Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Informatieblad 8: Folie om de stam
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 8) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Improved Understanding of the Link Between Catchment-Scale Vegetation Accessible Storage and Satellite-Derived Soil Water Index
    Bouaziz, Laurène J.E. ; Steele-Dunne, Susan C. ; Schellekens, Jaap ; Weerts, Albrecht H. ; Stam, Jasper ; Sprokkereef, Eric ; Winsemius, Hessel H.C. ; Savenije, Hubert H.G. ; Hrachowitz, Markus - \ 2020
    Water Resources Research 56 (2020)3. - ISSN 0043-1397
    catchment hydrology - remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture - Soil Water Index - vegetation accessible water storage

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of water volumes stored in the unsaturated root zone are a key control on the response of terrestrial hydrological systems. Robust, catchment-scale root-zone soil moisture estimates are thus critical for reliable predictions of river flow, groundwater recharge, or evaporation. Satellites provide estimates of near-surface soil moisture that can be used to approximate the moisture content in the entire unsaturated root zone through the Soil Water Index (SWI). The characteristic time length (T, in days), as only parameter in the SWI approach, characterizes the temporal variability of soil moisture. The factors controlling T are typically assumed to be related to soil properties and climate; however, no clear link has so far been established. In this study, we hypothesize that optimal T values (Topt) are linked to the interplay of precipitation and evaporation during dry periods, thus to catchment-scale vegetation accessible water storage capacities in the unsaturated root zone. We identify Topt by matching modeled time series of root-zone soil moisture from a calibrated process-based hydrological model to SWI from several satellite-based near-surface soil moisture products in 16 contrasting catchments in the Meuse river basin. Topt values are strongly and positively correlated with vegetation accessible water volumes that can be stored in the root zone, here estimated for each study catchment both as model calibration parameter and from a water-balance approach. Differences in Topt across catchments are also explained by land cover (% agriculture), soil texture (% silt), and runoff signatures (flashiness index).

    Bijen in de boomgaard : Werkboek voor meer biodiversiteit en een goed bestoven gewas
    Stam, J.M. ; Groot, G.A. de; Holster, H.C. ; Winkler, K. ; Schmidt, A.M. ; Engels, Hilde - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research - 27 p.
    Dit werkboek voor de fruitteler biedt praktische handvaten om bestuivende insecten in de boomgaarden te behouden en bevorderen. Daarbij gaat het om vuistregels voor de juiste keuze, een effectieve realisatie en het onderhoud van maatregelen die de overlevingskansen van bestuivers in de boomgaard verbeteren. De focus ligt daarbij op de Nederlandse appel- en perenteelt.
    Interceptor gaat plastic te lijf in rivieren
    Franeker, Jan Andries van - \ 2019
    De variatie aan insecten in laagveenmoerassen : Het spectrum aan soortgroepen in verschillende habitattypen in Nederlandse laagveenmoerassen
    Stam, Jeltje M. ; Kleijn, Davis ; Beest, Dennis te; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Schmidt, Anne M. ; Noordam, A.P. ; Burgers, J. ; Kats, R.J.M. van; Aukema, B. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Siepel, H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2961) - 41
    Recently, the alarming decrease of insect populations has received much attention, especially since the publication of a German study that showed strong decline of insects in nature reserves. Similar declines may be expected in the Netherlands, but many knowledge gaps exist about what we already know about the current situation and what influences the species composition of insects. This report aims to use information from an existing dataset to explore the species composition of insects in Dutch peat marchlands. The influence of habitat types and other environmental factors such as land use on the species composition was analyzed. Furthermore, the three different trapping methods used in this study were evaluated. This report thereby contributes to filling some of the existing knowledge gaps about Dutch insect populations and provides a number of recommendations for future monitoring of insects.
    Cross-seasonal legacy effects of arthropod community on plant fitness in perennial plants
    Stam, Jeltje M. ; Kos, Martine ; Dicke, Marcel ; Poelman, Erik H. - \ 2019
    Journal of Ecology 107 (2019)5. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 2451 - 2463.
    In perennial plants, interactions with other community members during the vegetative growth phase may influence community assembly during subsequent reproductive years and may influence plant fitness. It is well known that plant responses to herbivory affect community assembly within a growing season, but whether plant‐herbivore interactions result in legacy effects on community assembly across seasons has received little attention. Moreover, whether plant‐herbivore interactions during the vegetative growing season are important in predicting plant fitness directly or indirectly through legacy effects is poorly understood.

