Eindrapportage monitoring- en onderzoeksprogramma Natuurcompensatie Voordelta (PMR-NCV)
Prins, Theo ; Meer, Jaap van der; Herman, Peter ; Spek, Ad van der; Chen, Chun ; Wymenga, Eddy ; Zee, Els van der; Stienen, Eric ; Aarts, Geert ; Meijer-Holzhauer, Harriëtte ; Adema, Jeroen ; Craeymeersch, Johan ; Wolfshaar, Karen van; Bolle, Loes ; Poot, Martin ; Hintzen, Niels ; Horssen, Peter van; Fijn, Ruben ; Glorius, Sander ; Beier, Ulrika ; Courtens, Wouter ; Neitzel, Sophie ; Hoof, Luc van - \ 2020
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C053/20) - 183
Distribution maps of cetacean and seabird populations in the North‐East Atlantic
Waggitt, J.J. ; Evans, P.G.H. ; Andrade, J. ; Banks, A.N. ; Boisseau, O. ; Bolton, M. ; Bradbury, G. ; Brereton, T. ; Camphuysen, C.J. ; Durinck, J. ; Felce, T. ; Fijn, R.C. ; Garcia‐Baron, I. ; Garthe, S. ; Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Gilles, A. ; Goodall, M. ; Haelters, J. ; Hamilton, S. ; Hartny‐Mills, L. ; Hodgins, N. ; James, K. ; Jessopp, M. ; Kavanagh, A.S. ; Leopold, M. ; Lohrengel, K. ; Louzao, M. ; Markones, N. ; Martinez‐Cediera, J. ; O’Cadhla, O. ; Perry, S.I. ; Pierce, G.J. ; Ridoux, V. ; Robinson, K.P. ; Santos, M.B. ; Saavedra, C. ; Skov, H. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Sveegaard, S. ; Thompson, P. ; Vanermen, N. ; Wall, D. ; Webb, A. ; Wilson, J. ; Wanless, S. ; Hiddink, J.G. - \ 2020
Journal of Applied Ecology 57 (2020)2. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 253 - 269.
Distribution maps of cetaceans and seabirds at basin and monthly scales are needed for conservation and marine management. These are usually created from standardised and systematic aerial and vessel surveys, with recorded animal densities interpolated across study areas. However, distribution maps at basin and monthly scales have previously not been possible because individual surveys have restricted spatial and temporal coverage. This study develops an alternative approach consisting of: (1) collating diverse survey data to maximise spatial and temporal coverage, (2) using detection functions to estimate variation in the surface area covered (km2) among these surveys, standardising measurements of effort and animal densities, and (3) developing species distribution models (SDM) that overcome issues with heterogeneous and uneven coverage. 2.68 million km of survey data in the North‐East Atlantic between 1980 and 2018 were collated and standardised. SDM using Generalized Linear Models and General Estimating Equations in a hurdle approach were developed. Distribution maps were then created for 12 cetacean and 12 seabird species at 10 km and monthly resolution. Qualitative and quantitative assessment indicated good model performance. Synthesis and applications. This study provides the largest ever collation and standardisation of diverse survey data for cetaceans and seabirds, and the most comprehensive distribution maps of these taxa in the North‐East Atlantic. These distribution maps have numerous applications including the identification of important areas needing protection, and the quantification of overlap between vulnerable species and anthropogenic activities. This study demonstrates how the analysis of existing and diverse survey data can meet conservation and marine management needs.
Spatial and temporal occurrence of bats in the southern North Sea area
Lagerveld, Sander ; Gerla, Daan ; Wal, Jan Tjalling van der; Vries, Pepijn de; Brabant, Robin ; Stienen, Eric ; Deneudt, Klaas ; Manshanden, Jasper ; Scholl, Michaela - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C090/17) - 52
Sensitivity assessment as a tool for spatial and temporal gear-based fisheries management
Depestele, Jochen ; Courtens, Wouter ; Degraer, Steven ; Haelters, Jan ; Hostens, Kris ; Leopold, Mardik ; Pinn, Eunice ; Merckx, Bea ; Polet, Hans ; Rabaut, Marijn ; Reiss, Henning ; Stienen, Eric ; Vandendriessche, Sofie ; Volckaert, Filip A.M. ; Vincx, Magda - \ 2014
Ocean & Coastal Management 102 (2014)Pt. A. - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 149 - 160.
