Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The global abundance of tree palms
    Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1495 - 1514.
    above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density

    Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.

    Effect of pore size distribution and particle size of porous metal oxides on phosphate adsorption capacity and kinetics
    Suresh Kumar, Prashanth ; Korving, Leon ; Keesman, Karel J. ; Loosdrecht, Mark C.M. van; Witkamp, Geert Jan - \ 2019
    Chemical Engineering Journal 358 (2019). - ISSN 1385-8947 - p. 160 - 169.
    Adsorption kinetics - Diffusion - Particle size - Phosphate adsorption - Pore size distribution - Porous metal oxide

    Phosphate is a vital nutrient but its presence in surface waters even at very low concentrations can lead to eutrophication. Adsorption is often suggested as a step for reducing phosphate down to very low concentrations. Porous metal oxides can be used as granular adsorbents that have a high surface area and hence a high adsorption capacity. But from a practical point of view, these adsorbents also need to have good adsorption kinetics. The surface area of such adsorbents comes from pores of varying pore size and the pore size distribution (PSD) of the adsorbents can affect the phosphate adsorption kinetics. In this study, the PSD of 4 different adsorbents was correlated with their phosphate adsorption kinetics. The adsorbents based on iron and aluminium (hydr)oxide were grinded and the adsorption performance was studied as a function of their particle size. This was done to identify diffusion limitations due to the PSD of the adsorbents. The phosphate adsorption kinetics were similar for small particles of all the adsorbents. For larger particles, the adsorbents having pores larger than 10 nm (FSP and DD6) showed faster adsorption than adsorbents with smaller pores (GEH and CFH). Even though micropores (pores < 2 nm) contributed to a higher portion of the adsorbent surface area, pores bigger than 10 nm were needed to increase the rate of adsorption.

    Data from: Prevalence and correlates of anemia among adolescents in Nepal: findings from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey
    Chalise, Binaya ; Aryal, Krishna Kumar ; Mehta, Ranju Kumari ; Dhimal, Meghnath ; Sapkota, Femila ; Mehata, Suresh ; Karki, Khem Bahadur ; Madjdian, Donya ; Patton, George ; Sawyer, Susan - \ 2018
    Nepal Health Research Council
    Anemia is regarded as major public health problem among adolescents in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) but there is limited primary data in many countries, including Nepal. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of anemia in a nationally representative sample of adolescents within the 2014 National Adolescent Nutrition Survey in Nepal. A total of 3780 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years were selected from a cross-sectional survey through multi-stage cluster sampling. Structured interviews, anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin assessments of capillary blood were obtained. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were undertaken to compute the Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) for socio-demographic, behavioral and cluster characteristics. The overall prevalence of anemia was 31% (95%CI: 28.2, 33.5), 38% (95%CI: 34.0, 41.8) in female and 24% (95%CI: 20.6, 27.1) in male. The likelihood of anemia was significantly higher among older adolescents (aOR 1.75, 95%CI: 1.44, 2.13), females (aOR 2.02; 95%CI: 1.57, 2.60), among those who walk barefoot (aOR 1.78, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.94), and those residing in the Terai (aOR 1.80, 95%CI: 1.18, 2.77). Food consumption from more than four food groups (aOR 0.71, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.88) was protective against anemia. In conclusion, anemia is common in Nepali adolescents. Efforts to improve the nutritional status of this high-risk age group require nutrition that focus on eating habits, sanitation, iron supplementation and the treatment of hookworm infection.
    Prevalence and correlates of anemia among adolescents in Nepal : Findings from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey
    Chalise, Binaya ; Aryal, Krishna Kumar ; Mehta, Ranju Kumari ; Dhimal, Meghnath ; Sapkota, Femila ; Mehata, Suresh ; Karki, Khem Bahadur ; Madjdian, Donya ; Patton, George ; Sawyer, Susan - \ 2018
    PLoS ONE 13 (2018)12. - ISSN 1932-6203 - p. e0208878 - e0208878.

