Developing Permanent Vegetable Production Systems for the Red River Delta, Vietnam
Pham Thi Thu Huong, Huong ; Everaarts, A.P. ; Neeteson, J.J. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the 1th International Symposium on Sustainable Vegetable Production in Southeast Asia, 14-17 March 2011, Salatiga, Indonesia. - Brussel : I.S.H.S. - ISBN 9789066055353 - p. 53 - 58.
The year-round demand for commercially produced vegetables in South-East Asia is growing rapidly because of ongoing population growth and urbanisation. Vegetable production plays an important role in the rural economy of the Red River Delta, the economic centre of northern Vietnam. Field vegetables, however, are often grown in the cool season from October to January, in rotation with wet rice in the cool and the hot season from February to September. As this often causes seasonality of vegetable supply, we designed alternative cropping systems, with the aim to develop year-round supply for big cities such as Hanoi, to increase farmers’ income and to limit pest and disease incidence. Data on profit, labour requirement and costs of pesticide use of 42 vegetable crops grown in the Red River Delta were collected. From these data, five different permanent vegetable production systems were designed based on the following scenarios: (i) increase profit, (ii) reduce labour requirement, (iii) decrease the costs of pesticide use, (iv) maximize crop biodiversity, and (v) select crops with low perishable products, respectively. From May 2007 to May 2009, these systems were tested in the field and compared with the traditional system in which vegetable production in the cool season was rotated with wet rice cultivation in the cool and hot season. Profits of the high profit system and of the low labour requirement system was higher than that of the traditional system. The study suggests that permanent vegetable production systems such as the high profit system and the low labour requirement system can be an option to increase income for farmers in the Red River Delta, Vietnam.
Life cycle assessment of intensive striped catfish farming in the Mekong Delta for screening hotspots as input to environmental policy and research agenda
Bosma, R.H. ; Pham Thi Ahn, ; Potting, J. - \ 2011
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 16 (2011)9. - ISSN 0948-3349 - p. 903 - 915.
production systems - impact assessment - water-use - aquaculture - ponds - fish - lca
Purpose Intensive striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta has, in recent years, raised environmental concerns. We conducted a stakeholder-based screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of the intensive farming system to determine the critical environmental impact and their causative processes in producing striped catfish. Additional to the LCA, we assessed water use and flooding hazards in the Mekong Delta. Materials and methods The goal and scope of the LCA were defined in a stakeholder workshop. It was decided there to include all processes up to the exit-gate of the fish farm in the inventory and to focus life cycle impact assessment on global warming, acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, and marine (MAET) and freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity (FWET). A survey was used to collect primary inventory data from 28 farms on fish grow-out, and from seven feed mills. Hatching and nursing of striped catfish fingerlings were not included in the assessment due to limited data availability and low estimated impact. Average feed composition for all farms had to be applied due to limitation of budget and data availability. Results and discussion Feed ingredient production, transport and milling dominated most of the impact categories in the LCA except for eutrophication and FWET. Most feed ingredients were produced outside Vietnam, and the impact of transport was important. Because of the screening character of this LCA, generic instead of specific inventory data were used for modelling feed ingredient production. However, the use of generic data is unlikely to have affected the main findings, given the dominance of feed production in all impact categories. Of the feed ingredients, rice bran contributed the most to global warming and acidification, while wheat bran contributed the most to eutrophication. The dominance of both was mainly due to the amounts used. Fishmeal production, transport and energy contributed the most to MAET. The biggest impacts of grow-out farming in Vietnam are on eutrophication and FWET. Water nutrient discharge from grow-out farming was high but negligible compared with the natural nutrient content of the Mekong River. The discharge from all grow-out farms together hardly modified river water quality compared with that before sector expansion. Conclusions Feed production, i.e. ingredient production and transport and milling, remains the main contributor to most impact categories. It contributes indirectly to eutrophication and FWET through the pond effluents. The environmental impact of Pangasius grow-out farming can be reduced by effectively managing sludge and by using feeds with lower feed conversion ratio and lower content of fishery products in the feed. To consider farm variability, a next LCA of aquaculture should enlist closer collaboration from several feed-milling companies and sample farms using their feeds. Future LCAs should also preferably collect specific instead of generic inventory data for feed ingredient production, and include biodiversity and primary production as impact categories.
Towards eco-agro industrial clusters in aquatic production: the case of shrimp processing industry in Vietnam
Pham Thi Ahn, ; Tran Thi My Dieu, ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Kroeze, C. ; Bush, S.R. - \ 2011
Journal of Cleaner Production 19 (2011)17-18. - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 2107 - 2118.
waste-water treatment - anaerobic treatment - cleaner production - flows - reuse - plant
The concept of industrial ecology has been applied in this research to study possibilities to develop an eco-industrial cluster model for fishery production industry in Vietnam. By learning from experiments of other developed countries, we apply the principles of Industrial Ecology and of Ecological Modernization in the context of Vietnam. We design a physical-technological conceptual model for minimizing waste in agro-industries, with a case study of frozen shrimp production. The results indicate that it is possible and feasible to develop an eco-industrial cluster including aquaculture, fishery processing companies, by-product plants, and wastewater treatment units. By doing so, aquaculture and industry can cooperate for environmentally sound development. Actors and institutions that may govern the proposed eco-industrial cluster of shrimp processing industry are also analysed in this paper. The economic feasibility of the designed eco-agro industrial cluster for fish production in Vietnam depends on the energy savings and effective revenues gained from selling the produced valuable materials, such as Chitosan and animal feed.