Comparing ecosystem effects of fishing gears - Ecosystem-based management - Evaluation of fishing pressures - Low impact gear - Marine spatial planning - Risk - Uncertainty
Assessment of ecosystem health is required in the ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). Mitigation measures that address impacts exceeding the acceptable level also require assessment. The various fishing métiers have different ecosystem impacts and this makes it difficult to assess them jointly. Sensitivity of the ecosystem to individual fishing métiers has been assessed previously, but to our knowledge, concurrent comparisons of different métiers on the same ecosystem have not been done. In this study, we combined the main characteristics of established approaches to sensitivity assessment into a single roadmap, called Sensitivity Assessment of Gear Effects (SAGE). SAGE is a widely applicable, three-step process to assess the ecological concerns of EAFM. The methodology used in the SAGE roadmap is built on a scoring system, which then results in a sensitivity index of the ecosystem components to the fishing métiers. The scoring system is based on a combination of expert judgement and data, both qualitative and quantitative. It allows for cross-evaluation of fishing métiers and ecosystem components. Sensitivity maps are created using the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of the ecosystem components in the index. The uncertainty of the sensitivity scores and maps are estimated through a pedigree index. The index is based on proxy representation, empirical basis, methodological rigour, theoretical understanding and degree of validation, all of which measure the strength of the research results. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a case study that compares the ecosystem effects of beam trawl and trammel net fisheries. The selected examples did not result in unexpected outcomes, but were rather chosen to evaluate the applicability of our methodology. They illustrate how a semi-quantitative framework, which includes the uncertainties associated with scientific assessments, can deliver holistic advice to fisheries managers in a fully transparent manner.
|EnSIS - Ecosystem Sensivity to Invasive Species
Houziaux, J.S. ; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Merckx, B. ; Kerckhof, F. ; Lancker, V. van; Courtens, W. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Rabaut, M. ; Perdon, K.J. ; Goudswaard, P.C. ; Hoey, G. van; Vigin, L. ; Hostens, K. ; Vincx, M. ; Degraer, S. - \ 2011
Brussels : Belgian Science Policy - 100 p.
The consequences of being colonial: Allee effects in metapopulations of seabirds
Schippers, P. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Schotman, A.G.M. ; Snep, R.P.H. ; Slim, P.A. - \ 2011
Ecological Modelling 222 (2011)17. - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 3061 - 3070.
density-dependent dispersal - common terns - population-dynamics - survival - evolution - habitat - models - gulls - size - performance
Most seabirds live in large colonies. This fact signifies that there is an advantage in living and breeding together. Four explanations are put fore ward for this colonial behaviour, more birds have: (1) a reduced per capita predation of chicks in colonies, (2) a better anti-predator defence, (3) a more efficient foraging in temporally patchy environments and (4) sex ratios that are more likely to be close to one. These factors induce a strong Allee-type density-dependent relation, a positive relation between density and population growth rate at low density. Nevertheless, these Allee effects are generally ignored in seabird population studies. Therefore we study the consequences of introducing Allee-type density-dependent relations in a spatially explicit metapopulation model for the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo). Simulations show that Allee effects might be responsible for a 20-fold decline in the recolonization distances, causing patches and parts of metapopulations to effectively become more isolated. This leads to long recolonization times of empty breeding patches which consequently cause slower metapopulation expansion and recovery. Additionally, we show that the typical early warning signals, that show that a population is near its critical threshold induce by Allee effects, is less pronounced in colonies that are part of a metapopulation. Hence, we offer some simple equations to estimate critical densities and thresholds in a colony
|The shallow coastal zone in the SW-Netherlands as a concentration area for red-throated divers Gavia stellata - variation in occurrence in relation to wind and tide
Poot, M. ; Heunks, C. ; Verdaat, J.P. ; Prinsen, H. ; Wolf, P. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Boudewijn, T.J. - \ 2009
In: Book of Abstracts of the Seabird Group 10th International Conference, 27-30 March 2009, Oostende, België / Stienen, E., Oostende : Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee (VLIZ) - p. 54 - 55.
