Identification of a Novel L-rhamnose Uptake Transporter in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus niger
Sloothaak, J. ; Odoni, D.I. ; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P. ; Schaap, P.J. ; Tamayo Ramos, J.A. - \ 2016
Plos Genetics 12 (2016)12. - ISSN 1553-7404
The study of plant biomass utilization by fungi is a research field of great interest due to its many implications in ecology, agriculture and biotechnology. Most of the efforts done to increase the understanding of the use of plant cell walls by fungi have been focused on the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and transport and metabolism of their constituent monosaccharides. Pectin is another important constituent of plant cell walls, but has received less attention. In relation to the uptake of pectic building blocks, fungal transporters for the uptake of galacturonic acid recently have been reported in Aspergillus niger and Neurospora crassa. However, not a single L-rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose) transporter has been identified yet in fungi or in other eukaryotic organisms. L-rhamnose is a deoxy-sugar present in plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides (mainly rhamnogalacturonan I and rhamnogalacturonan II), but is also found in diverse plant secondary metabolites (e.g. anthocyanins, flavonoids and triterpenoids), in the green seaweed sulfated polysaccharide ulvan, and in glycan structures from viruses and bacteria. Here, a comparative plasmalemma proteomic analysis was used to identify candidate L-rhamnose transporters in A. niger. Further analysis was focused on protein ID 1119135 (RhtA) (JGI A. niger ATCC 1015 genome database). RhtA was classified as a Family 7 Fucose: H+ Symporter (FHS) within the Major Facilitator Superfamily. Family 7 currently includes exclusively bacterial transporters able to use different sugars. Strong indications for its role in L-rhamnose transport were obtained by functional complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW.4000 strain in growth studies with a range of potential substrates. Biochemical analysis using L-[3H(G)]-rhamnose confirmed that RhtA is a L-rhamnose transporter. The RhtA gene is located in tandem with a hypothetical alpha-L-rhamnosidase gene (rhaB). Transcriptional analysis of rhtA and rhaB confirmed that both genes have a coordinated expression, being strongly and specifically induced by L-rhamnose, and controlled by RhaR, a transcriptional regulator involved in the release and catabolism of the methyl-pentose. RhtA is the first eukaryotic L-rhamnose transporter identified and functionally validated to date.
Enhanced production of Aspergillus niger laccase-like multicopper oxidases through mRNA optimization of the glucoamylase expression system
Tamayo Ramos, J.A. ; Barends, S. ; Lange, D. ; Jel, A. de; Verhaert, R.M. ; Graaff, L.H. de - \ 2013
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 110 (2013)2. - ISSN 0006-3592 - p. 543 - 551.
5'-untranslated region - protein expression - gene - translation - transformation - promoter - nidulans - cloning - oryzae
In filamentous fungi, most of the strategies used for the improvement of protein yields have been based on an increase in the transcript levels of a target gene. Strategies focusing at the translational level have been also described, but are far less explored. Here the 5' untranslated sequence of the glaA mRNA, a widely used expression system for the expression of recombinant proteins, was modified by the introduction of different nucleotide elements that have positive role in the translation process. Five Aspergillus niger laccase-like multicopper oxidases (MCOs) coding genes were fused to the native glaA 5'UTR and the three synthetic versions (sUTR1, sUTR2, and sUTR3) as well, and placed under the control of the glucoamylase gene promoter. Afterwards, a total of 20 fungal transformations were done using A. niger N593 as a recipient strain and 50 transformants per transformation were isolated and analyzed. The result of the incorporation of the synthetic 5'UTRs on the overall productivity of the transformants was assessed, on one hand by monitoring the laccase activity of all the isolated transformants, and on the other hand by quantifying and comparing the activity of those secreting the highest level of each MCO. For this purpose, a high-throughput method for the screening and selection of the best producers was developed. Once the best transformants producing the highest yield of McoA, McoB, McoC, McoD, and McoJ laccases were selected, their production level was quantified in supernatants of liquid cultures. The results obtained in this work indicate that modifications in the native glaA 5'UTR can lead to improvements in protein yields. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc