN1), and the chromatin- and PcG-associated component, PROLINE-TRYPTOPHANE-TRYPTOPHANE-PROLINE INTERACTOR OF POLYCOMBS1, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that PWO1 and CRWN1 proteins associate physically with each other, act in the same pathway to maintain nuclear morphology, and control expression of a similar set of target genes. Moreover, we demonstrate that transiently expressed PWO1 proteins form foci located partially at the subnuclear periphery. Ultimately, as CRWN1 and PWO1 are plant-specific, our results argue that plants might have developed an equivalent, rather than homologous, mechanism of linking chromatin repression and NL.

Prebiotic oligosaccharides in early life alter gut microbiome development in male mice while supporting influenza vaccination responses
Elsen, L.W.J. van den; Tims, S. ; Jones, A.M. ; Stewart, A. ; Stahl, B. ; Garssen, J. ; Knol, J. ; Forbes-Blom, E.E. ; van’t Land, B. - \ 2019
Beneficial Microbes 10 (2019)3. - ISSN 1876-2883 - p. 279 - 291.
Antibody - Gender - HMOS - Microbiota - TIV

Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota is an attractive therapeutic approach to improve the efficacy of vaccine-induced immunity. In this study, mice were supplemented with the prebiotic milk oligosaccharide 2’-fucosyllactose (2’FL) as well as a complex mixture of immune modulatory prebiotic short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS) from different stages in early life. Adult mice were vaccinated with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and both development of the gut microbiota and antibody-mediated vaccine responses were followed over time. Within the control group, female mice demonstrated a larger antibody response to TIV vaccination than male mice, which was accompanied by enhanced cytokine production by splenocytes and a higher percentage of plasma cells in skin draining lymph nodes. In addition, the prebiotic diet improved vaccine-specific antibody responses in male mice. Introduction of prebiotics into the diet modulated the gut microbiota composition and at the genus level several bacterial groups showed a significant interaction effect which potentially contributed to the immunological effects observed. This study provides insight in the effect of scGOS/lcFOS/2’FL in influenza vaccination antibody production.

Urban green infrastructure – connecting people and nature for sustainable cities
Pauleit, Stephan ; Andersson, Erik ; Anton, Barbara ; Buijs, Arjen ; Haase, Dagmar ; Hansen, Rieke ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Jagt, Sander Van der - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 1 - 3.
Een analyse van mogelijke aanpassingen van de dode wilde vogelsurveillance voor de vroegtijdige opsporing van introducties van vogelgriepvirus
Gonzales, J.L. ; Germeraad, Eveline A. ; Rijks, J.M. ; Petie, R. ; Beerens, N. ; Stahl, J. ; Slaterus, R. ; Elbers, A.R.W. - \ 2019
Sensory characteristics of human milk : Association between mothers' diet and milk for bitter taste
Mastorakou, Dimitra ; Ruark, Angelica ; Weenen, Hugo ; Stahl, Bernd ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1116 - 1130.
bitterness - breastfeeding - human milk - maternal diet - sensory perception

It is unknown how consumption of bitter foods and beverages in the maternal diet influences sensory properties of fresh human milk. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the sensory characteristics of fresh human fore and hind milk, (2) to establish relationships between sensory properties and composition of fresh human milk, and (3) to assess the relationship between bitterness of the maternal diet and human milk. Twenty-two lactating mothers generated sensory terms to describe perception of their milk and received training on sensory attribute intensity rating. Mothers kept a 24-h food diary followed by a sensory self-assessment of their fore and hind milks. The odor of human fresh milk was described as neutral, creamy, and sweet, taste as sweet and bitter, and mouthfeel as thin, watery, smooth, and fatty. Sweetness was equivalent to 1.53 g of sucrose/100 mL and was not significantly different between fore and hind milk. Fore milk was significantly less creamy, less fatty, thinner, more watery, and lower in vanilla flavor intensity than hind milk. Carbohydrate content of human milk was positively correlated with sweetness and glutamic acid content with umami. The bitterness of the diet consumed 24 h before lactation was moderately positively correlated with bitterness of fore milk, but not hind milk. We conclude that the consumption of bitter foods may influence the bitterness of human fore milk, which may be another way for breastfed children to learn to accept bitter vegetables and, hence, develop healthier food preferences.