Seabird metapopulations: searching for alternative breeding habitats
Schippers, P. ; Snep, R.P.H. ; Schotman, A.G.M. ; Jochem, R. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Slim, P.A. - \ 2009
Population Ecology 51 (2009)4. - ISSN 1438-3896 - p. 459 - 470.
long-lived seabird - colony-site dynamics - key-patch approach - sterna-hirundo - common terns - conspecific attraction - sandwich terns - dispersal - population - landscape
Today, many seabird species nest in port areas, which are also necessary for human economic activity. In this paper, we evaluate, using a metapopulation model, the possibilities for creating alternative breeding sites for the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) in the Rhine¿Meuse¿Scheldt estuary. We explore 22 scenarios that differ with respect to (1) loss of breeding habitat in port areas, (2) location and size of newly created habitat, and (3) coexistence of old and new habitat. Results indicate that loss of port area habitats results in a serious 41% decline in the breeding population. When the loss in ports is compensated for within the ports, the decline was negligible. Fourteen scenarios result in an increase of the Common Tern metapopulation. In these, extra breeding habitat is created outside the ports in fish-rich waters, resulting in a potential metapopulation increase of 25%. However, the period of overlap between lost and newly created habitat strongly affects the results. A gap between the removal of old and the creation of new breeding areas might cause a drop in the metapopulation level of 30%. The population recovery from this drop might take more than 100 years due to slow recolonization. Our results suggest that conservation of seabird species should be evaluated on a metapopulation scale and that the creation of new habitat may help to compensate for habitat loss in other areas. Furthermore, the results indicate that overlap between the existence of old and newly created breeding habitats is crucial for the success of compensation efforts. However, new locations should be carefully selected, because not only is the suitability of the breeding grounds important, but ample fish availability nearby is also key
Living with gulls; trading off food and predation in the sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis; Alterra scientific contributions 15
Stienen, E.W.M. - \ 2006
University of Groningen. Promotor(en): R.H. Drent. - [Wageningen] : Alterra - ISBN 9789036724807 - 191
sterna - vogels - voedingsgedrag - voortplanting - mortaliteit - sterna - birds - feeding behaviour - reproduction - mortality
Effect of brood size and hatching sequence on prefledging mortality of Sandwich terns: why lay two eggs?
Stienen, E.W.M. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. - \ 2006
Journal of Ornithology 147 (2006)4. - ISSN 2193-7192 - p. 520 - 530.
black-headed gulls - sterna-hirundo - roseate terns - common terns - reproductive success - parental quality - chick survival - reduction - asynchrony - dougallii
The mortality of Sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis chicks held in enclosures was studied in colonies on Griend, in the Dutch Wadden Sea, from 1992 to 1999, and on Hirsholm, in the Danish Kattegat, in 1997. Survival of chicks until fledging was 73% for chicks hatching from first-laid eggs or single-egg clutches and 59¿64% for partially hatched two-egg clutches, whereas 6% of second hatchlings survived until fledging. Less than 2% of all two-chick broods actually fledged two chicks. Because 18% of the two-egg clutches only hatched one egg, 7% of fledglings of two-egg clutches originated from a second-laid egg. In nests where both eggs hatched, the number of chicks was usually reduced soon after hatching. Within five days of hatching more than 50% of the second hatchlings died of starvation or were preyed upon. It seems that overproduction commonly occurs in Sandwich terns and that investment in a surplus egg mainly serves as an insurance mechanism. On Griend and Hirsholm, chick productivity of two-egg clutches was somewhat higher than for one-egg clutches. Undernourishment was an important cause of death, either directly by starvation or by selective predation of chicks in poor condition. This, in combination with earlier, studies suggests that Sandwich tern parents on Griend are exposed to severe food stress.
'Save the North Sea' Fulmar Study 2002-2004: a regional pilot project for the Fulmar-Litter-EcoQO in the OSPAR area
Franeker, J.A. van; Heubeck, M. ; Fairclough, K. ; Turner, D.M. ; Grantham, M. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Guse, N. ; Pedersen, J. ; Olsen, K.O. ; Andersson, P.J. ; Olsen, B. - \ 2005
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1162) - 70
fulmarus - ligstro - mariene gebieden - waterverontreiniging - kunststoffen - inname - monitoring - biologische indicatoren - noordzee - noordoost atlantische oceaan - richtlijnen (directives) - europese unie - fulmarus - litter - marine areas - water pollution - plastics - ingestion - monitoring - biological indicators - north sea - northeast atlantic - directives - european union
North Sea Ministers at the Bergen Conference in 2002 decided that monitoring of marine plastic litter in stomachs of seabirds should become one of the 'Ecological Quality Objectives for the North Sea (EcoQO's)'. The task of implementation was delegated to OSPAR, which covers the wider northeast Atlantic Ocean. OSPAR has requested to expand Dutch studies using the Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) as a marine litter monitor to the wider North Sea, considering such a project as a pilot study for the introduction of a Fulmar-Litter-EcoQO in the wider OSPAR area. A North Sea international study of Fulmar stomach contents became possible as a part of the 'Save the North Sea (SNS)' project. SNS is an international and interdisciplinary initiative to reduce marine litter which received cofunding from EU Interreg IIIB program for the North Sea over the years 2002-2004. The Fulmar is used as the symbol of the SNS campaign. The SNS Fulmar study established a research network in all countries around the North Sea. Combined results from Dutch long-term work and the 2002-2004 North Sea study show the Fulmar to be a sensitive and robust monitoring tool for spatial and temporal trends in the marine litter situation that will be of use for EcoQO implementation by OSPAR and the European Marine Strategy
Feeding ecology of wintering terns in Guinea-Bissau
Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Klaassen, M. ; Kersten, M. - \ 2002
Ibis 144 (2002)4. - ISSN 0019-1019 - p. 602 - 613.
