- Marc C. Verdegem (1)
- P. Cranford (1)
- A. Duinker (1)
- A. Handå (1)
- V. Husa (1)
- H.M. Jansen (3)
- Z. Jiang (1)
- C. Krogness (1)
- Henrice Maria Jansen (1)
- R. Rosland (1)
- A.C. Smaal (1)
- Øivind Strand (1)
- O. Strand (1)
- Ø. Strand (2)
- Tore Strohmeier (1)
- T. Strohmeier (3)
- M.C.J. Verdegem (1)
Feedbacks from Filter Feeders: Review on the Role of Mussels in Cycling and Storage of Nutrients in Oligo- Meso- and Eutrophic Cultivation Areas
Jansen, Henrice Maria ; Strand, Øivind ; Broekhoven, Wouter Van; Strohmeier, Tore ; Verdegem, Marc C. ; Smaal, Aad C. - \ 2019
In: Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves / Smaal, Aad C., Ferreira, Joao G., Grant, Jon, Petersen, Jens K., Strand, Øivind, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. 143 - 177.
Cultured and wild bivalve stocks provide ecosystem services through regulation of nutrient dynamics; both by regeneration of nutrients that become available again for phytoplankton production (positive feedback), and by extraction
of nutrients through filtration and storage in tissue (negative feedback). Consequently, bivalves may fulfil a role in water quality management. The magnitude of regulating services by filter feeding bivalves varies between coastal ecosystems. This review uses the blue mussel as a model species and evaluates how cultured mussel stocks regulate nutrient dynamics in oligo- meso- and eutrophic ecosystems. We thereby examine (i) the eco-physiological response of mussels, and (ii) the positive and negative feedback mechanisms between mussel stocks and the surrounding ecosystem. Mussel culture in nutrient-poor areas (deep Norwegian fjords) are compared with cultures in other coastal systems with medium- to rich nutrient conditions. It was found that despite differences in eco-physiological rates under nutrient-poor conditions (higher clearance, lower egestion, similar excretion and tissue storage rates), the proportion of nutrients regenerated was similar between (deep) nutrient-poor
and (shallow) nutrient-rich areas. Of the filtered nutrients, 40–50% is regenerated
and thus made available again for phytoplankton growth, and 10–50% of the
filtered nutrients is stored in tissue and could be removed from the system by harvest. A priori, we inferred that as a consequence of low background nutrient levels, mussels would potentially have a larger effect on ecosystem functioning in nutrient-poor systems and/or seasons. However, this review showed that due to the physical characteristics (volume, water residence time) and low mussel densities in nutrient-poor Norwegian fjord systems, the effects were lower for these sites, while estimates were more profound in shallow nutrient-rich areas with more intensive aquaculture activities, especially in terms of the negative feedback mechanisms (filtration intensity).
Spatio-temporal dynamics in the dissolved nutrient waste plume from Norwegian salmon cage aquaculture
Jansen, H.M. ; Broch, O.J. ; Bannister, R. ; Cranford, P. ; Handå, A. ; Husa, V. ; Jiang, Z. ; Strohmeier, T. ; Strand, Ø. - \ 2018
Aquaculture Environment Interactions 10 (2018). - ISSN 1869-215X - p. 385 - 399.
Atlantic salmon - Farm scale - Nutrients - Nitrogen - Integrated multitrophic aquaculture - IMTA - pelagic - Environmental impact
The aim of this study was to define the waste plume dynamics around a salmon farm in Norway. Systematic water sampling and numerical modeling were implemented to define nutrient concentrations in the upper water column at long-term (seasonal) and short-term (between and within days) time scales. Nutrient enhancement was observed for ammonium only, while the concentrations of orthophosphate and organic wastes were never higher than the background values. The spatial magnitude of cage effluent dispersion was limited. Empirical results detected enhanced concentrations up to 100 m down-current of the farm when fish biomass was high. Model results showed that the zone of influence could occasionally reach to >1000 m. In the first year of production, when fish biomass was low, no enhancement was detected, and in April and September of the following year, average ammonium concentrations were respectively 0.2 and 0.8 µM above the background concentrations. Taking the ambient seasonal variability into account, this resulted in 1.6 times higher concentrations for both sampling months. The measured short-term temporal variability in nutrient concentrations near the cages varied up to 2 times from day to day and were 3.5 times higher in the evening compared to the morning. As seasonal investigations were performed in the morning, maximum enhancement was likely underestimated. The rapid decrease in nutrient concentrations with increasing distance from the cages suggests that the farm studied here is currently not causing significant degradation of surface water quality. Results of this study contribute to evaluating the potential for ecological mitigation of waste nutrients and provide directions for design of optimized integrated multi-trophic aquaculture facilities
Response of Mytilus edulis to enhanced phytoplankton availibility by controlled upwelling in an oligographic fjord
Strohmeier, T. ; Strand, Ø. ; Alunno-Bruscia, M. ; Duinker, A. ; Rosland, R. ; Jansen, H.M. - \ 2015
Marine Ecology Progress Series 518 (2015). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 139 - 152.
placopecten-magellanicus gmelin - filtration-rate measurements - mussel perna-canaliculus - western norway - seasonal-variation - food availability - pinctada-margaritifera - absorption efficiency - carrying-capacity - feeding bivalves
The controlled upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water in oligotrophic coastal regions has been proposed as a means of increasing phytoplankton and, subsequently, bivalve aquaculture production. This was tested as part of a large-scale upwelling experiment in an oligotrophic environment (Lysefjord, Norway). The mean chlorophyll a concentration in the upwelling area was consistently higher than at the control site (mean ± SD: 3.3 ± 1.9 and 1.5 ± 0.6 mg chl a m-3, respectively) during the 4 mo of controlled upwelling. After 2 mo with upwelling, the dry flesh weight of 1 yr old and 2 yr old mussels was 95% and 24% higher, respectively, than that of the mussels at the control site. The 1 yr old mussels (Mytilus edulis) at the upwelling site achieved up to 2.4-fold higher dry flesh weight compared to the control. Reproductive output was also higher at the upwelling site and only there, spawning of 1 yr old mussels was detected. Standardized clearance and respiration rates showed maximum values during the most intense period of tissue growth. Average ingestion rates were 40% higher at the upwelling than at the control site. Tissue growth and clearance rates were not correlated with the measured seston parameters, suggesting that food acquisition was responsive to other exogenous parameters and/or to increased endogenous energy demands. It was concluded that the sustained upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water in an oligotrophic fjord can increase phytoplankton biomass, resulting in improved mussel growth performance and increased aquaculture production carrying capacity. Thus, controlled upwelling represents a simple but effective ecosystem engineering approach for enhancing human food production.
Seasonal variability in nutrient regeneration by mussel Mytilus edulis rope culture in oligotrophic systems
Jansen, H.M. ; Strand, O. ; Strohmeier, T. ; Krogness, C. ; Verdegem, M.C.J. ; Smaal, A.C. - \ 2011
Marine Ecology Progress Series 431 (2011). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 137 - 149.
suspended oyster cultures - la-madeleine quebec - blue-mussel - biogeochemical fluxes - biodeposit production - mesocosm experiment - western norway - north-atlantic - phytoplankton - marine
Blue mussel Mytilus edulis cultures contribute to nutrient cycling in coastal ecosystems. Mussel populations filter particulate nutrients from the water column and inorganic nutrients are regenerated by excretion of metabolic wastes and decomposition of (pseudo-)faeces. The objective of this study was to determine the intra-annual variability in nutrient regeneration by mussel rope cultures in oligotrophic fjord systems. In situ respiration and nutrient uptake and release rates of 1 m mussel ropes were measured using 250 l pelagic chambers. There was a 20-fold difference between winter and summer respiration and nutrient release rates. Inorganic nitrogen release ranged from 50 to 1000 µmol h–1 per meter rope. These variations were mainly related to mussel growth but were also related to changes in water temperature and biofouling biomass (organisms that colonized the mussel ropes). In total 24 genera of fouling organisms were observed, diversity increased over time (ranging from 2 to 12 genera m–1), and fouling biomass was mainly characterised by ascidians (max. 37 ± 14 g m–1). However, mussels dominated the culture ropes, representing >90% of total faunal biomass. The amount of organic material associated with the ropes was stable (6.9 ± 0.3 g m–1). At the scale of one mussel farm, nutrient regeneration by mussel rope cultures increased inorganic nitrogen concentrations by 20% and inorganic phosphorus concentrations by 5% during summer conditions. During winter, there was no significant effect of mussel cultures on the inorganic nutrient pools. Nutrient regeneration by mussel cultures also affected stoichiometry as nutrients were excreted in dissimilar proportions (nitrogen > phosphate > silicate). The increased nutrient availability may contribute to primary production, especially in nutrient-limited (oligotrophic) fjord ecosystems. However, fjord-scale effects are largely dependent on hydrographic conditions of the fjord system