Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Soil suppressiveness to Pythium ultimum in ten European long-term field experiments and its relation with soil parameters
Bongiorno, Giulia ; Postma, Joeke ; Bünemann, Else K. ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Goede, Ron G.M. de; Mäder, Paul ; Tamm, Lucius ; Thuerig, Barbara - \ 2019
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 133 (2019). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 174 - 187.
Cress bioassay - Labile organic carbon - Pythium ultimum - Soil management effects - Soil quality parameters - Soil suppressiveness - Tillage

Soil suppressiveness to pathogens is defined as the capacity of soil to regulate soil-borne pathogens. It can be managed by agricultural practices, but the effects reported so far remain inconsistent. Soil suppressiveness is difficult to predict and for this reason different soil properties have been linked to it with the aim to find informative indicators, but these relationships are not conclusive. The objectives of this study were i) to test if soil suppressiveness is affected by long-term agricultural management such as tillage and organic matter (OM) addition; ii) to understand the direct and indirect relationships between soil suppressiveness and labile organic carbon fractions; and iii) to understand the relationship between soil suppressiveness and other chemical, physical and biological soil quality indicators. We measured soil suppressiveness with a bioassay using Pythium ultimum - Lepidium sativum (cress) as a model system. The bioassay was performed in soils from 10 European long-term field experiments (LTEs) which had as main soil management practices tillage and/or organic matter addition. We found that the site had a stronger influence on soil suppressiveness than agricultural practices. Reduced tillage had a positive effect on the suppressive capacity of the soil across sites using an overall model. Organic farming and mineral fertilization increased soil suppressiveness in some LTEs, but no overall effect of OM was found when aggregating the LTEs. Soil suppressiveness across LTEs was linked mainly to microbial biomass and labile carbon in the soil, but not to total soil organic matter content. From structural equation modelling (SEM) we conclude that labile carbon is important for the maintenance of an abundant and active soil microbial community, which is essential for the expression of soil suppressiveness. However, soil suppressiveness could only partly (25%) be explained by the soil parameters measured, suggesting that other mechanisms contribute to soil suppressiveness such as the presence and the activity of specific bacterial and fungal taxa with high biocontrol activity.

Management of soil suppressiveness against soil-borne diseases
Tamm, L. ; Thuerig, B. ; Bongiorno, G. ; Postma, J. ; Fuchs, J.G. ; Oberhänsli, T. - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Soils suppressive to soil-borne diseases have attracted the attention of farmers and researchers for decades and many suppressive soils have been described. Microorganisms and soil microbial communities involved in suppressiveness have been studied intensively, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. Suppressiveness to soil- as well as air-borne diseases has been shown to be highly site-specific. We will review how suppressiveness can be influenced by agricultural practices. Suppressiveness destroyed e.g. by steam sterilisation of soils could only be partially restored on the short-term by re-inoculation of soils, and the success of re-inoculation depended on the soil matrix as well as on the inoculum used. Long-term management (e.g. conventional or organic management), tillage regime, and short- or long-term fertility inputs have the potential to alter soil suppressiveness, yet the effect of a particular practice is still difficult to predict. Application of biocontrol organisms such as Pseudomonads or Bacillussp. can have a beneficial effect against particular diseases on the short-term, but they can rarely persist after introduction in natural soils. Application of suitable composts can often help to sanitize fields contaminated with soil-borne pathogens more efficiently than individual biocontrol organisms. An ongoing study tries to identify key microbial consortia responsible for the beneficial effect of composts to allow a targeted application.
Understanding obstacles and opportunities for successful market introduction of crop varieties with resistance against major diseases
Nuijten, Edwin ; Wit, Jan de; Janmaat, Leen ; Schmitt, Annegret ; Tamm, Lucius ; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T. - \ 2018
Organic Agriculture 8 (2018)4. - ISSN 1879-4238 - p. 285 - 299.
