A global synthesis reveals biodiversity-mediated benefits for crop production
Dainese, Matteo ; Martin, Emily A. ; Aizen, Marcelo A. ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Carvalheiro, Luisa G. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Ghazoul, Jaboury ; Grab, Heather ; Jonsson, Mattias ; Karp, Daniel S. ; Kennedy, Christina M. ; Kleijn, David ; Kremen, Claire ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Poveda, Katja ; Rader, Romina ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Badenhausser, Isabelle ; Baensch, Svenja ; Bezerra, Antonio D.M. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Boreux, Virginie ; Bretagnolle, Vincent ; Caballero-Lopez, Berta ; Cavigliasso, Pablo ; Ćetković, Aleksandar ; Chacoff, Natacha P. ; Classen, Alice ; Cusser, Sarah ; Silva E Silva, Felipe D. Da; Groot, G.A. de; Dudenhöffer, Jan H. ; Ekroos, Johan ; Fijen, Thijs ; Franck, Pierre ; Freitas, Breno M. ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hipólito, Juliana ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Hunt, Lauren ; Iverson, Aaron L. ; Jha, Shalene ; Keasar, Tamar ; Kim, Tania N. ; Kishinevsky, Miriam ; Klatt, Björn K. ; Klein, Alexandra Maria ; Krewenka, Kristin M. ; Krishnan, Smitha ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Lavigne, Claire ; Liere, Heidi ; Maas, Bea ; Mallinger, Rachel E. ; Pachon, Eliana Martinez ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Mitchell, Matthew G.E. ; Molina, Gonzalo A.R. ; Nesper, Maike ; Nilsson, Lovisa ; O'Rourke, Megan E. ; Peters, Marcell K. ; Plećaš, Milan ; Potts, Simon G. ; L. Ramos, Davi de; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Sáez, Agustín ; Scheper, Jeroen ; Schleuning, Matthias ; Schmack, Julia M. ; Sciligo, Amber R. ; Seymour, Colleen ; Stanley, Dara A. ; Stewart, Rebecca ; Stout, Jane C. ; Sutter, Louis ; Takada, Mayura B. ; Taki, Hisatomo ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Viana, Blandina F. ; Westphal, Catrin ; Willcox, Bryony K. ; Wratten, Stephen D. ; Yoshioka, Akira ; Zaragoza-Trello, Carlos ; Zhang, Wei ; Zou, Yi ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)10. - ISSN 2375-2548
Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield-related ecosystem services can be maintained by a few dominant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 studies (with 1475 locations), we partition the relative importance of species richness, abundance, and dominance for pollination; biological pest control; and final yields in the context of ongoing land-use change. Pollinator and enemy richness directly supported ecosystem services in addition to and independent of abundance and dominance. Up to 50% of the negative effects of landscape simplification on ecosystem services was due to richness losses of service-providing organisms, with negative consequences for crop yields. Maintaining the biodiversity of ecosystem service providers is therefore vital to sustain the flow of key agroecosystem benefits to society.
Piece-by-piece analysis of additives and manufacturing byproducts in plastics ingested by seabirds: Implication for risk of exposure to seabirds
Tanaka, Kosuke ; Franeker, Jan A. van; Deguchi, Tomohiro ; Takada, Hideshige - \ 2019
Marine Pollution Bulletin 145 (2019). - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 36 - 41.
marine lastic debris - plastic ingestion - Additive chemicals - Flame retardans - UV stabilizers - Styrene oligomers
The risk of marine organisms ingesting plastics has become a growing concern due to hazard chemicals in plastics. To identify compounds to which seabirds potentially have substantial exposure, 194 plastics fragments and pellets ingested by seabirds, i.e., northern fulmars from the Faroe Islands, and laysan albatross and blackfooted albatross from Mukojima Island, were analyzed piece by piece. Four kinds of UV stabilizers, 2 brominated flame retardants, and styrene oligomers were detected at detection frequencies of 4.6%, 2.1%, and 2.1%, respectively. Concentrations ranging from not detected (n.d.) – 1700 μg/g were measured for UV stabilizers, n.d. – 1100 μg/g for flame retardants, and n.d. – 3200 μg/g for styrene oligomers. We found that these chemicals could
be retained in plastics during drifting and fragmentation in the ocean and transported to seabirds. This type of transport via plastics can be direct pathway that introduces hazardous compounds to marine organisms.