Comparing Arabidopsis receptor kinase and receptor protein-mediated immune signaling reveals BIK1-dependent differences
Wan, Wei Lin ; Zhang, Lisha ; Pruitt, Rory ; Zaidem, Maricris ; Brugman, Rik ; Ma, Xiyu ; Krol, Elzbieta ; Perraki, Artemis ; Kilian, Joachim ; Grossmann, Guido ; Stahl, Mark ; Shan, Libo ; Zipfel, Cyril ; Kan, Jan A.L. van; Hedrich, Rainer ; Weigel, Detlef ; Gust, Andrea A. ; Nürnberger, Thorsten - \ 2019
New Phytologist 221 (2019)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 2080 - 2095.
Arabidopsis - immune receptor - immune signaling comparison - plant immunity - receptor kinase - receptor protein

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sense microbial patterns and activate innate immunity against attempted microbial invasions. The leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RK) FLS2 and EFR, and the LRR receptor protein (LRR-RP) receptors RLP23 and RLP42, respectively, represent prototypical members of these two prominent and closely related PRR families. We conducted a survey of Arabidopsis thaliana immune signaling mediated by these receptors to address the question of commonalities and differences between LRR-RK and LRR-RP signaling. Quantitative differences in timing and amplitude were observed for several early immune responses, with RP-mediated responses typically being slower and more prolonged than those mediated by RKs. Activation of RLP23, but not FLS2, induced the production of camalexin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that RLP23-regulated genes represent only a fraction of those genes differentially expressed upon FLS2 activation. Several positive and negative regulators of FLS2-signaling play similar roles in RLP23 signaling. Intriguingly, the cytoplasmic receptor kinase BIK1, a positive regulator of RK signaling, acts as a negative regulator of RP-type immune receptors in a manner dependent on BIK1 kinase activity. Our study unveiled unexpected differences in two closely related receptor systems and reports a new negative role of BIK1 in plant immunity.

Compositional response of Amazon forests to climate change
Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Lloyd, Jon ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Higuchi, Niro ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Silveira, Marcos ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Chave, Jerôme ; Barlow, Jos ; Bonal, Damien ; Davila Cardozo, Nallaret ; Erwin, Terry ; Fauset, Sophie ; Hérault, Bruno ; Laurance, Susan ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qie, Lan ; Stahl, Clement ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Steege, Hans ter; Vos, Vincent Antoine ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Almeida, Everton ; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barroso, Jorcely G. ; Bongers, Frans ; Boot, Rene ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Chama Moscoso, Victor ; Comiskey, James ; Peña-Claros, Marielos - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 39 - 56.
bioclimatic niches - climate change - compositional shifts - functional traits - temporal trends - tropical forests

Most of the planet's diversity is concentrated in the tropics, which includes many regions undergoing rapid climate change. Yet, while climate-induced biodiversity changes are widely documented elsewhere, few studies have addressed this issue for lowland tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate whether the floristic and functional composition of intact lowland Amazonian forests have been changing by evaluating records from 106 long-term inventory plots spanning 30 years. We analyse three traits that have been hypothesized to respond to different environmental drivers (increase in moisture stress and atmospheric CO2 concentrations): maximum tree size, biogeographic water-deficit affiliation and wood density. Tree communities have become increasingly dominated by large-statured taxa, but to date there has been no detectable change in mean wood density or water deficit affiliation at the community level, despite most forest plots having experienced an intensification of the dry season. However, among newly recruited trees, dry-affiliated genera have become more abundant, while the mortality of wet-affiliated genera has increased in those plots where the dry season has intensified most. Thus, a slow shift to a more dry-affiliated Amazonia is underway, with changes in compositional dynamics (recruits and mortality) consistent with climate-change drivers, but yet to significantly impact whole-community composition. The Amazon observational record suggests that the increase in atmospheric CO2 is driving a shift within tree communities to large-statured species and that climate changes to date will impact forest composition, but long generation times of tropical trees mean that biodiversity change is lagging behind climate change.

Advancing urban green infrastructure in Europe : Outcomes and reflections from the GREEN SURGE project
Pauleit, Stephan ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Andersson, Erik ; Anton, Barbara ; Buijs, Arjen ; Haase, Dagmar ; Elands, Birgit ; Hansen, Rieke ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kronenberg, Jakub ; Mattijssen, Thomas ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Rall, Emily ; Jagt, Alexander P.N. van der - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 4 - 16.
Green governance and planning - Green infrastructure - GREEN SURGE - Sustainable urbanisation - Urban learning labs

Urban green infrastructure (UGI) is a promising concept when developing multifunctional green space systems to address major challenges of urbanization such as increasing social cohesion, promoting the transition to a green economy, adaptation to climate change and conservation of biodiversity. In response to the European Commission's Communication on Green Infrastructure from 2013, the GREEN SURGE project aimed to further advance the development of UGI in European cities by (i) strengthening the conceptual foundations of UGI, (ii) developing improved methods and tools for assessment of its state, benefits and governance and, (iii) applying these to build a stronger evidence base. This paper aims to provide an overall synthesis of the project's main achievements. GREEN SURGE adopted an inter- and transdisciplinary approach. Urban Learning Labs and focal Learning Alliances in five cities were instrumental for intensive collaboration between disciplines and across science and practice. Pan-European surveys, e.g. of planning and governance practice or human-nature interactions established the state-of-the-art across the continent and identified good practices. The project consolidated green infrastructure planning and governance conceptually, and it mapped opportunities for better linking government-led planning with bottom-up initiatives for creating and managing UGI. It also introduced a framework for knowledge integration to support UGI valuation. Importantly, development and application of the concept of biocultural diversity gave new insights into human–nature relationships in multicultural urban societies. The results strongly call for more context-sensitive development of UGI that addresses the different needs and diverse cultural practices of people engaging with nature. In a nutshell, GREEN SURGE showed that UGI indeed can make a major contribution to sustainable and resilient urbanisation. Transdisciplinary research in urban labs, if well-conceived, has shown to hold great potential to advance UGI concepts, methods, knowledge and practice.

Mosaic governance for urban green infrastructure: Upscaling active citizenship from a local government perspective
Buijs, Arjen ; Hansen, Rieke ; Jagt, Sander Van Der; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Elands, Birgit ; Lorance Rall, Emily ; Mattijssen, Thomas ; Pauleit, Stephan ; Runhaar, Hens ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Steen Møller, Maja - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 53 - 62.
Compact urban development, social demands and austerity measures are increasing pressures on urban greenspace. Meanwhile, active citizens, defined as voluntary individuals or groups who self-organize to contribute to urban green space development, provide ecological and social benefits to urban societies. This has inspired local governments to seek collaborations with non-state actors, including active citizens. However, the diverging aims, place-specific focus, and varying expertise of active citizenship may inhibit its contribution to ecological connectivity and upscaling beyond the local scale.
In this paper, we investigate how “mosaic governance” has potential as a framework for understanding active citizenship, its potential for upscaling and its relationship to strategic UGI planning. Using the policy arrangements approach, we analyse the role of discourse, resources, actors and rules of the game in the upscaling of active citizenship. Based on eight empirical cases from seven European cities, we analyse the diversity of collaborations between local governments and active citizens in greenspace development.
The cases show how active citizens can significantly contribute to UGI planning and implementation, for example by developing large parks with volunteers or designing a network of green corridors. The cases reveal multiple ways citizens and local governments benefit from collaborations, as well as different pathways for upscaling innovative discourses and practices from local communities to formal policy or to other cities. To enable upscaling, UGI planning needs to combine long-term, more formalized and higher-scale strategic approaches with more incremental approaches that correspond with localized, fragmented and informal efforts of local communities. While collaborations between municipalities and active citizenship is not without its difficulties, the examples of upscaling in our cases demonstrate the transformative power active citizens may have towards a more green, just and democratic city.
Interleukin-37 treatment of mice with metabolic syndrome improves insulin sensitivity and reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production in adipose tissue
Ballak, Dov B. ; Li, Suzhao ; Cavalli, Giulio ; Stahl, Jonathan L. ; Tengesdal, Isak W. ; Diepen, Janna A. van; Klück, Viola ; Swartzwelter, Benjamin ; Azam, Tania ; Tack, Cees J. ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas ; Seals, Douglas R. ; Dinarello, Charles A. - \ 2018
Journal of Biological Chemistry 293 (2018)37. - ISSN 0021-9258 - p. 14224 - 14236.

Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are characterized by chronic, low-grade inflammation mainly originating from expanding adipose tissue and resulting in inhibition of insulin signaling and disruption of glycemic control.Transgenic mice expressing human interleukin 37 (IL-37),an anti-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family,are protected against metabolic syndrome when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 45% fat. Here, we examined whether treatment with recombinant IL-37 ameliorates established insulin resistance and obesity-induced inflammation. WT mice were fed a HFD for 22 weeks and then treated daily with IL-37 (1 ug/mouse) during the last 2 weeks. Compared with vehicle only-treated mice, IL-37-treated mice exhibited reduced insulin in the plasma and had significant improvements in glucose tolerance and in insulin content of the islets.The IL-37 treatment also increased the levels of circulating IL-1 receptor antagonist. Cultured adipose tissues revealed that IL-37 treatment significantly decreases spontaneous secretions of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and CXC motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL-1). We also fed mice a 60% fat diet with concomitant daily IL-37 for 2 weeks and observed decreased secretion of IL-1β, TNFα, and IL-6 and reduced intracellular levels of IL-1β in the liver and adipose tissue, along with improved plasma glucose clearance. Compared with vehicle treatment, these IL-37-treated mice had no apparent weight gain. In human adipose tissue cultures, the presence of 50 pM IL-37 reduced spontaneous release of TNF and 50% of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα. These findings indicate that IL-37's anti-inflammatory effects can ameliorate established metabolic disturbances during obesity.

Optimizing FRET-FLIM labeling conditions to detect nuclear protein interactions at native expression levels in living Arabidopsis roots
Long, Yuchen ; Stahl, Yvonne ; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie ; Smet, Wouter ; Du, Yujuan ; Gadella, Theodorus W.J. ; Goedhart, Joachim ; Scheres, Ben ; Blilou, Ikram - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Fluorescent proteins - In vivo FRET-FLIM - Protein complexes - Protein-protein interaction - SCARECROW - SHORT-ROOT

Protein complex formation has been extensively studied using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). However, implementing this technology to detect protein interactions in living multicellular organism at single-cell resolution and under native condition is still difficult to achieve. Here we describe the optimization of the labeling conditions to detect FRET-FLIMin living plants. This study exemplifies optimization procedure involving the identification of the optimal position for the labels either at the N or C terminal region and the selection of the bright and suitable, fluorescent proteins as donor and acceptor labels for the FRET study. With an effective optimization strategy, we were able to detect the interaction between the stem cell regulators SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW at endogenous expression levels in the root pole of living Arabidopsis embryos and developing lateral roots by FRET-FLIM. Using this approach we show that the spatial profile of interaction between two transcription factors can be highly modulated in reoccurring and structurally resembling organs, thus providing new information on the dynamic redistribution of nuclear protein complex configurations in different developmental stages. In principle, our optimization procedure for transcription factor complexes is applicable to any biological system.

