Schennink, G.G.J. ; Knoop, J.R.I. ; Alvarado, F. ; Tammaro, D. ; Strasser, J.P. ; Hoonaard, K.R. van den; Jong, M. de; Aagaard, O.M. - \ 2019
Octrooinummer: WO2019240583, gepubliceerd: 2019-12-19.
The invention is directed to a polymeric product based on a resin composition that comprises a high melting point (Tm) semicrystalline polymer phase and a low melting point (Tm) semicrystalline polymer phase, wherein the high Tm and low Tm semicrystalline polymer phases comprise polymers based on the same monomers and/or isomers thereof, and wherein the high Tm semicrystalline polymer phase has a higher melting point than the melting point of the low Tm semicrystalline polymer phase. In a further aspect, the invention is directed a method for the production of the foam, wherein said method comprises processing the resin composition at a temperature between the melting point of the low Tm semicrystalline polymer phase and the melting point of the high Tm semicrystalline polymer phase.
Twenty-three unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH)–a community perspective
Blöschl, Günter ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. ; Chambel, Antonio ; Cudennec, Christophe ; Destouni, Georgia ; Fiori, Aldo ; Kirchner, James W. ; McDonnell, Jeffrey J. ; Savenije, Hubert H.G. ; Sivapalan, Murugesu ; Stumpp, Christine ; Toth, Elena ; Volpi, Elena ; Carr, Gemma ; Lupton, Claire ; Salinas, Josè ; Széles, Borbála ; Viglione, Alberto ; Aksoy, Hafzullah ; Allen, Scott T. ; Amin, Anam ; Andréassian, Vazken ; Arheimer, Berit ; Aryal, Santosh K. ; Baker, Victor ; Bardsley, Earl ; Barendrecht, Marlies H. ; Bartosova, Alena ; Batelaan, Okke ; Berghuijs, Wouter R. ; Beven, Keith ; Blume, Theresa ; Bogaard, Thom ; Borges de Amorim, Pablo ; Böttcher, Michael E. ; Boulet, Gilles ; Breinl, Korbinian ; Brilly, Mitja ; Brocca, Luca ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Castellarin, Attilio ; Castelletti, Andrea ; Chen, Xiaohong ; Chen, Yangbo ; Chen, Yuanfang ; Chifflard, Peter ; Claps, Pierluigi ; Clark, Martyn P. ; Collins, Adrian L. ; Croke, Barry ; Dathe, Annette ; David, Paula C. ; Barros, Felipe P.J. de; Rooij, Gerrit de; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di; Driscoll, Jessica M. ; Duethmann, Doris ; Dwivedi, Ravindra ; Eris, Ebru ; Farmer, William H. ; Feiccabrino, James ; Ferguson, Grant ; Ferrari, Ennio ; Ferraris, Stefano ; Fersch, Benjamin ; Finger, David ; Foglia, Laura ; Fowler, Keirnan ; Gartsman, Boris ; Gascoin, Simon ; Gaume, Eric ; Gelfan, Alexander ; Geris, Josie ; Gharari, Shervan ; Gleeson, Tom ; Glendell, Miriam ; Gonzalez Bevacqua, Alena ; González-Dugo, María P. ; Grimaldi, Salvatore ; Gupta, A.B. ; Guse, Björn ; Han, Dawei ; Hannah, David ; Harpold, Adrian ; Haun, Stefan ; Heal, Kate ; Helfricht, Kay ; Herrnegger, Mathew ; Hipsey, Matthew ; Hlaváčiková, Hana ; Hohmann, Clara ; Holko, Ladislav ; Hopkinson, Christopher ; Hrachowitz, Markus ; Illangasekare, Tissa H. ; Inam, Azhar ; Innocente, Camyla ; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan ; Jarihani, Ben ; Kalantari, Zahra ; Kalvans, Andis ; Khanal, Sonu ; Khatami, Sina ; Kiesel, Jens ; Kirkby, Mike ; Knoben, Wouter ; Kochanek, Krzysztof ; Kohnová, Silvia ; Kolechkina, Alla ; Krause, Stefan ; Kreamer, David ; Kreibich, Heidi ; Kunstmann, Harald ; Lange, Holger ; Liberato, Margarida L.R. ; Lindquist, Eric ; Link, Timothy ; Liu, Junguo ; Loucks, Daniel Peter ; Luce, Charles ; Mahé, Gil ; Makarieva, Olga ; Malard, Julien ; Mashtayeva, Shamshagul ; Maskey, Shreedhar ; Mas-Pla, Josep ; Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria ; Mazzoleni, Maurizio ; Mernild, Sebastian ; Misstear, Bruce Dudley ; Montanari, Alberto ; Müller-Thomy, Hannes ; Nabizadeh, Alireza ; Nardi, Fernando ; Neale, Christopher ; Nesterova, Nataliia ; Nurtaev, Bakhram ; Odongo, Vincent O. ; Panda, Subhabrata ; Pande, Saket ; Pang, Zhonghe ; Papacharalampous, Georgia ; Perrin, Charles ; Pfister, Laurent ; Pimentel, Rafael ; Polo, María J. ; Post, David ; Prieto Sierra, Cristina ; Ramos, Maria Helena ; Renner, Maik ; Reynolds, José Eduardo ; Ridolfi, Elena ; Rigon, Riccardo ; Riva, Monica ; Robertson, David E. ; Rosso, Renzo ; Roy, Tirthankar ; Sá, João H.M. ; Salvadori, Gianfausto ; Sandells, Mel ; Schaefli, Bettina ; Schumann, Andreas ; Scolobig, Anna ; Seibert, Jan ; Servat, Eric ; Shafiei, Mojtaba ; Sharma, Ashish ; Sidibe, Moussa ; Sidle, Roy C. ; Skaugen, Thomas ; Smith, Hugh ; Spiessl, Sabine M. ; Stein, Lina ; Steinsland, Ingelin ; Strasser, Ulrich ; Su, Bob ; Szolgay, Jan ; Tarboton, David ; Tauro, Flavia ; Thirel, Guillaume ; Tian, Fuqiang ; Tong, Rui ; Tussupova, Kamshat ; Tyralis, Hristos ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Beek, Rens van; Ent, Ruud J. van der; Ploeg, Martine van der; Loon, Anne F. Van; Meerveld, Ilja van; Nooijen, Ronald van; Oel, Pieter R. van; Vidal, Jean Philippe ; Freyberg, Jana von; Vorogushyn, Sergiy ; Wachniew, Przemyslaw ; Wade, Andrew J. ; Ward, Philip ; Westerberg, Ida K. ; White, Christopher ; Wood, Eric F. ; Woods, Ross ; Xu, Zongxue ; Yilmaz, Koray K. ; Zhang, Yongqiang - \ 2019
Hydrological Sciences Journal 64 (2019)10. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 1141 - 1158.
hydrology - interdisciplinary - knowledge gaps - research agenda - science questions
This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through online media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focused on the process-based understanding of hydrological variability and causality at all space and time scales. Increased attention to environmental change drives a new emphasis on understanding how change propagates across interfaces within the hydrological system and across disciplinary boundaries. In particular, the expansion of the human footprint raises a new set of questions related to human interactions with nature and water cycle feedbacks in the context of complex water management problems. We hope that this reflection and synthesis of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology will help guide research efforts for some years to come.
Ten essentials for action-oriented and second order energy transitions, transformations and climate change research
Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Patterson, James ; Hultman, Johan ; Mierlo, Barbara Van; Säwe, Filippa ; Wiek, Arnim ; Wittmayer, Julia ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Waer, Husam Al; Battacharya, Nandini ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Carmen, Esther ; Colvin, John ; Cvitanovic, Christopher ; D’Souza, Marcella ; Gopel, Maja ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Hämäläinen, Timo ; Harper, Gavin ; Henfry, Tom ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Howden, Mark S. ; Kerr, Andy ; Klaes, Matthias ; Lyon, Christopher ; Midgley, Gerald ; Moser, Susanne ; Mukherjee, Nandan ; Müller, Karl ; O’brien, Karen ; O’Connell, Deborah A. ; Olsson, Per ; Page, Glenn ; Reed, Mark S. ; Searle, Beverley ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Spaiser, Viktoria ; Strasser, Tim ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Rao-Williams, Jennifer ; Wise, Russel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Woods, Mel ; Wyborn, Carina - \ 2018
Energy Research & Social Science 40 (2018). - ISSN 2214-6296 - p. 54 - 70.