    Here, we tested whether plant‐arthropod interactions in the vegetative growing season of perennial wild cabbage plants, Brassica oleracea, result in legacy effects in arthropod community assembly in the subsequent reproductive season and whether legacy effects have plant fitness consequences. We monitored the arthropod community on plants that had been induced with either aphids, caterpillars or no herbivores in a full‐factorial design across two years. We quantified the plant traits ‘height', ‘number of leaves' and ‘number of flowers' to understand mechanisms that may mediate legacy effects. We measured seed production in the second year to evaluate plant fitness consequences of legacy effects.

    Although we did not find community responses to the herbivory treatments, our data show that community composition in one year leaves a legacy on community composition in a second year: predator community composition co‐varied across years. Structural Equation Modelling analyses indicated that herbivore communities in the vegetative year correlated with plant performance traits that may have caused a legacy effect on especially predator community assembly in the subsequent reproductive year. Interestingly, the legacy of the herbivore community in the vegetative year predicted plant fitness better than the herbivore community that directly interacted with plants in the reproductive year.

    Synthesis Thus, legacy effects of plant‐herbivore interactions affect community assembly on perennial plants across growth seasons and these processes may affect plant reproductive success. We argue that plant‐herbivore interactions in the vegetative phase as well as cross seasonal legacy effects caused by plant responses to arthropod herbivory may be important in perennial plant trait evolution such as ontogenetic variation in growth and defence strategies.
    Data from: Cross-seasonal legacy effects of arthropod community on plant fitness in perennial plants
    Stam, J.M. ; Kos, M. ; Dicke, M. ; Poelman, E.H. - \ 2019
    Plant–herbivore interactions - community composition - community dynamics - log term effects - seed set - insect-plant interactions - priority effect - Brassica oleracea
    1. In perennial plants, interactions with other community members during the vegetative growth phase may influence community assembly during subsequent reproductive years and may influence plant fitness. It is well known that plant responses to herbivory affect community assembly within a growing season, but whether plant-herbivore interactions result in legacy effects on community assembly across seasons has received little attention. Moreover, whether plant-herbivore interactions during the vegetative growing season are important in predicting plant fitness directly or indirectly through legacy effects is poorly understood. 2. Here, we tested whether plant-arthropod interactions in the vegetative growing season of perennial wild cabbage plants, Brassica oleracea, result in legacy effects in arthropod community assembly in the subsequent reproductive season and whether legacy effects have plant fitness consequences. We monitored the arthropod community on plants that had been induced with either aphids, caterpillars or no herbivores in a full-factorial design across two years. We quantified the plant traits ‘height’, ‘number of leaves’ and ‘number of flowers’ to understand mechanisms that may mediate legacy effects. We measured seed production in the second year to evaluate plant fitness consequences of legacy effects. 3. Although we did not find community responses to the herbivory treatments, our data show that community composition in one year leaves a legacy on community composition in a second year: predator community composition co-varied across years. Structural Equation Modelling analyses indicated that herbivore communities in the vegetative year correlated with plant performance traits that may have caused a legacy effect on especially predator community assembly in the subsequent reproductive year. Interestingly, the legacy of the herbivore community in the vegetative year predicted plant fitness better than the herbivore community that directly interacted with plants in the reproductive year. 4. Synthesis Thus, legacy effects of plant-herbivore interactions affect community assembly on perennial plants across growth seasons and these processes may affect plant reproductive success. We argue that plant-herbivore interactions in the vegetative phase as well as cross seasonal legacy effects caused by plant responses to arthropod herbivory may be important in perennial plant trait evolution such as ontogenetic variation in growth and defence strategies.
    Exercise self-efficacy is weakly related to engagement in physical activity in persons with long-standing spinal cord injury
    Kooijmans, Hedwig ; Post, Marcel ; Motazedi, Ehsan ; Spijkerman, Dorien ; Bongers-Janssen, Helma ; Stam, Henk ; Bussman, Hans - \ 2019
    Disability & Rehabilitation (2019). - ISSN 0963-8288
    behavioural model - exercise - physical activity - self-efficacy - Spinal cord injury

