Next-generation biological control: the need for integrating genetics and genomics
Leung, Kelley ; Ras, Erica ; Ferguson, Kim B. ; Ariëns, Simone ; Babendreier, Dirk ; Bijma, Piter ; Bourtzis, Kostas ; Brodeur, Jacques ; Bruins, Margreet A. ; Centurión, Alejandra ; Chattington, Sophie R. ; Chinchilla-Ramírez, Milena ; Dicke, Marcel ; Fatouros, Nina E. ; González-Cabrera, Joel ; Groot, Thomas V.M. ; Haye, Tim ; Knapp, Markus ; Koskinioti, Panagiota ; Hesran, Sophie Le; Lyrakis, Manolis ; Paspati, Angeliki ; Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell ; Plouvier, Wouter N. ; Schlötterer, Christian ; Stahl, Judith M. ; Thiel, Andra ; Urbaneja, Alberto ; Zande, Louis van de; Verhulst, Eveline C. ; Vet, Louise E.M. ; Visser, Sander ; Werren, John H. ; Xia, Shuwen ; Zwaan, Bas J. ; Magalhães, Sara ; Beukeboom, Leo W. ; Pannebakker, Bart A. - \ 2020
Biological Reviews (2020). - ISSN 1464-7931
artificial selection - biological control - genetics - genome assembly - genomics - insect breeding - microbiome - modelling
Biological control is widely successful at controlling pests, but effective biocontrol agents are now more difficult to import from countries of origin due to more restrictive international trade laws (the Nagoya Protocol). Coupled with increasing demand, the efficacy of existing and new biocontrol agents needs to be improved with genetic and genomic approaches. Although they have been underutilised in the past, application of genetic and genomic techniques is becoming more feasible from both technological and economic perspectives. We review current methods and provide a framework for using them. First, it is necessary to identify which biocontrol trait to select and in what direction. Next, the genes or markers linked to these traits need be determined, including how to implement this information into a selective breeding program. Choosing a trait can be assisted by modelling to account for the proper agro-ecological context, and by knowing which traits have sufficiently high heritability values. We provide guidelines for designing genomic strategies in biocontrol programs, which depend on the organism, budget, and desired objective. Genomic approaches start with genome sequencing and assembly. We provide a guide for deciding the most successful sequencing strategy for biocontrol agents. Gene discovery involves quantitative trait loci analyses, transcriptomic and proteomic studies, and gene editing. Improving biocontrol practices includes marker-assisted selection, genomic selection and microbiome manipulation of biocontrol agents, and monitoring for genetic variation during rearing and post-release. We conclude by identifying the most promising applications of genetic and genomic methods to improve biological control efficacy.
Functional relationship of particulate matter (PM) emissions, animal species, and moisture content during manure application
Kabelitz, Tina ; Ammon, Christian ; Funk, Roger ; Münch, Steffen ; Biniasch, Oliver ; Nübel, Ulrich ; Thiel, Nadine ; Rösler, Uwe ; Siller, Paul ; Amon, Barbara ; Aarnink, André J.A. ; Amon, Thomas - \ 2020
Environment International 143 (2020). - ISSN 0160-4120 - 12 p.
Dry matter content - Fine dust - Manure management - Microorganism - Pig - Poultry
Livestock manure is recycled to agricultural land as organic fertilizer. Due to the extensive usage of antibiotics in conventional animal farming, antibiotic-resistant bacteria are highly prevalent in feces and manure. The spread of wind-driven particulate matter (PM) with potentially associated harmful bacteria through manure application may pose a threat to environmental and human health. We studied whether PM was aerosolized during the application of solid and dried livestock manure and the functional relationship between PM release, manure dry matter content (DM), treatment and animal species. In parallel, manure and resulting PM were investigated for the survival of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant bacterial species. The results showed that from manure with a higher DM smaller particles were generated and more PM was emitted. A positive correlation between manure DM and PM aerosolization rate was observed. There was a species-dependent critical dryness level (poultry: 60% DM, pig: 80% DM) where manure began to release PM into the environment. The maximum PM emission potentials were 1 and 3 kg t−1 of applied poultry and pig manure, respectively. Dried manure and resulting PM contained strongly reduced amounts of investigated pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms compared to fresh samples. An optimal manure DM regarding low PM emissions and reduced pathogen viability was defined from our results, which was 55–70% DM for poultry manure and 75–85% DM for pig manure. The novel findings of this study increase our detailed understanding and basic knowledge on manure PM emissions and enable optimization of manure management, aiming a manure DM that reduces PM emissions and pathogenic release into the environment.