The most critical question for climate research is no longer about the problem, but about how to facilitate the transformative changes necessary to avoid catastrophic climate-induced change. Addressing this question, however, will require massive upscaling of research that can rapidly enhance learning about transformations. Ten essentials for guiding action-oriented transformation and energy research are therefore presented, framed in relation to second-order science. They include: (1) Focus on transformations to low-carbon, resilient living; (2) Focus on solution processes; (3) Focus on ‘how to’ practical knowledge; (4) Approach research as occurring from within the system being intervened; (5) Work with normative aspects; (6) Seek to transcend current thinking; (7) Take a multi-faceted approach to understand and shape change; (8) Acknowledge the value of alternative roles of researchers; (9) Encourage second-order experimentation; and (10) Be reflexive. Joint application of the essentials would create highly adaptive, reflexive, collaborative and impact-oriented research able to enhance capacity to respond to the climate challenge. At present, however, the practice of such approaches is limited and constrained by dominance of other approaches. For wider transformations to low carbon living and energy systems to occur, transformations will therefore also be needed in the way in which knowledge is produced and used.
The socioeconomic benefits of biological control of western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and wireworms Agriotes spp. in maize and potatoes for selected European countries
Benjamin, Emmanuel O. ; Grabenweger, Giselher ; Strasser, Hermann ; Wesseler, Justus - \ 2018
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 125 (2018)3. - ISSN 1861-3829 - p. 273 - 285.
Biological control agents - Diabrotica virgifera virgifera - Integrated pest management (IPM) - Socioeconomic welfare gain - Wireworms Agriotes spp
Innovative biological pest control of the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and wireworms Agriotes spp. in maize and potato cultivation in Europe is driven by (1) the economic damages caused and (2) the restrictions on chemical pesticides. We analyze the efficacy of biological control agents for WCR and wireworms based on European field trails. A partial equilibrium displacement model is used to estimate the changes in producer and consumer surplus for France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Austria and Romania given different adoption ceiling and adoption speed. Furthermore, the benefit of a potential reduction in pesticide use due to biological control application is evaluated. The results suggest a total annual welfare gain of ca. €190 million from biocontrol of WCR in maize production for the countries under consideration at an adoption ceiling and adoption speed of 30% and 2.41, respectively. In potato production, an annual welfare gain of over €2 million may be recorded in ecological and/or organic cultivation. Overall, the biological control methods provide an economical alternative in maize and can contribute to increase the competitiveness of European Union (EU) agriculture, while they look promising for certified organic potato production at the current level of control efficiency.
Estimation of food limitation of bivalve larvae in coastal waters of north-western Europe
Bos, O.G. ; Hendriks, I.E. ; Strasser, M. ; Dolmer, P. ; Kamermans, P. - \ 2006
Journal of Sea Research 55 (2006)3. - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 191 - 206.
mytilus-edulis-l - marine invertebrate larvae - dutch wadden sea - macoma-balthica - crassostrea-gigas - community structure - veliger larvae - organic-carbon - limited growth - cell-volume
Marine invertebrate recruitment may be affected by food limitation during the pelagic larval life stages. In the present study, field data on abundance of bivalve larvae along with their prey (small phytoplankton) were examined to see whether they were consistent with predictions made by an energetic model of larval requirements. Bivalve larvae were monitored during 2000 at ten different study sites in four different areas (Limfjorden, Sylt-Rømø bight, Western Wadden Sea and Delta area) along the coast of north-western Europe. Calculation of the energetic requirements of the larvae at 15°C indicated maintenance costs of a 200-¿m bivalve larva to be 1.9 × 10 - 5 J larva- 1 d- 1, while the maximum assimilation rate, resulting in maximum growth, would amount to 6.2 × 10- 3 J larva- 1 d- 1. Calculation of potential assimilation rates of larvae in the field resulted in estimates between 10 - 5 and 10- 3 J larva- 1 d- 1. Maximum larval concentrations in the field occurred from May to September and ranged between 17 and 392 larvae dm- 3. Most larvae were able to cover their maintenance costs, but not to attain maximum growth rates. Between April and September, the potential assimilation rate averaged 7-26% of the maximum assimilation rate. Under the assumptions made for the present study, it is suggested that growth of larvae in north-west European waters is often food-limited.