Responsible Research and Innovation in industry-challenges, insights and perspectives
Martinuzzi, André ; Blok, Vincent ; Brem, Alexander ; Stahl, Bernd ; Schönherr, Norma - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)3. - ISSN 2071-1050
Business ethics - Corporate social responsibility - CSR - Industry - R and D management - Responsible innovation - Responsible research and innovation - RRI - Social innovation - Sustainable innovation
The responsibility of industry towards society and the environment is a much discussed topic, both in academia and in business. Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) has recently emerged as a new concept with the potential to advance this discourse in light of two major challenges industry is facing today. The first relates to the accelerating race to innovate in order to stay competitive in a rapidly changing world. The second concerns the need to maintain public trust in industry through innovations that generate social value in addition to economic returns. This Special Issue provides empirical and conceptual contributions that explore corporate motivations to adopt RRI, the state of implementation of concrete RRI practices, the role of stakeholders in responsible innovation processes, as well as drivers and barriers to the further diffusion of RRI in industry. Overall, these contributions highlight the relevance of RRI for firms of different sizes and sectors. They also provide insights and suggestions for managers, policymakers and researchers wishing to engage with responsibility in innovation. This editorial summarizes the most pertinent conclusions across the individual articles published in this Special Issue and concludes by outlining some fruitful avenues for future research in this space.
The role of glacier changes and threshold definition in the characterisation of future streamflow droughts in glacierised catchments
Tiel, Marit Van; Teuling, Adriaan J. ; Wanders, Niko ; Vis, Marc J.P. ; Stahl, Kerstin ; Loon, Anne F. Van - \ 2018
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 22 (2018)1. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 463 - 485.
Glaciers are essential hydrological reservoirs, storing and releasing water at various timescales. Short-term variability in glacier melt is one of the causes of streamflow droughts, here defined as deficiencies from the flow regime. Streamflow droughts in glacierised catchments have a wide range of interlinked causing factors related to precipitation and temperature on short and long timescales. Climate change affects glacier storage capacity, with resulting consequences for discharge regimes and streamflow drought. Future projections of streamflow drought in glacierised basins can, however, strongly depend on the modelling strategies and analysis approaches applied. Here, we examine the effect of different approaches, concerning the glacier modelling and the drought threshold, on the characterisation of streamflow droughts in glacierised catchments. Streamflow is simulated with the Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV-light) model for two case study catchments, the Nigardsbreen catchment in Norway and the Wolverine catchment in Alaska, and two future climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Two types of glacier modelling are applied, a constant and dynamic glacier area conceptualisation. Streamflow droughts are identified with the variable threshold level method and their characteristics are compared between two periods, a historical (1975-2004) and future (2071-2100) period. Two existing threshold approaches to define future droughts are employed: (1) the threshold from the historical period; (2) a transient threshold approach, whereby the threshold adapts every year in the future to the changing regimes. Results show that drought characteristics differ among the combinations of glacier area modelling and thresholds. The historical threshold combined with a dynamic glacier area projects extreme increases in drought severity in the future, caused by the regime shift due to a reduction in glacier area. The historical threshold combined with a constant glacier area results in a drastic decrease of the number of droughts. The drought characteristics between future and historical periods are more similar when the transient threshold is used, for both glacier area conceptualisations. With the transient threshold, factors causing future droughts can be analysed. This study revealed the different effects of methodological choices on future streamflow drought projections and it highlights how the options can be used to analyse different aspects of future droughts: the transient threshold for analysing future drought processes, the historical threshold to assess changes between periods, the constant glacier area to analyse the effect of short-term climate variability on droughts and the dynamic glacier area to model more realistic future discharges under climate change.