fauna - ecologie - fauna - ornithologie - stern - zeevogels - Afrika - Guinee-Bissau
We studied the feeding ecology of little tTerns Sterna albifrons, sandwich terns S. sandvicensis and royal terns S. maxima in the Archipélago dos Bijagós (11°40'N, 15°45'W) in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) during the winter of 1992/1993. More than 95 of all prey taken by these terns were roundfish, ranging in weight from 0.3 to 40 g. Birds usually fed alone, but sometimes they were observed feeding in mixed-species flocks consisting of 15-200 individuals. Capture rate (n fish per hour foraging) in these flocks was higher than that of solitary birds. However, smaller fish were caught by birds foraging in flocks, so food intake rate (g/h) did not differ between solitary and flock-feeding birds. The relationships between foraging behaviour of the three tern species and abiotic factors, such as time, tide and water clarity, have been investigated. Capture rate of royal terns increased with water clarity. For little terns and sandwich terns, food intake rate was lower in the most turbid waters compared to clearer waters. There was very little foraging activity during high tide. For little terns and royal terns, food intake rate was about twice as high during receding and low tides as during an incoming tide. Food intake rate averaged 8 g/h in little terns, 60 g/h in sandwich terns and 45 g/h in royal terns. With a rough model, we estimate the maximum rate of daily energy expenditure of terns wintering in the tropics at 3 x BMR (defined as energy expenditure of inactive bird at thermoneutrality in a post-absorptive state during the resting phase of the daily cycle). From an energetic viewpoint, wintering sandwich terns in Guinea-Bissau seem to have an easy living.
Variation in growth in sandwich tern chicks Sterna sandvicensis and the consequences for pre- and post-fledging mortality
Stienen, E.W.M. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. - \ 2002
Ibis 144 (2002)4. - ISSN 0019-1019 - p. 567 - 576.
fauna - ecologie - fauna - ornithologie - stern - zeevogels - Waddenzee - Griend
Fitness consequences of variation in body mass growth and body condition were studied in a sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis colony on Griend, Dutch Wadden Sea, during 1990-2000. Body mass increment during the linear growth phase predicted nestling survival probabilities accurately. Chicks growing less than 8 g per day had low survival probabilities until fledging, but within a range of 8-11 g per day growth only small effects on chick survival were observed. Effects of slow growth on survival becameobvious after about 10 days after hatching. Slow growing chicks reached a much lower fledging mass, whereas slow growth had only small effects on structural size at fledging. Body condition of the chicks was highly variable and had strong effects on survival until fledging. However, body condition during the nestling stage did not influence post-fledging survival. Body condition at fledging had no effects on post-fledging survival and did not affect final mass or body size. It is argued that low fledging mass can be overcome soon after fledging, as parents take their fledglings closer to the foraging areas, thereby avoiding high rates of kleptoparasitism by black-headed gulls Larus ridibundus.