Hazardous Chemicals in Plastics in Marine Environments : International Pellet Watch
Yamashita, Rei ; Tanaka, Kosuke ; Yeo, Bee Geok ; Takada, Hideshige ; Franeker, Jan A. van; Dalton, Megan ; Dale, Eric - \ 2019
In: Hazardous Chemicals Associated with Plastics in the Marine Environment Springer Verlag (Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ) - ISBN 9783319955667 - p. 163 - 183.
Additives - Equilibrium - Open ocean - Pellets - Sorption
Marine plastic debris, including microplastics <5Â mm, contain additives as well as hydrophobic chemicals sorbed from surrounding seawater. A volunteer-based global monitoring programme entitled International Pellet Watch (IPW) is utilizing the sorptive nature of plastics, more specifically of beached polyethylene (PE) pellets, in order to measure persistent organic pollutants (POPs) throughout the world. Spatial patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides have been revealed. Original data of IPW show large piece-to-piece variability in PCB concentrations in pellets collected at each location. This is explained by the combination of slow sorption/desorption and large variabilities of speed and route of floating plastics. The sporadically high concentrations of POPs, both sorbed chemicals and hydrophobic additives, are frequently observed in pellets and the other microplastics in open ocean and remote islands. This poses a chemical threat to marine ecosystems in remote areas.
Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
Karp, Daniel S. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Martin, Emily A. ; Declerck, Fabrice ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hunt, Lauren ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; O’Rourke, Megan E. ; Rusch, Adrien ; Poveda, Katja ; Jonsson, Mattias ; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Schellhorn, Nancy A. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Wratten, Stephen D. ; Zhang, Wei ; Iverson, Aaron L. ; Adler, Lynn S. ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Alignier, Audrey ; Angelella, Gina M. ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Avelino, Jacques ; Batáry, Péter ; Baveco, Johannes M. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Bohnenblust, Eric W. ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Brewer, Michael J. ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Carrière, Yves ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; Cayuela, Luis ; Centrella, Mary ; Ćetković, Aleksandar ; Henri, Dominic Charles ; Chabert, Ariane ; Costamagna, Alejandro C. ; La Mora, Aldo De; Kraker, Joop De; Desneux, Nicolas ; Diehl, Eva ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Eckberg, James O. ; Entling, Martin H. ; Fiedler, Daniela ; Franck, Pierre ; Veen, F.J.F. van; Frank, Thomas ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Getachew, Awraris ; Gonthier, David J. ; Goodell, Peter B. ; Graziosi, Ignazio ; Groves, Russell L. ; Gurr, Geoff M. ; Hajian-Forooshani, Zachary ; Heimpel, George E. ; Herrmann, John D. ; Huseth, Anders S. ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Ingrao, Adam J. ; Iv, Phirun ; Jacot, Katja ; Johnson, Gregg A. ; Jones, Laura ; Kaiser, Marina ; Kaser, Joe M. ; Keasar, Tamar ; Kim, Tania N. ; Kishinevsky, Miriam ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Lavandero, Blas ; Lavigne, Claire ; Ralec, Anne Le; Lemessa, Debissa ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Liere, Heidi ; Lu, Yanhui ; Lubin, Yael ; Luttermoser, Tim ; Maas, Bea ; Mace, Kevi ; Madeira, Filipe ; Mader, Viktoria ; Cortesero, Anne Marie ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Martinez, Eliana ; Martinson, Holly M. ; Menozzi, Philippe ; Mitchell, Matthew G.E. ; Miyashita, Tadashi ; Molina, Gonzalo A.R. ; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. ; O’Neal, Matthew E. ; Opatovsky, Itai ; Ortiz-Martinez, Sebaastian ; Nash, Michael ; Östman, Örjan ; Ouin, Annie ; Pak, Damie ; Paredes, Daniel ; Parsa, Soroush ; Parry, Hazel ; Perez-Alvarez, Ricardo ; Perović, David J. ; Peterson, Julie A. ; Petit, Sandrine ; Philpott, Stacy M. ; Plantegenest, Manuel ; Plećaš, Milan ; Pluess, Therese ; Pons, Xavier ; Potts, Simon G. ; Pywell, Richard F. ; Ragsdale, David W. ; Rand, Tatyana A. ; Raymond, Lucie ; Ricci, Benoît ; Sargent, Chris ; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre ; Saulais, Julia ; Schäckermann, Jessica ; Schmidt, Nick P. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Sivakoff, Frances S. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Stack Whitney, Kaitlin ; Stutz, Sonja ; Szendrei, Zsofia ; Takada, Mayura B. ; Taki, Hisatomo ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thomson, Linda J. ; Tricault, Yann ; Tsafack, Noelline ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Valantin-Morison, Muriel ; Trinh, Mai Van; Werf, Wopke Van Der; Vierling, Kerri T. ; Werling, Ben P. ; Wickens, Jennifer B. ; Wickens, Victoria J. ; Woodcock, Ben A. ; Wyckhuys, Kris ; Xiao, Haijun ; Yasuda, Mika ; Yoshioka, Akira - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)33. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E7863 - E7870.
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.
Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to plastics in marine environments: Equilibrium
Endo, S. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2016
In: Hazardous Chemicals Associated with Plastics in the Marine Environment / Takada, H., Karapanagioti , H.K., Springer International Publishing Switzerland (The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ) - ISBN 9783319955667 - p. 185 - 204.
Degredation - Intermolecular interaction - Marine plastic - Nano plastic - Sorption coefficient
Marine plastics have shown to contain various environmental chemicals. For evaluating the potential of plastics to influence regional and global dynamics of these chemicals and to serve as a vector to marine biota, understanding of sorption and desorption of chemicals by plastics is important. In this chapter, the equilibrium sorption of neutral organic chemicals from water to plastics is discussed. First, the basic principles of equilibrium sorption are explained, and then, factors that influence the magnitude of the sorption coefficient, such as types of plastics and chemicals, temperature, coexisting organic and inorganic constituents in water, are overviewed. Successively, effects on the equilibrium sorption properties of field-relevant mechanisms such as degradation and biofouling as well as nano-sized plastics are discussed. It is evident that studies on sorption properties of aged plastics in field conditions are far less available than those of intact plastics in laboratory conditions.
Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales : update 2016
Afonso, Claudio L. ; Amarasinghe, Gaya K. ; Bányai, Krisztián ; Bào, Yīmíng ; Basler, Christopher F. ; Bavari, Sina ; Bejerman, Nicolás ; Blasdell, Kim R. ; Briand, François Xavier ; Briese, Thomas ; Bukreyev, Alexander ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Chandran, Kartik ; Chéng, Jiāsēn ; Clawson, Anna N. ; Collins, Peter L. ; Dietzgen, Ralf G. ; Dolnik, Olga ; Domier, Leslie L. ; Dürrwald, Ralf ; Dye, John M. ; Easton, Andrew J. ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Farkas, Szilvia L. ; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana ; Formenty, Pierre ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Fù, Yànpíng ; Ghedin, Elodie ; Goodin, Michael M. ; Hewson, Roger ; Horie, Masayuki ; Hyndman, Timothy H. ; Jiāng, Dàohóng ; Kitajima, Elliot W. ; Kobinger, Gary P. ; Kondo, Hideki ; Kurath, Gael ; Lamb, Robert A. ; Lenardon, Sergio ; Leroy, Eric M. ; Li, Ci Xiu ; Lin, Xian Dan ; Liú, Lìjiāng ; Longdon, Ben ; Marton, Szilvia ; Maisner, Andrea ; Mühlberger, Elke ; Netesov, Sergey V. ; Nowotny, Norbert ; Patterson, Jean L. ; Payne, Susan L. ; Paweska, Janusz T. ; Randall, Rick E. ; Rima, Bertus K. ; Rota, Paul ; Rubbenstroth, Dennis ; Schwemmle, Martin ; Shi, Mang ; Smither, Sophie J. ; Stenglein, Mark D. ; Stone, David M. ; Takada, Ayato ; Terregino, Calogero ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Tian, Jun Hua ; Tomonaga, Keizo ; Tordo, Noël ; Towner, Jonathan S. ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Verbeek, Martin ; Volchkov, Viktor E. ; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria ; Walsh, John A. ; Walker, Peter J. ; Wang, David ; Wang, Lin Fa ; Wetzel, Thierry ; Whitfield, Anna E. ; Xiè, Jiǎtāo ; Yuen, Kwok Yung ; Zhang, Yong Zhen ; Kuhn, Jens H. - \ 2016
Archives of Virology 161 (2016)8. - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 2351 - 2360.