    Anemia is regarded as major public health problem among adolescents in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) but there is limited primary data in many countries, including Nepal. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of anemia in a nationally representative sample of adolescents within the 2014 National Adolescent Nutrition Survey in Nepal. A total of 3780 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years were selected from a cross-sectional survey through multi-stage cluster sampling. Structured interviews, anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin assessments of capillary blood were obtained. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were undertaken to compute the Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) for socio-demographic, behavioral and cluster characteristics. The overall prevalence of anemia was 31% (95%CI: 28.2, 33.5), 38% (95%CI: 34.0, 41.8) in female and 24% (95%CI: 20.6, 27.1) in male. The likelihood of anemia was significantly higher among older adolescents (aOR 1.75, 95%CI: 1.44, 2.13), females (aOR 2.02; 95%CI: 1.57, 2.60), among those who walk barefoot (aOR 1.78, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.94), and those residing in the Terai (aOR 1.80, 95%CI: 1.18, 2.77). Food consumption from more than four food groups (aOR 0.71, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.88) was protective against anemia. In conclusion, anemia is common in Nepali adolescents. Efforts to improve the nutritional status of this high-risk age group require nutrition that focus on eating habits, sanitation, iron supplementation and the treatment of hookworm infection.

    Understanding and improving the reusability of phosphate adsorbents for wastewater effluent polishing
    Suresh Kumar, Prashanth ; Ejerssa, Wondesen Workneh ; Wegener, Carita Clarissa ; Korving, Leon ; Dugulan, Achim Iulian ; Temmink, Hardy ; Loosdrecht, Mark C.M. van; Witkamp, Geert-Jan - \ 2018
    Water Research 145 (2018). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 365 - 374.
    Calcium adsorption - Phosphate adsorption - Regeneration - Reusability - Surface precipitation - Wastewater effluent

    Phosphate is a vital nutrient for life but its discharge from wastewater effluents can lead to eutrophication. Adsorption can be used as effluent polishing step to reduce phosphate to very low concentrations. Adsorbent reusability is an important parameter to make the adsorption process economically feasible. This implies that the adsorbent can be regenerated and used over several cycles without appreciable performance decline. In the current study, we have studied the phosphate adsorption and reusability of commercial iron oxide based adsorbents for wastewater effluent. Effects of adsorbent properties like particle size, surface area, type of iron oxide, and effects of some competing ions were determined. Moreover the effects of regeneration methods, which include an alkaline desorption step and an acid wash step, were studied. It was found that reducing the adsorbent particle size increased the phosphate adsorption of porous adsorbents significantly. Amongst all the other parameters, calcium had the greatest influence on phosphate adsorption and adsorbent reusability. Phosphate adsorption was enhanced by co-adsorption of calcium, but calcium formed surface precipitates such as calcium carbonate. These surface precipitates affected the adsorbent reusability and needed to be removed by implementing an acid wash step. The insights from this study are useful in designing optimal regeneration procedures and improving the lifetime of phosphate adsorbents used for wastewater effluent polishing.

    Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests
    Slik, J.W.F. ; Franklin, Janet ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Field, Richard ; Aguilar, Salomon ; Aguirre, Nikolay ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Anitha, K. ; Avella, Andres ; Mora, Francisco ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Báez, Selene ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bastian, Meredith L. ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bellingham, Peter J. ; Berg, Eduardo Van Den; Conceição Bispo, Polyanna Da; Boeckx, Pascal ; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bongers, Frans ; Boyle, Brad ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brown, Sandra ; Chai, Shauna Lee ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Chuyong, George ; Ewango, Corneille ; Coronado, Indiana M. ; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi ; Culmsee, Heike ; Damas, Kipiro ; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Davidar, Priya ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; Din, Hazimah ; Drake, Donald R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Durigan, Giselda ; Eichhorn, Karl ; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt ; Enoki, Tsutomu ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain ; Farwig, Nina ; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Fischer, Markus ; Forshed, Olle ; Garcia, Queila Souza ; Garkoti, Satish Chandra ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gillet, Jean Francois ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo ; Griffith, Daniel M. ; Grogan, James ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andy ; Hemp, Andreas ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Hussain, M.S. ; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo ; Hanum, I.F. ; Imai, Nobuo ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Joly, Carlos Alfredo ; Joseph, Shijo ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kelly, Daniel L. ; Kessler, Michael ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kooyman, Robert M. ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lindsell, Jeremy ; Lovett, Jon ; Lozada, Jose ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Melo, Felipe P.L. ; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre ; Metali, Faizah ; Medjibe, Vincent P. ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Metzker, Thiago ; Mohandass, D. ; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Nurtjahy, Eddy ; Oliveira, Eddie Lenza De; Onrizal, ; Parolin, Pia ; Parren, Marc ; Parthasarathy, N. ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Perez, Rolando ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Pommer, Ulf ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qi, Lan ; Piedade, Maria Teresa F. ; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Poulsen, John R. ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Prasad, Rama Chandra ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Rangel, Orlando ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rocha, Diogo S.B. ; Rolim, Samir ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Ruokolainen, Kalle ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam ; Saiter, Felipe Z. ; Saner, Philippe ; Santos, Braulio ; Santos, João Roberto Dos; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Schoengart, Jochen ; Schulze, Mark ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sist, Plinio ; Souza, Alexandre F. ; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Sposito, Tereza ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stevart, Tariq ; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sunderland, Terry ; Supriyadi, S. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Suzuki, Eizi ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Ed V.J. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Theilade, Ida ; Thomas, Duncan ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Morisson Valeriano, Márcio De; Valkenburg, Johan Van; Do, Tran Van; Sam, Hoang Van; Vandermeer, John H. ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vetaas, Ole Reidar ; Adekunle, Victor ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Wich, Serge ; Williams, John ; Wiser, Susan ; Wittmann, Florian ; Yang, Xiaobo ; Yao, C.Y.A. ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Zahawi, Rakan A. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo - \ 2018
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)8. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 1837 - 1842.
    Biogeographic legacies - Forest classification - Forest functional similarity - Phylogenetic community distance - Tropical forests

    Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests.

    Forest degradation influences nesting site selection of Afro-tropical stingless bee species in a tropical rain forest, Kenya
    Kiatoko, Nkoba ; Langevelde, Frank Van; Raina, Suresh Kumar - \ 2018
    African Journal of Ecology 56 (2018)3. - ISSN 0141-6707 - p. 669 - 674.
    Impact of habitat degradation on species diversity and nest abundance of five African stingless bee species in a tropical rainforest of Kenya
    Kiatoko, Nkoba ; Raina, Suresh Kumar ; Langevelde, Frank Van - \ 2017
    International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 37 (2017)3. - ISSN 1742-7584 - p. 189 - 197.
    habitat preference - meliponiculture - Meliponinae - species richness
    Natural habitat degradation often involves the reduction or disappearance of bee species. In Africa, stingless bees are hunted for honey, which is used as food, for medicinal purposes, and for traditional rituals. Severe habitat degradation due to human settlement is hypothesized to have a negative impact on the species diversity of the African stingless bee species. In this paper, we assess the impact of habitat degradation on the diversity of five stingless bee species across different habitats in the tropical rainforest of Kenya (indigenous forest, mixed indigenous forest) and its neighbouring landscape (grassland, village) in western Kenya. The species fauna, nest occurrence, and species diversity of the stingless bee species varied across the different habitats. The number of nesting habitats of the meliponine species varied between habitats in the tropical rainforest. Meliponula ferruginea (reddish brown) nested in five habitats, while Meliponula bocandei and Meliponula ferruginea (black) nested only in two habitat types. The species richness decreased within the different types of habitats and the indigenous and mixed indigenous forest contained more species than other habitats. The fauna composition in both homesteads was exclusively similar, while the indigenous and mixed indigenous forests were mostly similar. Similarity in habitat preferences for nesting was revealed between M. bocandei vs Plebeina hildebrandti and M. ferruginea (reddish brown) vs Hypotrigona gribodoi. The natural native indigenous forest had the most diverse community compared to the degraded habitats. There are taxon-specific responses to habitat change; and in our study, there is clear value in conserving the native indigenous forest.
    Effect of pore size distribution on iron oxide coated granular activated carbons for phosphate adsorption – Importance of mesopores
    Suresh Kumar, Prashanth ; Prot, Thomas ; Korving, Leon ; Keesman, Karel J. ; Dugulan, Iulian ; Loosdrecht, Mark C.M. van; Witkamp, Geert Jan - \ 2017
    Chemical Engineering Journal 326 (2017). - ISSN 1385-8947 - p. 231 - 239.
    Adsorption affinity - Iron coating - Mesopores - Non Local Density Functional Theory (NLDFT) - Oxidized activated carbon