Potential of ToxCast Data in the Safety Assessment of Food Chemicals
Punt, Ans ; Firman, James ; Boobis, Alan ; Cronin, Mark ; Gosling, John Paul ; Wilks, Martin F. ; Hepburn, Paul A. ; Thiel, Anette ; Fussell, Karma C. - \ 2020
Toxicological sciences 174 (2020)2. - ISSN 1096-6080 - p. 326 - 340.
food chemicals - high-throughput in vitro screening - read-across - risk-benefit - ToxCast
Tox21 and ToxCast are high-throughput in vitro screening programs coordinated by the U.S. National Toxicology Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, respectively, with the goal of forecasting biological effects in vivo based on bioactivity profiling. The present study investigated whether mechanistic insights in the biological targets of food-relevant chemicals can be obtained from ToxCast results when the chemicals are grouped according to structural similarity. Starting from the 556 direct additives that have been identified in the ToxCast database by Karmaus et al. [Karmaus, A. L., Trautman, T. D., Krishan, M., Filer, D. L., and Fix, L. A. (2017). Curation of food-relevant chemicals in ToxCast. Food Chem. Toxicol. 103, 174-182.], the results showed that, despite the limited number of assays in which the chemical groups have been tested, sufficient results are available within so-called "DNA binding" and "nuclear receptor" target families to profile the biological activities of the defined chemical groups for these targets. The most obvious activity identified was the estrogen receptor-mediated actions of the chemical group containing parabens and structurally related gallates, as well the chemical group containing genistein and daidzein (the latter 2 being particularly active toward estrogen receptor β as a potential health benefit). These group effects, as well as the biological activities of other chemical groups, were evaluated in a series of case studies. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that high-throughput screening data could add to the evidence considered for regulatory risk assessment of food chemicals and to the evaluation of desirable effects of nutrients and phytonutrients. The data will be particularly useful for providing mechanistic information and to fill data gaps with read-across.
The use of adverse outcome pathways in the safety evaluation of food additives
Vinken, Mathieu ; Kramer, Nynke ; Allen, Timothy E.H. ; Hoffmans, Yvette ; Thatcher, Natalie ; Levorato, Sara ; Traussnig, Heinz ; Schulte, Stefan ; Boobis, Alan ; Thiel, Anette ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2020
Archives of Toxicology 94 (2020). - ISSN 0340-5761
Adverse outcome pathway - Food additive - Safety evaluation
In the last decade, adverse outcome pathways have been introduced in the fields of toxicology and risk assessment of chemicals as pragmatic tools with broad application potential. While their use in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics sectors has been well documented, their application in the food area remains largely unexplored. In this respect, an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute Europe has recently explored the use of adverse outcome pathways in the safety evaluation of food additives. A key activity was the organization of a workshop, gathering delegates from the regulatory, industrial and academic areas, to discuss the potentials and challenges related to the application of adverse outcome pathways in the safety assessment of food additives. The present paper describes the outcome of this workshop followed by a number of critical considerations and perspectives defined by the International Life Sciences Institute Europe expert group.