    Aims: Many people with a long-standing spinal cord injury have an inactive lifestyle. Although exercise self-efficacy is considered a key determinant of engaging in exercise, the relationship between exercise self-efficacy and physical activity remains unclear. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between exercise self-efficacy and the amount of physical activity in persons with long-standing spinal cord injury. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 268 individuals (aged 28–65 years) with spinal cord injury ≥ 10 years and using a wheelchair. Physical activity was measured with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities. Exercise self-efficacy was assessed with the Spinal cord injury Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to test for the association between exercise self-efficacy and physical activity, controlling for supposed confounders. Results: Univariate regression analysis revealed that exercise self-efficacy was significantly related to the level of daily physical activity (β = 0.05; 95% CI 0.04–0.07; 15% explained variance; p < 0.001). In multivariable regression analysis exercise self-efficacy remained, explaining a significant additional amount of the variance (2%; p < 0.001) of physical activity. Conclusion: Exercise-self efficacy is a weak but independent explanatory factor of the level of physical activity among persons with long-standing spinal cord injury. Longitudinal trials are needed to study the impact of interventions targeting an increase of exercise self-efficacy on the amount of physical activity performed.Implications for rehabilitation Pre-intervention levels of exercise-self-efficacy might mediate the effectiveness of interventions that aim at increasing physical activities in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury. Enhancing exercise-self efficacy may improve levels of physical activity, even in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury. When it comes to enhancing physical activity, efforts to enhance non-structured daily physical activities such as household activities and gardening might be as important as efforts to enhance sports and other physical exercise.

    Praktijknetwerk Bestuivers in de Betuwse Appelteelt
    Groot, G.A. de; Scheper, J.A. ; Stam, J.M. ; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Winkler, K. ; Maas, M.P. van der; Holster, Henri ; Engels, Hilde ; Reemer, Menno ; Copijn, Sonne - \ 2018
    Werken aan duurzaam behoud en bevordering van bestuivers en bestuiving op het teeltbedrijf, met aandacht voor haalbaarheid in de bedrijfsvoering, door samen nieuwe maatregelen uit te proberen, de effecten te meten, en te leren van elkaars resultaten en ervaringen.
    Redressing the balance: Quantifying net intercatchment groundwater flows
    Bouaziz, Laurène ; Weerts, Albrecht ; Schellekens, Jaap ; Sprokkereef, Eric ; Stam, Jasper ; Savenije, Hubert ; Hrachowitz, Markus - \ 2018
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 22 (2018)12. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 6415 - 6434.

    Intercatchment groundwater flows (IGFs), defined as groundwater flows across topographic divides, can occur as regional groundwater flows that bypass headwater streams and only drain into the channel further downstream or directly to the sea. However, groundwater flows can also be diverted to adjacent river basins due to geological features (e.g., faults, dipping beds and highly permeable conduits). Even though intercatchment groundwater flows can be a significant part of the water balance, they are often not considered in hydrological studies. Yet, assuming this process to be negligible may introduce misrepresentation of the natural system in hydrological models, for example in regions with complex geological features. The presence of limestone formations in France and Belgium potentially further exacerbates the importance of intercatchment groundwater flows, and thus brings into question the validity of neglecting intercatchment groundwater flows in the Meuse basin. To isolate and quantify the potential relevance of net intercatchment groundwater flows in this study, we propose a three-step approach that relies on the comparison and analysis of (1) observed water balance data within the Budyko framework, (2) results from a suite of different conceptual hydrological models and (3) remote-sensing-based estimates of actual evaporation. The data of 58 catchments in the Meuse basin provide evidence of the likely presence of significant net intercatchment groundwater flows occurring mainly in small headwater catchments underlain by fractured aquifers. The data suggest that the relative importance of net intercatchment groundwater flows is reduced at the scale of the Meuse basin, as regional groundwater flows are mostly expected to be self-contained in large basins. The analysis further suggests that net intercatchment groundwater flow processes vary over the year and that at the scale of the headwaters, net intercatchment groundwater flows can make up a relatively large proportion of the water balance (on average 10 % of mean annual precipitation) and should be accounted for to prevent overestimating actual evaporation rates.