Water pollution by Pangasius production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: causes and options for control
Pham Thi Ahn, ; Kroeze, C. ; Bush, S.R. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2010
Aquaculture Research 42 (2010)1. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 108 - 128.
waste-water - anaerobic treatment - cleaner production - fish - plant - effluents - industry - coastal - catfish - carbon
In this paper, we analyse water pollution caused by farming and processing Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The results show that 1 tonne of frozen fillets releases 740 kg BOD, 1020 kg COD, 2050 kg TSS, 106 kg nitrogen and 27 kg phosphorus, of which wastewater from fish ponds contributes 60–90% and sludge from fish ponds and wastewater from processing facilities contributes 3–27% of the total emissions. Overall, the combined waste emissions from Pangasius production and processing account for
Mitigating water pollution in Vietnamese aquaculture production and processing industry : the case of pangasius and shrimp
Pham Thi Ahn, - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Carolien Kroeze, co-promotor(en): Simon Bush. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857723 - 193
garnalenteelt - visteelt - aquacultuur - waterverontreiniging - voedselverwerking - voedselindustrie - vietnam - aquacultuur en milieu - shrimp culture - fish culture - aquaculture - water pollution - food processing - food industry - vietnam - aquaculture and environment
Water pollution by intensive brackish shrimp farming in south-east Vietnam: Causes and options for control
Pham Thi Ahn, ; Kroeze, C. ; Bush, S.R. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2010
Agricultural Water Management 97 (2010)6. - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 872 - 882.
of-california ecoregion - mangrove forests - environmental-impact - nitrogen budget - aquaculture - pond - thailand - sustainability - effluent - alternatives
This paper focuses on both the environmental impact of intensive shrimp farming in the coastal region of Vietnam and the identification of options for cleaner production. We investigated water pollution, sediment contamination and the spread of diseases related to shrimp farming in the Can Gio district of Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam), an area representative for the impacts of intensive shrimp production in the country. Data on the production process was compiled from site observations, interviews with local farmers and experts, as well as from secondary sources. The results indicate that, while a large number of individual farms may exceed environmental standards, intensive shrimp farming is not always associated with waste streams exceeding water quality standards. This is interesting because it shows currently available technologies can reduce pollution from intensive shrimp farms. The paper concludes by identifying technologically and economically feasible options for reducing water pollution, problems associated with contaminated sediment, and the spread of diseases.
Report on visit to Vietnam from 22 - 30 April, 2007
Putter, H. de; Cao Hong Luyen, ; Pham Thi Thu Huong, Huong - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen UR / Fresh Studios/ / HAU (Report / Applied Plant Research 1) - 39
groenten - projecten - vietnam - landbouwkundig onderzoek - jaarrondproductie - vegetables - projects - vietnam - agricultural research - all-year-round production
From April 23 till April 30 2007 a visit was brought to Vietnam to assist with the PermVeg project and with the Year Round Round supply of vegetables project. The PermVeg project is a cooperative project between Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR) and Hanoi Agriculture University (HAU) carried out by Pham Thi Thu Huong in order to obtain a PhD. The second goal of the visit was to find a suitable location to implement an experiment for the Year Round Supply project. This project is sponsored by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality. The project Year Round Supply is carried out together with Cao Hong Luyen from Fresh Studios Hanoi
Agronomy of a rice-based vegetable cultivation system in Vietnam. Constraints and recommendations for commercial market integration
Everaarts, A.P. ; Nguyen, Thi Thu Ha ; Pham Van Hoi, - \ 2006
Acta Horticulturae 699 (2006). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 173 - 179.
A description of the vegetable cultivation system in two villages in the Red River Delta, Hanoi, Vietnam is provided. The production of dry land vegetables takes place in the cool winter season, while in the warm wet summer season, rice is cultivated. Major vegetable crops cultivated belong to the Brassicaceae, Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Most of the crops are transplanted. Soil type varies from sandy loam to medium loam and soil organic matter content is low. Poor product quality, transplant production and soil conditions were identified as the major constraints for the production of high quality produce for upscale commercial markets. A proposal for a permanent vegetable production system is made.
|Options to Reduce the Environmental Impact of Shrimp Farms in Cangio District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Pham Thi Ahn, - \ 2006
- 19 p.
|A BAC library and paired-PCR approach to mapping and completing the genome sequence of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 : an EC perspective
She, Q. ; Confalonieri, F. ; Zivanovic, Y. ; Medina, N. ; Billault, A. ; Awayez, M.J. ; Thi-Ghoc, H.P. ; Thi-Pham, B.T. ; Oost, J. van der; Duguet, M. ; Garrett, R.A. - \ 2000
Dna sequence 11 (2000). - ISSN 1042-5179 - p. 183 - 136.
|Ocimum basilicum L
Aguilar, N.O. ; Pham Truong Thi Tho, ; Oyen, L.P.A. - \ 1999
In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia 13 : Spices / de Guzman, C.C., Siemonsma, J.S., Leiden : Backhuys Publishers - p. 151 - 156.