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Staff Publications

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    Effects of feed composition on life history developments in feed intake, metabolism, growth and body composition of European eel, Anguilla anguilla
    Heinsbroek, L.T.N. ; Hooff, P.L.A. ; Swinkels, W. ; Tanck, M.W.T. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2007
    Aquaculture 267 (2007)1-4. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 175 - 187.
    trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - female atlantic salmon - rainbow-trout - compensatory growth - fresh-water - energy-metabolism - food-intake - protein - deposition - nutrient
    To examine the effect of feed composition on changes in feed intake and subsequent feed utilization with age, five populations of European eel, with an average initial body weight of 5 g each fed a different diet, were monitored for 302 d. The five feeds differed in their content of crude protein (33¿63% DM), crude fat (6¿28% DM) and calculated carbohydrates (NFE; 15¿42% DM) such that five levels of digestible protein/digestible energy (DP/DE) were realised: 13, 16, 21, 28 and 29 g MJ¿ 1. At three points in time, with three size groups, nitrogen and energy balance studies were conducted in which next to feed intake and growth also digestibilities of dry matter, protein, fat, NFE and energy as well as O2 consumption and NH4¿N excretion were measured. Due to the distinct life history of the semelparous, in the present study predominantly male eel, a well-defined goal in terms of mature size and composition could be inferred, presumably to maximize their lifetime reproductive output. In order to reach this goal the animal needs to survive and to grow and voluntary feed intake of the eels could be adequately described with the feed intake model `eating to requirements subject to constraints¿, where voluntary feed intake is considered to originate from a requirement for maintenance (survival) and a requirement for growth. Live weight gain is almost completely based on protein deposition (PD) and eels, like other animals, strive to reach a genetically determined growth potential (PDmax) thought to be driven by the difference from the mature protein mass (Ptmax). Body lipid content increases with size and varied with diet from a minimum of 25% at high DP/DE ratios to a maximum of 33% at low DP/DE ratios, at body weights of 130¿140 g. Preferable allocation of dietary protein to PD (protein sparing action of non-protein energy) was confirmed as marginal efficiency of protein utilization increased with decreasing DP/DE ratio from 0.29 to 0.54. Marginal energetic efficiency of PD, kp was 0.54 and marginal energetic efficiency of LD, kf varied from 0.67, indicating de novo lipid synthesis (from dietary protein) at high DP/DE ratios, to 0.93, indicating direct lipid synthesis (from dietary lipid) at low DP/DE ratios. Marginal efficiencies did not differ from those of other fish or other farm animals. Differences between fish species in feed intake and utilization of feeds differing in macronutrient composition, as well as life history developments in feed intake and feed utilization are therefore based on differences in growth rate, in turn with mature weight (Ptmax), and body composition (LD/PD ratio).
    Effects of feed composition on life history developments in feed intake, metabolism, growth and body composition of European eel, Anguilla anguilla
    Heinsbroek, L.T.N. ; Hooff, P.L.A. ; Swinkels, W. ; Tanck, M.W.T. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2006
    In: 12th International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding: Program and Abstracts, May 28-June 1 2006. - Biarritz, France : - p. 67 - 67.
    Exploring the genetic background of the stress response using isogenic progenies of common carp selected for high or low stress related cortisol
    Tanck, M.W.T. ; Claes, T. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Komen, J. - \ 2002
    Aquaculture 204 (2002). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 419 - 434.
    Four homozygous (HomIso) and eight heterozygous isogenic (HetIso) strains of common carp were used in two separate experiments to examine the genetic background of a stress-related cortisol response due to a rapid temperature decrease. The homozygous sires (two high and two low) and dams (high and low) used to obtain the strains were selected based on their estimated breeding value for this trait at an age of 15 months (EBV15). In both experiments, the strains were subjected to a 9 °C cold shock at an age of 5 months. The ranking in plasma cortisol levels of the HomIso strains was identical to the ranking in EBV15 of the sires and the maximal difference of 350 nmol l-1 was similar to the expected difference based on these EBV15's. Differences between the HetIso strains were smaller than expected, and influence of non-additive genetic effects could not be detected (PDS=0.14). Estimated breeding values based on the performance of the androgenetic progeny (EBV5) in experiment 1 and general combining abilities (GCA) of the sires and dams calculated in experiment 2 were positively correlated with the EBV15 (r not significantly different from 1), providing no evidence that the stress response at 5 and 15 months are different traits. Based on the results of these experiments, it can be argued that the best method to change the stress responsiveness of common carp would be through selective breeding (exploiting additive genetic effects) rather than through crossbreeding (exploiting non-additive genetic effects).
    Segregation of microsatellite alleles and residual heterogosity at single loci in homozygous androgenetic common carp (Cyprino carpio L.)