Foraging decisions of sandwich terns in the presence of kleptoparasitising gulls
Stienen, E.W.M. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. - \ 2002
The Auk : a quarterly journal of ornithology 119 (2002)2. - ISSN 0004-8038 - p. 473 - 486.
fauna - ecologie - fauna - ornithologie - stern - zeevogels - Waddenzee - Griend
|Living with gulls: the consequences for sandwich terns of breeding in association with black-headed gulls
Stienen, E.W.M. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Geschiere, C.E. - \ 2001
Waterbirds 24 (2001)1. - ISSN 1524-4695 - p. 68 - 82.
fauna - ecologie - fauna - ornithologie - watervogels
We studied the feeding ecology of Sandwich Terns (Sterna sandvicensis) in the presence of kleptoparasitising Blackheaded Gulls (Larus, ridbundus) on the isle of Griend, The Netherlands, between 1992 and 1998. About 30 of all of the food the patents transported to the colony was lost, mainly through intervention by Blackheaded Gulls. Tile gulls mainly took the larger fish, but showed no preference for the energetically more profitable herring. Apparently, the gulls selected for prey length visibilityof the prey, rather than for energy content of the fish. The proportion of food robbed by the gulls increased with the age of the tern chicks and was in parallel to the increase in pre!; length Sandwich Tern parents brought to the colon). Kleptoparasitism showed a clear pattern with time of the day, tide and wind speed. During the first few hours of the day almost no kleptoparasitism occurred, while robbery was high around 09.00h and at dusk. This bimodal pattern in kleptoparasitism might be related to the foraging activities of the gulls. A tidal effect on food loss was less pronounced. although kleptoparasitism was significantly higher during high tide, when foraging activity of gulls for other foods was low and the number of potential pirates in thetern colony was high. Wind strength had a significant negative effect on the amount of. food transported to tile colony, while kleptoparasitism increased. Therefore, wind speed severely affected energy intake of th; tem chicks and had strong negative effects on chick growth. During the first two weeks post-hatching, kleptoparasitism was relatively low and had only small effects on chick growth, even under. unfavourable weather conditions. From then on, the negative effects of kleptoparasitism on growth because considerable. Check growth was severely affected by strong winds. Sandwich Terns show several behavioral strategies in order to reduce the rate of food loss by the gulls and to minimize the effects on chick growth and survival.
|Colonies d'oiseux côtiers au Sénégal: recommandations pour la protection, gestion et les recherches
Ndiaye, A. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Schepers, F.J. - \ 2000
In: Oiseaux nicheurs sur les côtes du Parc National du Delta du Sine-Saloum et du Parc National Langue de Barbarie, Sénégal, 1998 / Keijl, G.O., Brenninkmeijer, A., Schepers, F.J., Brasseur, R.E., Ndiaye, A., Stienen, E.W.M., Veen, J., Zeist : WIWO (Rapp. WIWO / Rapp. IBN-DLO 68 / 99/6) - p. 49 - 58.
|Oiseux côtiers nichants en 1998; discussion et conclusions
Keijl, G.O. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Schepers, F.J. - \ 2000
In: Oiseaux nicheurs sur les côtes du Parc National du Delta du Sine-Saloum et du Parc National Langue de Barbarie, Sénégal, 1998 / Keijl, G.O., Brenninkmeijer, A., Schepers, F.J., Brasseur, R.E., Ndiaye, A., Stienen, E.W.M., Veen, J., Zeist : WIWO (Rapp. WIWO / Rapp. IBN-DLO 68 / 99/6) - p. 40 - 48.
|Recherches sur la nourriture
Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Stienen, E.W.M. - \ 2000
In: Oiseaux nicheurs sur les côtes du Parc National du Delta du Sine-Saloum et du Parc National Langue de Barbarie, Sénégal, 1998 / Keijl, G.O., Brenninkmeijer, A., Schepers, F.J., Brasseur, R.E., Ndiaye, A., Stienen, E.W.M., Veen, J., Zeist : WIWO (Rapp. WIWO / Rapp. IBN-DLO 68 / 99/6) - p. 37 - 40.
|Taille des pontes, variables des oeufs et biométrie des poussins
Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Keijl, G.O. - \ 2000
In: Oiseaux nicheurs sur les côtes du Parc National du Delta du Sine-Saloum et du Parc National Langue de Barbarie, Sénégal, 1998 / Keijl, G.O., Brenninkmeijer, A., Schepers, F.J., Brasseur, R.E., Ndiaye, A., Stienen, E.W.M., Veen, J., Zeist : WIWO (Rapp. WIWO / Rapp. IBN-DLO 68 / 99/6) - p. 32 - 36.
|Oiseaux nicheurs sur les côtes du Parc National du Delta du Sine-Saloum et du Parc National Langue de Barbarie, Sénégal, 1998
Keijl, G.O. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Schepers, F.J. ; Brasseur, R.E. ; Ndiaye, A. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Veen, J. - \ 2000
Unknown Publisher - 76 p.