    Assessment of heterosis in two arabidopsis thaliana common-reference mapping populations
    Hulten, Marieke H.A. van; Paulo, Maria Joāo ; Kruijer, Willem ; Blankestijn-de Vries, Hetty ; Kemperman, Brend ; Becker, Frank F.M. ; Yang, Jiaming ; Lauss, Kathrin ; Stam, Maike E. ; Eeuwijk, Fred A. van; Keurentjes, Joost J.B. - \ 2018
    PLoS ONE 13 (2018)10. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Hybrid vigour, or heterosis, has been of tremendous importance in agriculture for the improvement of both crops and livestock. Notwithstanding large efforts to study the phenomenon of heterosis in the last decades, the identification of common molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid vigour remain rare. Here, we conducted a systematic survey of the degree of heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana hybrids. For this purpose, two overlapping Arabidopsis hybrid populations were generated by crossing a large collection of naturally occurring accessions to two common reference lines. In these Arabidopsis hybrid populations the range of heterosis for several developmental and yield related traits was examined, and the relationship between them was studied. The traits under study were projected leaf area at 17 days after sowing, flowering time, height of the main inflorescence, number of side branches from the main stem or from the rosette base, total seed yield, seed weight, seed size and the estimated number of seeds per plant. Predominantly positive heterosis was observed for leaf area and height of the main inflorescence, whereas mainly negative heterosis was observed for rosette branching. For the other traits both positive and negative heterosis was observed in roughly equal amounts. For flowering time and seed size only low levels of heterosis were detected. In general the observed heterosis levels were highly trait specific. Furthermore, no correlation was observed between heterosis levels and the genetic distance between the parental lines. Since all selected lines were a part of the Arabidopsis genome wide association (GWA) mapping panel, a genetic mapping approach was applied to identify possible regions harbouring genetic factors causal for heterosis, with separate calculations for additive and dominance effects. Our study showed that the genetic mechanisms underlying heterosis were highly trait specific in our hybrid populations and greatly depended on the genetic background, confirming the elusive character of heterosis.

    Onderzoek essentaksterfte
    Copini, Paul ; Buiteveld, Joukje ; Bovenschen, Jan - \ 2018

    Overal in het land worden in hoog tempo essen aangetast door een agressieve schimmelziekte, de essentaksterfte. Zo is in de essenbossen van Staatsbosbeheer 80 procent van de bomen aangetast door de schimmel. Bladeren, takken en ook de stam van aangetaste bomen kleuren bruin en sterven af. De schimmel die de essentaksterfte veroorzaakt, komt oorspronkelijk uit Azië. Het gaat om het vals essenvlieskelkje.

    Maar er zijn ook essen die de dans weten te ontspringen en resistent lijken te zijn. Het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen van de WUR (Wageningen University & Research) wil de es voor Nederland behouden en doet nu onderzoek met die nog gezonde essen. Er zijn weer jonge boompjes van gekweekt, ‘vermeerderd’ heet dat. Om te kijken of die jonge essen ook echt resistent zijn, besmetten de onderzoekers de boompjes opzettelijk met de schimmelziekte.

    Het vals essenvlieskelkje (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) wordt op kleine stukjes essenhout geënt (inoculum). Deze stukjes hout met de schimmel worden met een sneetje in de bast tegen het hout van de es geplaatst (inoculatie). Hierna groeit de schimmel de es in; bij gevoelige essen verspreidt de schimmel zich snel.

    Voor de toekomst van de gewone es is het van belang om een grote ‘pool’ van weinig vatbare bomen te selecteren, zodat er een hoge genetische diversiteit wordt gewaarborgd. Zo’n brede basis is essentieel voor essen om bestand te blijven tegen toekomstige ziekten en klimaatverandering. De onderzoekers van het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen vragen het publiek mee te helpen om op www.essentaksterfte.nu de locatie van essen aan te geven en een indicatie van de mate van aantasting te geven.