    Tanck, M.W.T. ; Palstra, A.P. ; Weerd, M. van de; Leffering, C.P. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Bovenhuis, H. ; Komen, J. - \ 2001
    Genome 44 (2001). - ISSN 0831-2796 - p. 743 - 751.
    Thirty-three androgenetic progeny groups of common carp were analysed using 11 microsatellite markers to (i) verify the homozygous status of the 566 androgenetic individuals, (ii) analyse the microsatellite allele segregation, and (iii) study the possible association of microsatellite alleles with phenotypic traits. In total, 92 f the androgenetic individuals proved to be homozygous at all 11 loci. Forty-three of the 47 heterozygous individuals were heterozygous at a single locus only. This heterozygosity was probably due to DNA fragments caused by UV irradiation of the eggs, although the maternal origin of the fragments could not be proved beyond doubt. Screening with 11 microsatellites also revealed two linkage groups, a segregation distortion at two microsatellite loci, and the possible association of some microsatellites with mass, length, stress-related plasma cortisol levels, and basal plasma glucose levels. The success of the linkage and association study could be explained by a low recombination frequency due to high chiasma interference. This would imply a relatively short genetic map for common carp.
    Heredity of stress-related response in androgenetic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
    Tanck, M.W.T. ; Vermeulen, K.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Komen, J. - \ 2001
    Aquaculture 199 (2001). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 283 - 294.
    The aim of this paper was to estimate the heritability for the intensity of the stress-related cortisol response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenetic progeny groups. For this, 660 androgenetic individuals (age: 110 days) were subjected to a 9°C cold shock and blood sampled 20 min after onset of the shock. Heritabilities were estimated for weight, length, condition factor (K), and plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations using Gibbs sampling. Estimated heritabilities for the morphological traits weight and length were 0.09 (90 ighest posterior density (HPD) range: 0.03–0.17) and 0.11 (0.04–0.21), respectively. The condition factor (K), showed a medium heritability of 0.37 (0.20–0.62). Heritabilities for basal plasma glucose and lactate were 0.19 (0.10–0.33) and 0.56 (0.33–0.85), respectively. For stress-related cortisol increase, a high heritability estimate of 0.60 (0.37–0.90) was found. Although the height of this cortisol heritability has to be regarded with some reservation, due to confounding of some environmental effects with sire effects, the estimated heritability clearly shows that the intensity of the stress response due to a cold shock is heritable in the carp population used.
    Genetic characterization of wild Dutch common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
    Tanck, M.W.T. ; Baars, H.C.A. ; Kohlmann, K. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Komen, J. - \ 2000
    Aquaculture Research 31 (2000). - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 779 - 784.
    Six male carp, caught in the water system surrounding the Anna Paulowna (AP) Polder in The Netherlands, were characterized using allozyme and microsatellite markers. At the sMDH-A1,2* loci an allele was found, which has previously only been found in wild River Rhine and wild Vietnamese common carp. Microsatellite allele frequencies showed that these AP carp were significantly different from a group of carp originating from several different domesticated strains. Based on both allozyme and microsatellite data, the AP carp probably originated from a wild or feral self-sustaining population.
    Selective breeding for stress in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using androgenesis
    Tanck, M.W.T. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Komen, J. - \ 2000
    In: Genetics in Aquaculture VII 15-22 july 2000 : idem, 2000 Townsville QLD Australia Townsville Australia :
    Cold shocks: a stressor for common carp
    Tanck, M.W.T. ; Booms, G.H.R. ; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E. ; Komen, J. - \ 2000
    Journal of Fish Biology 57 (2000). - ISSN 0022-1112 - p. 881 - 894.
    The stress response of common carp Cyprinus carpio was studied by evaluating plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate after single or multiple rapid temperature drops (ΔT: 7, 9 or 11°C). All three amplitudes used induced a significant rise in plasma cortisol levels. Peaks occurred within 20 min after onset of the cold shock. No stress-related secondary metabolic changes were observed in any of the experiments described: plasma glucose levels remained unaffected and plasma lactate levels dropped. Carp of 60 days old showed a significant stress response, although plasma cortisol levels were lower than those observed in carp of 120 days. Furthermore, fish that had experienced multiple cold shocks showed an overall lower cortisol response than fish experiencing a single cold shock, indicating that habituation to this stressor occurred. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
    Selective breeding for stress response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenesis
    Tanck, M. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): E.A. Huisman; E.W. Brascamp; J. Komen. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083470 - 185
    cyprinus - karper - selectief fokken - androgenese - stressreactie - genetica - hydrocortison - cyprinus - carp - selective breeding - androgenesis - stress response - genetics - hydrocortisone