Agronomic and societal value - Brokerage - Comparative approach - Market introduction - Multilevel perspective - Resistance breeding

Organic agriculture only allows a few ‘natural’ compounds for managing pests and diseases such as copper which is applied as fungicide in apple, grape, potato, and tomato production. But as a heavy metal, copper is under debate in the organic sector. One key strategy to replace copper use is the market introduction of resistant varieties. In this article, key obstacles and opportunities for the introduction of new apple and potato varieties are identified and described. A comparative analysis integrating agricultural, economic, cultural, and social perspectives is conducted based on literature review, information on internet, and interviews with key experts, mainly from the organic sector. As a framework for analysis, the concepts of brokerage and the multilevel perspective have been used. The following solution pathways are described: (a) make use of added value of varieties, (b) create demand (pull effects), (c) well-coordinated marketing concepts, (d) new marketing concepts such as the Flavour Group Concept, (e) gradual introduction through shorter chain (when limited funding), and (f) match varieties to food chain styles. Key lessons are the following: (i) there must be an urgent need that develops into a pull factor; (ii) for creating pull factors, it is important to involve others; (iii) a shared language and a common culture between involved stakeholders needs to be developed; (iv) without push factor, no new steps will be realised; (v) new concepts need to fit in existing chain structures; (vi) patience is often important, and (vii) some luck is often crucial.

BIOCOMES (EU project 612713) develops new biological control products for Integrated Pest Management in agriculture and forestry
Köhl, J. ; Zingg, D. ; Benuzzi, M. ; Ehlers, R.U. ; Perdrix Sapina, V. ; Eiben, U. ; Rosemeyer, V. ; Wikstrom, M. ; Azzaro, A. ; Glazer, I. ; O'Tuama, P. ; Tomanovic, Z. ; Tamm, L. ; Hauschild, R. ; Antonakou, M. ; Skrzecz, I. ; Cal, A. De; Teixidó, N. ; Jehle, J. ; Griffin, C. ; Beliën, T. ; Birnstingl, B. ; Berg, G. ; Simões, N. ; Causin, R. ; Munoz, D. ; Eibl, R. - \ 2016
In: Working Group "Biological and Integrated Control of Plant Pathogens" / Pertot, I., Jensen, D.F., Hökeberg, M., Karlsson, M., Sundh, I., Elad, Y., IOBC-WPRS (IOBC-WPRS bulletin ) - ISBN 9789290672999 - p. 251 - 253.
EU-project CO-FREE - an update
Schmitt, A. ; Scherf, A. ; Mazzotta, S. ; Kühne, S. ; Pertot, I. ; Köhl, J. ; Markellou, A. ; Andrivon, D. ; Kowalska, J. ; Parveaud, C.E. ; Kelderer, M. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Bruns, C. ; Kleinhenz, M.F.B. ; Smith, J. ; Simon-Levert, A. ; Pujos, P. ; Trapman, M. ; Stark, J. ; Cutsem, P. van; Neerakkal, S. ; Kleeberg, H. ; Peters, A. ; Tamm, L. - \ 2016
In: Working Group "Biological and Integrated Control of Plant Pathogens". - IOBC-WPRS (IOBC-WPRS Bulletin ) - ISBN 9789290672999 - p. 255 - 256.
Resistance and resistance breeding for organic farming
Milliano, W.A.J. de; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Voorrips, R.E. ; Myers, J.R. - \ 2015
In: Plant Diseases and Their Management in Organic Agriculture / Finckh, Maria R., van Bruggen, Ariena H.C., Tamm, Lucius, APS Press - ISBN 9780890544761 - p. 175 - 187.
Organic Apple Disease Management
Holb, I. ; Heijne, B. ; Tamm, L. - \ 2015
In: Plant Diseases and Their Management in Organic Agriculture / Finckh, M.R., Bruggen, van, A.H.C., Tamm, L., St. Paul, Minnesota, USA : APS Press - ISBN 9780890544761 - p. 319 - 334.
Health Management for Seeds and Other Organic Propagation Material
Koch, E. ; Groot, S.P.C. - \ 2015
In: Plant Diseaes and Their Management in Organic Agriculture / Finckh, M.R., van Bruggen, A.H.C., Tamm, L., Minnesota : The American Phytopathological Society - ISBN 9780890544761 - p. 189 - 203.