In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).
C22 Isomerization in a-Tomatine-to-Esculeoside A Conversion during Tomato Ripening Is Driven by C27 Hydroxylation of Triterpenoidal Sekeleton
Yamanaka, T. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Zuilhof, H. ; Legger, A. ; Takada, N. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2009
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2009)9. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 3786 - 3791.
steroidal alkaloid glycosides - pulsed amperometric detection - lycopersicon-esculentum - fruits - plant - dehydrotomatine - glycoalkaloids - performance - maturation - hplc
Compositional analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of triterpenoid glycosides in different tomato cultivars, ripening stages, and parts of fruits showed that alpha-tomatine was generally most abundant in the flesh of the mature green stage, whereas esculeoside A was predominant in that of the red ripe stage. The sum of these glycoalkaloids was more or less constant, suggesting that alpha-tomatine is converted to esculeoside A during ripening. Besides various substitutions, the C22alphaN -> C22ßN isomerization is an important step in this transformation. By quantum chemical calculations it was shown that hydroxylation at C27 of the triterpenoidal skeleton is the driving force behind the isomerization. For the protonated form of the glycoalkaloid (predominant at the pH of tomato tissue), the C22ßN configuration becomes more favorable than that of C22alphaN, through the extra energy provided by the hydrogen bond between the protonated nitrogen and the lone pair of the oxygen of the C27-OH
Isolation, Characterization, and Surfactant Properties of the Major Triterpenoid Glycosides from Unripe Tomato Fruits
Yamanaka, T. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Waard, P. de; Sanders, M.G. ; Takada, N. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2008
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (2008)23. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 11432 - 11440.
steroidal alkaloid glycosides - tandem mass-spectrometry - lycopersicon-esculentum - electrospray-ionization - liquid-chromatography - glycoalkaloids - saponins - plant - dehydrotomatine - soyasaponins
Various triterpenoid glycosides were extracted from whole unripe tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Cedrico), using aqueous 70% (v/v) ethanol to study their surfactant properties. Cation-exchange chromatography using a Source 15S column and subsequent semipreparative HPLC using an XTerra RP18 were employed to purify individual triterpenoid glycosides from the extract. The structure of the purified compounds was established by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The furostanol glycoside tomatoside A (749 mg/kg of DW) and the glycoalkaloids ¿-tomatine (196 mg/kg of DW) and esculeoside A (427 mg/kg of DW) were the major triterpenoid glycosides present. Furthermore, minor amounts of a new dehydrofurostanol glycoside, dehydrotomatoside, were found. The critical micelle concentrations of the major triterpenoid glycosides, ¿-tomatine, tomatoside A, and esculeoside A, were determined as 0.099, 0.144, and 0.412 g/L, respectively. The results show that tomatoside A, and not the more well-known ¿-tomatine, is the predominant triterpenoidal surfactant in unripe tomato fruits.