New fluorescence parameters for monitoring photosynthesis in plants
Force, L. ; Critchley, Ch. ; Rensen, J.J.S. van - \ 2003
Photosynthesis Research 78 (2003). - ISSN 0166-8595 - p. 17 - 33.
restricted energy-transfer - radical-pair equilibrium - ii reaction centers - photosystem-ii - chlorophyll-a - electron-transport - protein-phosphorylation - light stress - chloroplasts - induction
Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements have a wide range of applications from basic understanding of photosynthesis functioning to plant environmental stress responses and direct assessments of plant health. The measured signal is the fluorescence intensity (expressed in relative units) and the most meaningful data are derived from the time dependent increase in fluorescence intensity achieved upon application of continuous bright light to a previously dark adapted sample. The fluorescence response changes over time and is termed the Kautsky curve or chlorophyll fluorescence transient. Recently, Strasser and Strasser (1995) formulated a group of fluorescence parameters, called the JIP-test, that quantify the stepwise flow of energy through Photosystem II, using input data from the fluorescence transient. The purpose of this study was to establish relationships between the biochemical reactions occurring in PS II and specific JIP-test parameters. This was approached using isolated systems that facilitated the addition of modifying agents, a PS II electron transport inhibitor, an electron acceptor and an uncoupler, whose effects on PS II activity are well documented in the literature. The alteration to PS II activity caused by each of these compounds could then be monitored through the JIP-test parameters and compared and contrasted with the literature. The known alteration in PS II activity of Chenopodium album atrazine resistant and sensitive biotypes was also used to gauge the effectiveness and sensitivity of the JIP-test. The information gained from the in vitro study was successfully applied to an in situ study. This is the first in a series of four papers. It shows that the trapping parameters of the JIP-test were most affected by illumination and that the reduction in trapping had a run-on effect to inhibit electron transport. When irradiance exposure proceeded to photoinhibition, the electron transport probability parameter was greatly reduced and dissipation significantly increased. These results illustrate the advantage of monitoring a number of fluorescence parameters over the use of just one, which is often the case when the F-V/F-M ratio is used.
|Seasonal Water Balance of an Alpine Catchment as Evaluated by Different Methods for Spatially Distributed Snowmelt Modelling
Zappa, M. ; Pos, F. ; Strasser, U. ; Warmerdam, P.M.M. ; Gurtz, J. - \ 2003
Nordic Hydrology 34 (2003)3. - ISSN 0029-1277 - p. 179 - 202.
runoff - hydrology - issues - basin - melt
The application of three temperature-index based models and of one energy balance based snowmelt model was investigated. The snow models were integrated in the spatially distributed hydrological model PREVAH. In this study the hydrological simulations of the alpine catchment of the Dischmabach in Switzerland in the period 1982-2000 have been analyzed. The PREVAH model was driven by hourly interpolated meteorological data. All snowmelt approaches allowed a good simulation of the discharge regime and of the seasonal course of the snowpack. The highest model efficiency was obtained by a radiation based temperature-index approach. A simplified energy balance approach combined with the positive degree-day method showed a very similar performance to the classical positive degree-day approach. The energy balance approach ESCIMO showed a high performance variability from year to year. The dependency of the seasonal water balance with respect to altitude is also discussed in this report. The quality of the spatially distributed reproduction of periods with positive and negative water balance (snow accumulation and snowmelt) is crucial for the correct simulation of the runoff hydrograph. The analysis shows that runoff maximum in the Dischmabach catchment is caused by a superposition of the main snowmelt season in the areas between 2,1002,800 m a.s.l. and the period with maximum rainfall.