Propagation material is an integral part of the crop produc­ tion chain. The genetic constitution of the cultivar should guar­ atee optimal adaptation to the growing conditions and a good yield with the desired quality characteristics. Healthy and vig­ orous seeds, seed tubers, or transplants are essential for rapid establishment of the crop. Use of poorly germinating seeds or seed bers infected with pathogens results at least in losses bu t often Ill crop failure. The term "propagation material" refers to seeds and· veg­etatitve material such as seed tubers (e.g., potato), bulbs (e.g., onions, shallots, and some ornamentals), cuttings (trees and shrubs), young plants (transplants) produced from either cut­tings or seeds, and grafted plants (as is common for fruit trees and becoming increasingly important for vegetables such as tomatoes, peppers and cucurbits) Although the genetic material used in organic farming i s often the same as that used in con­ ventional production, cultivars with trait5 that are less impor­ tant or even unwanted in conventional farming are sometimes preferred in organic farming. This holds true, for example, for cultivars that are adapted to the local soils and are resistant to pests and diseases common to the area or for those that exhibit structural features that contribute to disease control or weed suppression . Examples of the latter are tall wheat cultivars that provide greater ground cover or have a higher light interception level or leaf area index than shorter and less competitive culti­ vars (Drews et al., 2009). The use of chemical crop protectants and fertilizers in the production of conventional propagation material has enabled improvement in the quality of seeds and seed tubers, especially in the high-value seed market. Obtain­ ing similar high-quality propagation material under organic production conditions presen ts a challenge, especially with crops for which the seeds are not the product that is normally harvested. The term "vigor" is defined as the potential of seeds to germinate and produce good-quality seedlings, even under suboptimal field conditions. Making nutrients available from organic fertilizers requires microbial activity. With cold soils in the spring, microbial activity is low. In order to mobilize enough nutrients, the use of highly vigorous seeds that ger­ minate rapidly and produce seedlings with fast-growing root systems is important in establishing a new organic crop. Fewer options for disease control are available in organic farming, so avoidance of seedborne diseases is more important than in con­ ventional crop production .
EU-project CO-FREE - an update
Schmitt, A. ; Scherf, A. ; Mazzotta, S. ; Kühne, S. ; Pertot, I. ; Köhl, J. ; Tamm, L. - \ 2014
BIOCOMES (EU project 612713) develops new biological control products for Integrated Pest Management in agriculture and forestry
Köhl, J. ; Zingg, D. ; Benuzzi, M. ; Ehlers, R.U. ; Perdrix, V. ; Eiben, U. ; Rosemeyer, V. ; Wikström, M. ; Azzaro, A. ; Glazer, I. ; O'Tuama, P. ; Tomanovic, Z. ; Tamm, L. ; Hauschild, R. ; Antonakou, M. ; Skrzecz, I. ; Cal, A. De; Teixidó, N. ; Jehle, J. ; Griffin, C. ; Beliën, T. ; Birnstingl, B. ; Berg, G. ; Simões, N. ; Causin, R. ; Muñoz, D. ; Eibl, R. - \ 2014
BIOCOMES (EU-Projekt 612713) entwickelt neue biologische Pflanzenschutzmittel für IPM in Land- und Forstwirtschaft (BIOCOMES (EU project 612713) develops new biological control products for IPM in agriculture and forestry)
Köhl, J. ; Zingg, D. ; Benuzzi, M. ; Ehlers, R.U. ; Perdrix, V. ; Eiben, U. ; Rosemeyer, V. ; Wikström, M. ; Azzaro, A. ; Glazer, I. ; O'Tuama, P. ; Tomanovic, Z. ; Tamm, L. ; Hauschild, R. ; Antonakou, M. ; Skrzecz, I. ; Cal, A. De; Teixidó, N. ; Jehle, J. ; Griffin, C. ; Beliën, T. ; Birnstingl, B. ; Berg, G. ; Simões, N. ; Causin, R. ; Muñoz, D. ; Eibl, R. - \ 2014
In: Poster Biologischer Pflanzenschutz. 59. Deutsche Pflanzenschutztagung "Forschen – Wissen – Pflanzen schützen: Ernährung sichern!" 23. bis 26. September 2014, Freiburg. - Germany : Julius Kühn-Institut - p. 458 - 459.
Preface : Improving production efficiency, quality and safety in organic and 'low-input' food supply chains
Leifert, C. ; Tamm, L. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Struik, P.C. ; Wienk, J.F. - \ 2011
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 58 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 65 - 66.