    The aim of the thesis was to explore the genetic background of stress response in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and produce homozygous and heterozygous isogenic strains with divergent stress responses. As stressor a rapid temperature decrease (= cold shock) was used. As a preparatory step, a number of experiments were carried out to 1) investigate the validity of the cold shock as a stressor, 2) investigate the possible influences of environmental factors on the stress response, and 3) define a selection criterion for the selection experiment. The stress response of common carp was studied by evaluating plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate after single or multiple rapid temperature drops (ΔT: 7, 9 or 11 °C). All three amplitudes used induced a significant rise in plasma cortisol levels. Peaks occurred within 20 min after onset of the cold shock. No stress-related related secondary metabolic changes were observed in any of the experiments described: plasma glucose levels remained unaffected and plasma lactate levels dropped. Carp of 60 days old showed a significant stress response, although plasma cortisol levels were lower than those observed in carp of 120 days. Furthermore, fish that had experienced multiple cold shocks showed an overall lower cortisol response than fish experiencing a single cold shock, indicating that habituation to this stressor occurred. Based on these results, the plasma cortisol concentration at 20 min after onset of the cold shock was set as selection criterion in our selection experiment and fish were tested at a minimal age of 100 days post hatching.

    The first step in the actual selection experiment was the formation of the base population. This base population was an F 1 cross between six sires from a wild strain originating from the Anna Paulowna (AP) polder and a highly domesticated homozygous E4 dam already present in our laboratory. The six sires, caught in the water system surrounding the Anna Paulowna (AP) Polder in The Netherlands, were characterised using allozyme and microsatellite markers. At the sMDH-A1,2* loci an allele was found, which was previously only found in wild River Rhine and wild Vietnamese common carp. Microsatellite allele frequencies showed that these AP carp were significantly different from a group of carps originating from several different domesticated strains. Based on both allozyme and microsatellite data, the AP carp most likely originated from a wild or feral self-sustaining population.

    Thirty-three randomly picked sires from these six E4 × AP full-sib families (F 1 ) were androgenetically reproduced to create the F 2 generation, which thus consisted of 33 doubled haploids (DH) progeny groups. These 33 DH progeny groups (566 individuals) were subjected to the 9 °C cold shock, enabling us to estimate heritabilities for weight, length, condition factor (K), and plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations using Gibbs sampling and an animal model. Estimated heritabilities for the morphological traits weight and length were 0.09 (90% Highest Posterior Density range: 0.03 - 0.17) and 0.11 (0.04 - 0.21), respectively. The condition factor (K), showed a medium heritability of 0.37 (0.20 - 0.62). Heritabilities for basal plasma glucose and lactate were 0.19 (0.10 - 0.33) and 0.56 (0.33 - 0.85), respectively. For stress-related cortisol increase a high heritability estimate of 0.60 (0.37 - 0.90) was found. Although the height of this cortisol heritability has to be regarded with some reservation, due to confoundedness of some environmental effects with sire effects, the estimated heritability clearly shows that the stress response due to a cold shock is hereditary in the carp population used.