Green light for quantitative live-cell imaging in plants
Grossmann, Guido ; Krebs, Melanie ; Maizel, Alexis ; Stahl, Yvonne ; Vermeer, Joop E.M. ; Ott, Thomas - \ 2018
Journal of Cell Science 131 (2018)2. - ISSN 0021-9533
Imaging - Plant cell biology - Plant growth
Plants exhibit an intriguing morphological and physiological plasticity that enables them to thrive in a wide range of environments. To understand the cell biological basis of this unparalleled competence, a number ofmethodologies have been adapted or developed over the last decades that allow minimal or non-invasive live-cell imaging in the context of tissues. Combined with the ease to generate transgenic reporter lines in specific genetic backgrounds or accessions, we are witnessing a blooming in plant cell biology. However, the imaging of plant cells entails a number of specific challenges, such as high levels of autofluorescence, light scattering that is caused by cell walls and their sensitivity to environmental conditions. Quantitative live-cell imaging in plants therefore requires adapting or developing imaging techniques, as well as mounting and incubation systems, such as micro-fluidics. Here, we discuss some of these obstacles, and review a number of selected state-of-the-art techniques, such as two-photon imaging, light sheet microscopy and variable angle epifluorescence microscopy that allow high performance and minimal invasive live-cell imaging in plants.
The arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase BIR3 negatively regulates BAK1 receptor complex formation and stabilizes BAK1
Imkampe, Julia ; Halter, Thierry ; Huang, Shuhua ; Schulze, Sarina ; Mazzotta, Sara ; Schmidt, Nikola ; Manstretta, Raffaele ; Postel, Sandra ; Wierzba, Michael ; Yang, Yong ; Dongen, Walter M.A.M. van; Stahl, Mark ; Zipfel, Cyril ; Goshe, Michael B. ; Clouse, Steven ; Vries, Sacco C. de; Tax, Frans ; Wang, Xiaofeng ; Kemmerling, Birgit - \ 2017
The Plant Cell 29 (2017)9. - ISSN 1040-4651 - p. 2285 - 2303.
BAK1 is a coreceptor and positive regulator of multiple ligand binding leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) and is involved in brassinosteroid (BR)-dependent growth and development, innate immunity, and cell death control. The BAK1-interacting LRR-RKs BIR2 and BIR3 were previously identified by proteomics analyses of in vivo BAK1 complexes. Here, we show that BAK1-related pathways such as innate immunity and cell death control are affected by BIR3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. BIR3 also has a strong negative impact on BR signaling. BIR3 directly interacts with the BR receptor BRI1 and other ligand binding receptors and negatively regulates BR signaling by competitive inhibition of BRI1. BIR3 is released from BAK1 and BRI1 after ligand exposure and directly affects the formation of BAK1 complexes with BRI1 or FLAGELLIN SENSING2. Double mutants of bak1 and bir3 show spontaneous cell death and constitutive activation of defense responses. BAK1 and its closest homolog BKK1 interact with and are stabilized by BIR3, suggesting that bak1 bir3 double mutants mimic the spontaneous cell death phenotype observed in bak1 bkk1 mutants via destabilization of BIR3 target proteins. Our results provide evidence for a negative regulatory mechanism for BAK1 receptor complexes in which BIR3 interacts with BAK1 and inhibits ligand binding receptors to prevent BAK1 receptor complex formation.
Risk for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus on poultry farms, The Netherlands, 2007–2013
Bouwstra, Ruth ; Gonzales Rojas, Jose ; Wit, Sjaak de; Stahl, Julia ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Elbers, Armin R.W. - \ 2017
Emerging Infectious Diseases 23 (2017)9. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 1510 - 1516.

Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007–2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors: distance from poultry farms to clay soil, waterways, and wild waterfowl areas. Outdoor-layer, turkey (meat and breeder), and duck (meat and breeder) farms had a significantly higher risk for LPAIV introduction than did indoor-layer farms. Except for outdoor-layer, all poultry types (i.e., broilers, chicken breeders, ducks, and turkeys) are kept indoors. For all production types, LPAIV risk decreased significantly with increasing distance to medium-sized waterways and with increasing distance to areas with defined wild waterfowl, but only for outdoor-layer and turkey farms. Future research should focus not only on production types but also on distance to waterways and wild bird areas. In addition, settlement of new poultry farms in high-risk areas should be discouraged.

In vivo FRET-FLIM reveals cell-type-specific protein interactions in Arabidopsis roots
Long, Yuchen ; Stahl, Yvonne ; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie ; Postma, Marten ; Zhou, Wenkun ; Goedhart, Joachim ; Sánchez-Pérez, María Isabel ; Gadella, Theodorus W.J. ; Simon, Rüdiger ; Scheres, Ben ; Blilou, Ikram - \ 2017
Nature 548 (2017)7665. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 97 - 102.
During multicellular development, specification of distinct cell fates is often regulated by the same transcription factors operating differently in distinct cis-regulatory modules, either through different protein complexes, conformational modification of protein complexes, or combinations of both. Direct visualization of different transcription factor complex states guiding specific gene expression programs has been challenging. Here we use in vivo FRET-FLIM (Förster resonance energy transfer measured by fluorescence lifetime microscopy) to reveal spatial partitioning of protein interactions in relation to specification of cell fate. We show that, in Arabidopsis roots, three fully functional fluorescently tagged cell fate regulators establish cell-type-specific interactions at endogenous expression levels and can form higher order complexes. We reveal that cell-type-specific in vivo FRET-FLIM distributions reflect conformational changes of these complexes to differentially regulate target genes and specify distinct cell fates.
The European 2015 drought from a hydrological perspective
Laaha, Gregor ; Gauster, Tobias ; Tallaksen, Lena M. ; Vidal, Jean Philippe ; Stahl, Kerstin ; Prudhomme, Christel ; Heudorfer, Benedikt ; Vlnas, Radek ; Ionita, Monica ; Lanen, Henny A.J. Van; Loon, Anne F. Van - \ 2017
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 21 (2017)6. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 3001 - 3024.

In 2015 large parts of Europe were affected by drought. In this paper, we analyze the hydrological footprint (dynamic development over space and time) of the drought of 2015 in terms of both severity (magnitude) and spatial extent and compare it to the extreme drought of 2003. Analyses are based on a range of low flow and hydrological drought indices derived for about 800 streamflow records across Europe, collected in a community effort based on a common protocol. We compare the hydrological footprints of both events with the meteorological footprints, in order to learn from similarities and differences of both perspectives and to draw conclusions for drought management. The region affected by hydrological drought in 2015 differed somewhat from the drought of 2003, with its center located more towards eastern Europe. In terms of low flow magnitude, a region surrounding the Czech Republic was the most affected, with summer low flows that exhibited return intervals of 100 years and more. In terms of deficit volumes, the geographical center of the event was in southern Germany, where the drought lasted a particularly long time. A detailed spatial and temporal assessment of the 2015 event showed that the particular behavior in these regions was partly a result of diverging wetness preconditions in the studied catchments. Extreme droughts emerged where preconditions were particularly dry. In regions with wet preconditions, low flow events developed later and tended to be less severe. For both the 2003 and 2015 events, the onset of the hydrological drought was well correlated with the lowest flow recorded during the event (low flow magnitude), pointing towards a potential for early warning of the severity of streamflow drought. Time series of monthly drought indices (both streamflow- and climate-based indices) showed that meteorological and hydrological events developed differently in space and time, both in terms of extent and severity (magnitude). These results emphasize that drought is a hazard which leaves different footprints on the various components of the water cycle at different spatial and temporal scales. The difference in the dynamic development of meteorological and hydrological drought also implies that impacts on various water-use sectors and river ecology cannot be informed by climate indices alone. Thus, an assessment of drought impacts on water resources requires hydrological data in addition to drought indices based solely on climate data. The transboundary scale of the event also suggests that additional efforts need to be undertaken to make timely pan-European hydrological assessments more operational in the future.

Considering the ways biocultural diversity helps enforce the urban green infrastructure in times of urban transformation
Vierikko, Kati ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Niemela, J. ; Andersson, Erik ; Buijs, A.E. ; Fischer, Leonie Katharina ; Haase, Dagmar ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kabisch, Nadja ; Luz, Ana Catarina ; Stahl, Anton Olafsson ; Száraz, Luca ; Jagt, Alexander van der; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil - \ 2017
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 22 (2017). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 7 - 12.
Traditionally, biocultural diversity (BCD) has been researched in non-western and indigenous societies. Recently, it has also been applied in urbanized and industrialized societies, in particular for the planning and management of urban green infrastructure (UGI). Diversity in human and biological systems is considered to support cities’ adaptation capacity. However, diversity might also increase the risk of conflicts. In this paper, we discuss not only how the BCD approach could strengthen studies on human–nature interactions in an urban context, but also the potential pitfalls of applying BCD. By means of two examples of BCD research, that is people in-places and people-making UGI in cities, we argue that BCD as a reflexive concept can strengthen UGI planning and management.
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