The need to breed crop varieties suitable for organic farming, using wheat, tomato and broccoli as examples: A review
Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Jones, S.S. ; Tamm, L. ; Murphy, K.M. ; Myers, J.R. ; Leifert, C. ; Messmer, M.M. - \ 2011
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 58 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 193 - 205.
triticum-aestivum l. - quantitative trait loci - nitrogen use efficiency - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - fusarium head blight - leaf rust resistance - genetic-linkage map - near-isogenic lines - low-input systems - red spring wheat
It is estimated that more than 95% of organic production is based on crop varieties that were bred for the conventional high-input sector. Recent studies have shown that such varieties lack important traits required under organic and low-input production conditions. This is primarily due to selection in conventional breeding programmes being carried out in the background of high inorganic fertilizer and crop protection inputs. Also, some of the traits (e.g., semi-dwarf genes) that were introduced to address problems like lodging in cereals in high-input systems were shown to have negative side-effects (reduced resistance to diseases such as Septoria, lower protein content and poorer nutrient-use efficiency) on the performance of varieties under organic and low-input agronomic conditions. This review paper, using wheat, tomato and broccoli as examples, describes (1) the main traits required under low-input conditions, (2) current breeding programmes for organic, low-input agriculture, (3) currently available breeding and/or selection approaches, and (4) the benefits and potential negative side-effects of different breeding methodologies and their relative acceptability under organic farming principles
The impact of elevated water ammonia concentration on physiology, growth and feed intake of African catfish (Clarius gariepinus)
Schram, E. ; Roques, J.A.C. ; Abbink, W. ; Spanings, T. ; Vries, P. de; Bierman, S.M. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2010
Aquaculture 306 (2010)1-4. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 108 - 115.
acid-base regulation - stress-response - environmental ammonia - na+/k+-atpase - fish gill - excretion - urea - toxicity - osmoregulation - paradigm
The threshold concentration for NH3 in rearing water of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed. African catfish with an initial mean (SD) weight of 141.0 (24) g were exposed to five different Tamm [sum of NH3 and NH4+] concentrations: 0.37 (Control), 1.06, 2.12, 5.16 and 19.7 mM, which concurs with NH3 concentrations of 4 (Control), 14, 38, 176 and 1084 µM. Plasma concentrations of NH4+, cortisol, glucose and lactate, plasma osmolality, gill morphology, branchial Na+/K+-ATPase activity, feed intake and specific growth rate were monitored. No effect of water NH3 on plasma NH4+ concentrations was detected. Feed intake and specific growth rate were severely affected at exposure to water NH3 concentrations above 90 µM (calculated EC10 values: 89 and 122 µM). No major disturbances in physiological blood parameters were observed at these NH3 concentrations, but gill morphology (a remarkably sensitive stress indicator) deteriorated significantly. Based on the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval for EC10, we advise for African catfish not to exceed a water NH3 concentration of 24 µM (0.34 mg NH3-N/L). This finding is relevant for design and management of African catfish production systems.
Genetic structure and pathogenicity of populations of Phytophthora infestans from organic potato crops in France, Norway, Switzerland and the United Kingdom
Flier, W.G. ; Kroon, L.P.N.M. ; Hermansen, A. ; Raaij, H.M.G. van; Speiser, B. ; Tamm, L. ; Fuchs, J.G. ; Lambion, J. ; Razzaghian, J. ; Andrivon, D. ; Wilcockson, S. ; Leifert, C. - \ 2007
Plant Pathology 56 (2007)4. - ISSN 0032-0862 - p. 562 - 572.
late blight - genotypic diversity - foliar aggressiveness - toluca valley - mating-type - resistance - cultivars - netherlands - inoculum - finland
Genetic variation and pathogenicity of Pbytophthora infestans isolates collected from organic potato crops of the susceptible cv. Bintje and the moderately resistant cv. Sante were assessed in France, Norway, and the United Kingdom in 2001 and in Switzerland in 2001 and 2002. Population structures differed considerably between the four P. infestans populations. Those from France, Switzerland and the UK were mainly clonal populations showing restricted levels of genetic diversity, whilst those from Norway were mixed A1 and A2 mating type populations with high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting periodical sexual reproduction. Isolates collected from cv. Bintje were on average more aggressive than or comparable to isolates from cv. Sante. Race complexity varied considerably between the regional P. infestans populations, with isolates from France and Switzerland showing the highest number of virulence factors. In all pathogen samples but the French, isolates collected from cv. Sante were more complex than isolates collected from cv. Bintje. No directional selection towards increased aggressiveness towards the more resistant cultivar Sante was observed. This suggests that there is no shift towards increased levels of pathogenicity in P. infestans populations following the large-scale introduction of more resistant potato varieties in organic production systems in Europe.
Prevention and control of apple scab
Heijne, B. ; Jong, P.F. de; Köhl, J. ; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L. ; Hockenhull, J. ; Bengtsson, M. ; Lindhard Pederson, H. ; Paaske, K. ; Eiben, U. ; Tamm, L. ; Trapman, M. - \ 2006
In: Proceedings of the European Joint Organic Congress "Organic farming and rural development", Odense, Denmark, May 30-31, 2006. - Odense, Denmark : - p. 200 - 201.