    Data from: Order of herbivore arrival on wild cabbage populations influences subsequent arthropod community development
    Stam, J.M. ; Dicke, M. ; Poelman, E.H. - \ 2018
    community dynamics - historical contingency - priority effects
    In plant-arthropod associations, the first herbivores to colonise a plant may directly or indirectly affect community assembly on that particular plant. Whether the order of arrival of different arthropod species further modulates community assembly and affects plant fitness remains unclear. Using wild Brassica oleracea plants in the field, we manipulated the order of arrival of early-season herbivores that belong to different feeding guilds, namely the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and caterpillars of Plutella xylostella. We investigated the effect of herbivore identity and order of arrival on community assembly on two B. oleracea plant populations during two growth seasons. For this perennial plant, we evaluated whether foliar herbivory also affected herbivore communities on the flowers and if these interactions affected plant seed production. Aphid infestation caused an increase in parasitoid abundance, but caterpillars modulated these effects, depending on the order of herbivore infestation and plant population. In the second growth season, when plants flowered, the order of infestation of leaves with aphids and caterpillars more strongly affected abundance of herbivores feeding on the flowers than those feeding on leaves. Infestation with caterpillars followed by aphids caused an increase in flower-feeding herbivores compared to the reversed order of infestation in one plant population, whereas the opposite effects were observed for the other plant population. The impact on plant seed set in the first reproductive year was limited. Our work shows that the identity and arrival order of early season herbivores may have long-term consequences for community composition on individual plants and that these patterns may vary among plant populations. We discuss how these community processes may affect plant fitness and speculate on the implications for evolution of plant defences.
    Order of herbivore arrival on wild cabbage populations influences subsequent arthropod community development
    Stam, Jeltje M. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Poelman, Erik H. - \ 2018
    Oikos 127 (2018)10. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 1482 - 1493.
    Brassica oleracea - Community dynamics - Herbivory - Historical contingency - Induced response - Plant population - Plant-mediated insect interactions - Priority effects
    In plant-arthropod associations, the first herbivores to colonise a plant may directly or indirectly affect community assembly on that particular plant. Whether the order of arrival of different arthropod species further modulates community assembly and affects plant fitness remains unclear. Using wild Brassica oleracea plants in the field, we manipulated the order of arrival of early-season herbivores that belong to different feeding guilds, namely the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and caterpillars of Plutella xylostella. We investigated the effect of herbivore identity and order of arrival on community assembly on two B. oleracea plant populations during two growth seasons. For this perennial plant, we evaluated whether foliar herbivory also affected herbivore communities on the flowers and if these interactions affected plant seed production. Aphid infestation caused an increase in parasitoid abundance, but caterpillars modulated these effects, depending on the order of herbivore infestation and plant population. In the second growth season, when plants flowered, the order of infestation of leaves with aphids and caterpillars more strongly affected abundance of herbivores feeding on the flowers than those feeding on leaves. Infestation with caterpillars followed by aphids caused an increase in flower-feeding herbivores compared to the reversed order of infestation in one plant population, whereas the opposite effects were observed for the other plant population. The impact on plant seed set in the first reproductive year was limited. Our work shows that the identity and arrival order of early season herbivores may have long-term consequences for community composition on individual plants and that these patterns may vary among plant populations. We discuss how these community processes may affect plant fitness and speculate on the implications for evolution of plant defences.
    Parental DNA methylation states are associated with heterosis in epigenetic hybrids
    Lauss, Kathrin ; Wardenaar, R. ; Oka, Rurika ; Hulten, M.H.A. ; Guryev, Victor ; Keurentjes, J.J.B. ; Stam, Maike ; Johannes, Frank - \ 2018
    Plant Physiology 176 (2018)2. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1627 - 1645.
    Despite the importance and wide exploitation of heterosis in commercial crop breeding, the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon are not completely understood. Recent studies have implicated changes in DNA methylation and small RNAs in hybrid performance, however, it remains unclear whether epigenetic changes are a cause or consequence of heterosis. Here, we analyze a large panel of over 500 A. thaliana epigenetic hybrid plants (epiHybrids), which we derived from near-isogenic but epigenetically divergent parents. This proof-of-principle experimental system allowed us to quantify the contribution of parental methylation differences to heterosis. We measured traits such as leaf area (LA), growth rate (GR), flowering time (FT), main stem branching (MSB), rosette branching (RB) and final plant height (HT) and observed several strong positive and negative heterotic phenotypes among the epiHybrids. Using an epigenetic quantitative trait locus mapping approach, we were able to identify specific differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the parental genomes that are associated with hybrid performance. Sequencing of methylomes, transcriptomes and genomes of selected parent-epiHybrid combinations further showed that these parental DMRs most likely mediate remodeling of methylation and transcriptional states at specific loci in the hybrids. Taken together, our data suggest that locus-specific epigenetic divergence between the parental lines can directly or indirectly trigger heterosis in Arabidopsis hybrids independent of genetic changes. These results add to a growing body of evidence that points to epigenetic factors as one of the key determinants of hybrid performance.
    3C in maize and arabidopsis
    Weber, Blaise ; Jamge, Suraj ; Stam, Maike - \ 2018
    In: Plant Chromatin Dynamics / Bemer, M., Baroux, C., Humana Press Inc. (Methods in Molecular Biology ) - ISBN 9781493973170 - p. 247 - 270.
    3C protocol - Arabidopsis thaliana - Chromosome Conformation Capture - Plant - Zea mays
    With Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C), the relative interaction frequency of one chromosomal fragment with another can be determined. The technique is especially suited for unraveling the 3D organization of specific loci when focusing on aspects such as enhancer–promoter interactions or other topological conformations of the genome. 3C has been extensively used in animal systems, among others providing insight into gene regulation by distant cis-regulatory elements. In recent years, the 3C technique has been applied in plant research. However, the complexity of plant tissues prevents direct application of existing protocols from animals. Here, we describe an adapted protocol suitable for plant tissues, especially Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays.
    A cautionary note on the use of chromosome conformation capture in plants
    Jamge, Suraj ; Stam, Maike ; Angenent, Gerco C. ; Immink, Richard G.H. - \ 2017
    Plant Methods 13 (2017)1. - ISSN 1746-4811
    3C - Arabidopsis - Chromatin interactions - Plants
    Background: The chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique is a method to study chromatin interactions at specific genomic loci. Initially established for yeast the 3C technique has been adapted to plants in recent years in order to study chromatin interactions and their role in transcriptional gene regulation. As the plant scientific community continues to implement this technology, a discussion on critical controls, validations steps and interpretation of 3C data is essential to fully benefit from 3C in plants. Results: Here we assess the reliability and robustness of the 3C technique for the detection of chromatin interactions in Arabidopsis. As a case study, we applied this methodology to the genomic locus of a floral integrator gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1), and demonstrate the need of several controls and standard validation steps to allow a meaningful interpretation of 3C data. The intricacies of this promising but challenging technique are discussed in depth. Conclusions: The 3C technique offers an interesting opportunity to study chromatin interactions at a resolution infeasible by microscopy. However, for interpretation of 3C interaction data and identification of true interactions, 3C technology demands a stringent experimental setup and extreme caution.
    Botulisme bij een Poolse arbeider in Zeist
    Hintaran, A.D. ; Pruissen, F.G.M. van; Stam, A.J. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Janse, L. ; Fanoy, E. ; Koene, M.G.J. - \ 2017
    Tijdschrift voor Infectieziekten 12 (2017)3. - ISSN 1872-0811 - p. 84 - 87.
    Response of Brassica oleracea to temporal variation in attack by two herbivores affects preference and performance of a third herbivore
    Stam, Jeltje M. ; Chrétien, Lucille ; Dicke, Marcel ; Poelman, Erik H. - \ 2017
    Ecological Entomology 42 (2017)6. - ISSN 0307-6946 - p. 803 - 815.
    Arrival sequence - Arrival time - Brevicoryne brassicae - Herbivore-induced plant response - Plutella xylostella - Wild cabbage - 017-4039