    Because the model used to estimate the h2 assumed a complete homozygous state of the DH individuals and to ensure that only homozygous individuals would be used for subsequent reproduction, all individuals within the 33 DH androgenetic progeny groups were analysed using 11 microsatellite markers to: 1) verify the homozygous status of the 566 androgenetic DH individuals, 2) analyse the microsatellite allele segregation, and 3) study possible association of microsatellite alleles with the phenotypic traits recorded. In total, 92% of the androgenetic DH individuals proved to be homozygous at all 11 loci. Forty-three out of the 47 heterozygous individuals were heterozygous at a single locus only. This heterozygosity was probably due to DNA fragments caused by UV-irradiation of the eggs, although the maternal origin of the fragments could not be proved beyond doubt. Screening with 11 microsatellites also revealed two linkage groups, a segregation distortion at two microsatellite loci and possible association of some microsatellites with weight, length, stress-related plasma cortisol levels and basal plasma glucose levels. The success of the linkage and association study could be explained by a low recombination frequency due to high chiasma interference. This would imply a relatively short genetic map length for common carp.

    Selection of individual fish from the 33 DH progeny groups based on the response at 4 months was not possible. Therefore, three DH progeny groups with a high (H1-3) and three with a low (L1-3) mean plasma cortisol concentration were selected. The 154 DH fish in these six groups were individually tagged, mixed and subjected to a second cold shock at an age of 15 months. For each individual fish, a breeding value was estimated (EBV 15 ) for stress-related cortisol using an animal model with a fixed h 2 of 0.60. Two homozygous sires (two high and two low) and dams (high and low) were selected based on their EBV 15 and used to produce four homozygous (HomIso) and eight heterozygous isogenic (HetIso) strains. These were used in two separate experiments to examine the genetic background of the stress-related cortisol response. In both experiments, the strains were subjected to the 9 °C cold shock at an age of 5 months. The ranking in plasma cortisol levels of the HomIso strains was identical to the ranking in EBV 15 of the sires and the maximal difference of 350 nmol.l -1 was similar to the expected difference based on these EBV 15 's. Differences between the HetIso strains were smaller than expected, and influence of non-additive genetic effects could not be detected ( PD×S = 0.14). Estimated breeding values based on the performance of the androgenetic progeny (EBV 5 ) in experiment 1 and general combining abilities (GCA) of the sires and dams calculated in experiment 2 were positively correlated with the EBV 15 ( r not significantly different from 1), providing no evidence that the stress response at 5 and 15 months are different traits.

    Apart from the isogenic strain used in the first experiments, no complete profiles of the cortisol, glucose and lactate dynamics had been examined in other isogenic strains. Therefore, an additional experiment, parallel to the selection experiment, was carried out to investigate the 'complete' cortisol, glucose and lactate dynamics during the cold shock in four, readily available, isogenic at two different ages. The experiments showed that stress-related cortisol response patterns can differ consistently between genotypes of common carp. Significant dam and sire effects on the total amount of cortisol measured during the cold shock were found, but no significant dam × sire interaction effect. Although no significant difference was found between the cortisol response dynamics at 5 or 7 months, the results justify further research into that field. The observed differences in plasma glucose and lactate dynamics between control and shocked fish were most likely temperature related. Age did not have any apparent influence on either plasma glucose or lactate dynamics in both control and shocked fish.

    Based on the results of the experiments described in this thesis, it can be argued that the best method to change the stress response of common carp would be through selective breeding (exploiting additive genetic effects) rather than through crossbreeding (exploiting non-additive genetic effects). The selection and the 'parallel' experiments resulted in several isogenic strains of common carp with at least two types of cortisol stress responses. Type I showed a relative short cortisol response with either a high or low peak at 20 min after onset of the shock. Type II showed a similar cortisol level at 20 min but no significant decrease in this level during the cold shock. These different isogenic strains will be valuable tools in future research into the stress response itself and its effects on other traits like growth, reproduction and health. This way, some of the problems related to the use of stress response as selection criterion in commercial breeding programmes in fish could be solved in the near future.

    Residual heterozygosity was demonstrated to occur in androgenetic progenies, most likely due to maternal DNA fragments induced by the UV irradiation of the eggs. Improved control measures were implemented in the androgenesis procedure, but androgenetic progenies destined for further reproduction purposes should be screened for residual heterozygosity. Androgenetic reproduction proved to be a useful tool for dissection of phenotypic variance and heritability estimations for traits, especially in combination with selection experiments aimed at development of isogenic strains for this trait. Androgenesis might result in reduced fertility in female progeny, but the advantages are such that inclusion of androgenetic reproduction within larger commercial breeding programmes for faster dissemination of genetic progress and product protection should be considered as a promising option.

    Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite markers in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
    Tanck, M.W.T. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Komen, J. - \ 1997
    In: Poster abstract 6th Int. Symp. Genetics in Aquaculture, 24-28 June, Stirling, UK (1997) 1 pp
    Cortisol dynamics during cold shock in common carp.
    Tanck, M.W.T. ; Eding, E.H. ; Booms, G.H.R. ; Richter, C.J.J. ; Komen, J. - \ 1997
    In: Poster abstract 3rd European Comparative Clinical Pathology meeting, 22-25 April, Breda, The Netherlands - p. 54 - 54.
    Genetic variation in stress response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
    Tanck, M.W.T. ; Eding, E.H. ; Booms, G.H.R. ; Richter, C.J.J. ; Komen, J. - \ 1997
    In: Poster abstract 6th Int. Symp. Genetics in Aquaculture, 24-28 June, Stirling, UK (1997) 1 pp
    Depletion study of fenbendazole in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after oral and bath treatment.
    Iosifidou, E.G. ; Haagsma, N. ; Tanck, M.W.T. ; Boon, J.H. ; Olling, M. - \ 1997
    Aquaculture 154 (1997). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 191 - 199.
    Residue study of mebendazole and its metabolites hydroxy-mebendazole and amino-mebendazole in eel (Anguilla anguilla) after bath treatment.
    Iosifidou, E.G. ; Haagsma, N. ; Olling, M. ; Boon, J.H. ; Tanck, M.W.T. - \ 1997
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 25 (1997). - ISSN 0090-9556 - p. 317 - 320.
    Pharmacokinetics of a sulphadiazineltrimethoprim combination in rainbow trout
    Intorre, L. ; Keukens, H.J. ; Beek, W.M.J. ; Mengelers, M.J.B. ; Tanck, M.W.T. ; Boon, J.H. - \ 1996
    In: Proceedings of the Euroresidue III Conference, Veldhoven, The Netherlands, 6-8 May 1996 - p. 563 - 567.
    Penaeus monodon production related to water quality in East Java, Indonesia.
    Hariati, A.M. ; Wiadnya, D.G.R. ; Tanck, M.W.T. ; Boon, J.H. ; Verdegem, M.C.J. - \ 1996
    Aquaculture Research 27 (1996). - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 255 - 260.
    Influence of flumequine on in vivo mitogen responses of European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) lymphoid cells.
    Heijden, M.H.T. van der; Booms, G.H.R. ; Tanck, M.W.T. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Boon, J.H. - \ 1995
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 47 (1995). - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 143 - 152.
    Effects of antibacterial drugs on European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) peripheral leucocytes.
    Boon, J.H. ; Heijden, M.H.T. van der; Tanck, M.W.T. ; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. - \ 1995
    Comparative haematology international 5 (1995). - ISSN 1433-2973 - p. 268 - 272.
    In two experiments with European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) the effects of flumequine (FQ), oxytetracycline (OTC) and furazolidone (FZ) on peripheral blood leucocytes were tested using measurements of differential white blood cell counts in blood smears, flow cytometry and respiratory burst activity of adherent cells. Results revealed that FQ and OTC affected (different) leucocyte populations, whereas no effect of FZ was detected in these experiments. These effects should be taken into account when drugs are registered for official approval in veterinary (fish) medicine.
    Produksi budidaya udang windu (Penaeus monodon) di Jawa Timur: Hubangannya dengan kualitas air tambak.
    Hariati, A.M. ; Wiadnya, D.G.R. ; Tanck, M.W.T. ; Boon, J.H. ; Verdegem, M.C.J. - \ 1995
    Buletin Ilmiah Perikanan, Edisi V, Fakultas Perikanan, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia (1995). - p. 21 - 37.
    Negative effect of malachite green on the haematocrit of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum).
    Tanck, M.W.T. ; Hajee, C.A.J. ; Olling, M.A. ; Haagsma, N. ; Boon, J.H. - \ 1995
    EAFP Bulletin 5 (1995)4. - p. 134 - 136.
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