Improved prevention and control of apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis is aimed at without the use of copper containing products in the Repco-project. Substantial progress is made in selection of potential products against summer epidemics. A patent application is made for E73. New effective biocontrol agents are selected to reduce inoculum during winter. The product potassium bicarbonate has shown good efficacy and Repco contributes to the registration of this product in Europe. Earthworms tended to be stimulated to consume apple leaves treated with amino acids or beetpulp, especially when applied fresh under controlled environmental condi-tons
Contributions of EU-project REPCO to apple scab control
Köhl, J. ; Heijne, B. ; Hockenhull, J. ; Lindhard Pedersen, H. ; Trapman, M. ; Eiben, U. ; Tamm, L. - \ 2006
In: Proceedings 12th International conference on cultivation technique and phytopatrhological problems in organic fruit-growing, Weinsberg, Germany, January 31 - February 2, 2006. - Weinsberg, Germany : - p. 73 - 76.
The objective of REPCO is to contribute to the replacement of copper fungicides in organic agriculture by new measures for control of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) in grapevine and scab (Venturia inaequalis) in apple. Both major European organic crops strongly depend on copper fungicides. Permitted amounts will be reduced stepwise during the following years (Council Regulation (EEC) 2092/91, Annex II) to avoid environmental risks. In European countries where copper fungicides are already out of use, production of organic apples suffers severe economical problems because of insufficient scab control. Potentiators of resistance, organically based fungicides and biocontrol agents are screened and evaluated in apple. Effects of crop management practices in organic agriculture on overwintering of Venturia inaequalis are assessed. Novel disease control measures and knowledge are integrated into organic management systems. 'Pipeline' products already under development elsewhere are included and where necessary optimised in their use
Development of an integrated systems approach for blight control in organic potato crops
Tamm, L. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2005
Assessment of the Socio-Economic Impact of Late Blight and State-of-the-Art Management in European Organic Potato Production Systems
Tamm, L. ; Smit, A.B. ; Hospers, M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Buurma, J.S. ; Molgaard, J.P. ; Laerke, P.E. ; Hansen, H.H. ; Hermans, A. ; Bodker, L. ; Bertrand, C. ; Lambion, J. ; Finckh, M.R. ; Schuler, C. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Ruissen, T. ; Nielsen, B.J. ; Solberg, S. ; Speiser, B. ; Wolfe, M.S. ; Philips, S. ; Wilcoxon, S.J. ; Leifert, C. - \ 2004
Frick, Switzerland : FiBL (FiBL report 2936) - ISBN 3906081540 - 109 p.
In Europe, late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease affecting organic (and conventional) potato production. Under suitable environmental conditions the disease can spread rapidly and it can cause complete crop loss. The extent of damage due to late blight depends on several factors: in organic production systems these factors include climate, choice of variety, soil management and use of crop protection agents such as copper. Therefore, the extent of economic damage varies between European regions. Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91, amended by Commission Regulation (EC) No 473/2002 of 15 March 2002 regulates the use of copper in organic agriculture. Copper has been the single most important control agent in organic late blight control. Therefore, the reduction or an eventual phasing out of copper use will have varying impacts in different regions. This report presents the results of a detailed survey that has been conducted in 7 European countries in the year 2001. It is a subproject of the EU-funded project Blight-MOP (QLRT 31065). The survey investigates legislative, socio-economic and production parameters. The aim of this study was: (i) to obtain an inventory of the current organic potato production techniques, (ii) to assess the impact of a potential ban of copper on yields and viability of organic potato production and (iii) to identify alternative plant protection strategies that are used by organic farmers. This report includes: (i) statistics on yields, farm gate prices, and production techniques, (ii) an analysis offarmer observations and experiences on the extent and impact of late blight epidemics, (iii) an analysis of the farmer¿s motivations, expectations and their assessment of the potential impact of a copper ban. Using multiple linear regression we identified production factors which appear to consistently contribute to production success
The evaluation of alternatives for environmentally harmful pesticides in The Netherlands.
Baan, H.E. van de; Cuijpers, T.A.M.M. ; Lenteren, J.C. van; Sabelis, M.W. - \ 1992
Resistant Pest Management Newsletter (1992). - p. 29 - 31.
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