    1. Plants are frequently under attack by multiple insect herbivores, which may interact indirectly through herbivore-induced changes in the plant's phenotype. The identity, order, and timing of herbivore arrivals may influence the outcome of interactions between two herbivores. How these aspects affect, in turn, subsequently arriving herbivores that feed on double herbivore-induced plants has not been widely investigated. 2. This study tested whether the order and timing of arrival of two inducing herbivores from different feeding guilds affected the preference and performance of a subsequently arriving third herbivore, caterpillars of Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Aphids [Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae)] and caterpillars [Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)] were introduced onto wild Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae) plants in different sequences and with different arrival times. The effects of these plant treatments on M. brassicae caterpillars were assessed in pairwise preference tests and no-choice performance tests. 3. The caterpillars of M. brassicae preferred to feed from undamaged plants rather than double herbivore-induced plants. Compared with undamaged plants, they preferred plant material on which aphids had arrived first followed by caterpillars, whereas they avoided plant material with the reverse order of herbivore arrival. Performance of the caterpillars increased with increasing arrival time between herbivore infestations in double herbivore-induced plants. Although M. brassicae grew faster on plants induced by aphids than on those induced by caterpillars alone, its performance was not affected by the order of previous herbivore arrival. 4. These results imply that the timing of colonisation by multiple herbivores determines the outcome of plant-mediated herbivore-herbivore interactions.

    Oprukkende Phytophthora-stam EU-37 minder gevoelig voor middel fluazinam
    Schepers, H.T.A.M. - \ 2017
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