    Adsorption is often suggested for to reach very low phosphate levels in municipal wastewater effluent and even to recover phosphate. Adsorbent performance is usually associated with surface area but the exact role of the pore size distribution (PSD) is unclear. Here, we show the effect of the PSD on phosphate adsorption. Granular activated carbons (GACs) with varying PSDs were treated with potassium permanganate followed by reaction with ferric chloride to form iron oxide coated GACs (Fe-GACs). Energy dispersive X-ray and kinetics experiments confirmed that manganese anchored on the GAC is important for subsequent iron attachment. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed presence of ferrihydrite in Fe-GAC. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the iron oxide particles are not present in the micropores of the GACs. Phosphate adsorption isotherms were performed with the Fe-GACs and adsorption at lower phosphate concentrations correlated with the porous area of >3 nm of the adsorbents, a high fraction of which is contributed by mesopores. These results show that high surface areas of GACs resulting from micropores do not contribute to adsorption at low phosphate concentrations. This can be explained by the micropores being difficult to coat with iron oxide nanoparticles, but in addition the diffusion of phosphate into these pores could also be hindered. It is therefore recommended to use backbones having high mesoporous areas. This information is useful for developing adsorbents particularly for applications treating low phosphate concentrations, for e.g. in municipal wastewater effluent polishing.

    A vertical compartmented hive design effective to reduce post-harvest colony loss in Afrotropical stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponinae)
    Kiatoko, Nkoba ; Raina, Suresh Kumar ; Langevelde, F. van - \ 2016
    International Journal of Development Research 6 (2016)8. - ISSN 2230-9926 - p. 9026 - 9034.
    Domestication of Meliponinae in log hive or simple box has often been used in Africa. However, colonyloss in these two hive types due to pest infestation after honey harvesting still occurs. We hypothesized that the two hive types were the probable causes for the infestations.We designed and assessed the hive acceptance andpostharvest colony losses of three Afrotropical Meliponinae namely Plebeina hildebrandti, Meliponula bocandei and two M. ferruginea morpho-speciesin a vertical compartmented hive (called the icipe-4M), as an alternative. We observed that P. hildebrandti had the lowest acceptance rate compared to the other species. However, all the bee species occupied the different hive compartments (brood and honey chamber) of the hive. Postharvest loss was lower in M. bocandei and the reddish brown M. ferrugineamorpho-species. Average honey yieldand honey composition were also evaluatedper species. Annually, M. bocandei produced more honey followed by M. ferruginea morpho-speciesandP. hildebrandti. Honey composition also varied among the species.We recommend that rural communities switch to using the icipe-4M hive to domesticate these stingless bee species, to decrease the losses of brood to pests, and increase the yields of harvested honey in domestication.
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