ENSPRESO - an open, EU-28 wide, transparent and coherent database of wind, solar and biomass energy potentials
Ruiz, P. ; Nijs, W. ; Tarvydas, D. ; Sgobbi, A. ; Zucker, A. ; Pilli, R. ; Jonsson, R. ; Camia, A. ; Thiel, C. ; Hoyer-Klick, C. ; Longa, F. Dalla; Kober, T. ; Badger, J. ; Volker, P. ; Elbersen, B.S. ; Brosowski, A. ; Thrän, D. - \ 2019
Energy Strategy Reviews 26 (2019). - ISSN 2211-467X
Biomass - Energy system model - National - Open data - Potentials - Regional - Renewable - Solar - Wind
Data on the potential generation of energy from wind, solar and biomass is crucial for analysing their development, as it sets the limits on how much additional capacity it is feasible to install. This paper presents the methodologies used for the development of ENSPRESO, ENergy System Potentials for Renewable Energy SOurces, an EU-28 wide, open dataset for energy models on renewable energy potentials, at national and regional levels for the 2010–2050 period. In ENSPRESO, coherent GIS-based land-restriction scenarios are developed. For wind, resource evaluation also considers setback distances, as well as high resolution geo-spatial wind speed data. For solar, potentials are derived from irradiation data and available area for solar applications. Both wind and solar have separately a potential electricity production which is equivalent to three times the EU's 2016 electricity demand, with wind onshore and solar requiring 16% and 1.4% of total land, respectively. For biomass, agriculture, forestry and waste sectors are considered. Their respective sustainable potentials are equivalent to a minimum 10%, 1.5% and 1% of the total EU primary energy use. ENSPRESO can enrich the results of any energy model (e.g. JRC-EU-TIMES) by improving its analyses of the competition and complementarity of energy technologies.
Characterizing the coverage of critical effects relevant in the safety evaluation of food additives by AOPs
Kramer, Nynke I. ; Hoffmans, Yvette ; Wu, Siyao ; Thiel, Anette ; Thatcher, Natalie ; Allen, Timothy E.H. ; Levorato, Sara ; Traussnig, Heinz ; Schulte, Stefan ; Boobis, Alan ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Vinken, Mathieu - \ 2019
Archives of Toxicology 93 (2019)8. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 2115 - 2125.
3Rs - Acceptable daily intake - Adverse outcome pathway - Critical adverse effect - Food additives
There is considerable interest in adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as a means of organizing biological and toxicological information to assist in data interpretation and method development. While several chemical sectors have shown considerable progress in applying this approach, this has not been the case in the food sector. In the present study, safety evaluation reports of food additives listed in Annex II of Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Union were screened to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize toxicity induced in laboratory animals. The resulting database was used to identify the critical adverse effects used for risk assessment and to investigate whether food additives share common AOPs. Analysis of the database revealed that often such scrutiny of AOPs was not possible or necessary. For 69% of the food additives, the report did not document any adverse effects in studies based on which the safety evaluation was performed. For the remaining 31% of the 326 investigated food additives, critical adverse effects and related points of departure for establishing health-based guidance values could be identified. These mainly involved effects on the liver, kidney, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, central nervous system and reproductive system. AOPs are available for many of these apical endpoints, albeit to different degrees of maturity. For other adverse outcomes pertinent to food additives, including gastrointestinal irritation and corrosion, AOPs are lacking. Efforts should focus on developing AOPs for these particular endpoints.
Forest biomass retrieval approaches from earth observation in different biomes
Rodríguez-Veiga, Pedro ; Quegan, Shaun ; Carreiras, Joao ; Persson, Henrik J. ; Fransson, Johan E.S. ; Hoscilo, Agata ; Ziółkowski, Dariusz ; Stereńczak, Krzysztof ; Lohberger, Sandra ; Stängel, Matthias ; Berninger, Anna ; Siegert, Florian ; Avitabile, Valerio ; Herold, Martin ; Mermoz, Stéphane ; Bouvet, Alexandre ; Toan, Thuy Le; Carvalhais, Nuno ; Santoro, Maurizio ; Cartus, Oliver ; Rauste, Yrjö ; Mathieu, Renaud ; Asner, Gregory P. ; Thiel, Christian ; Pathe, Carsten ; Schmullius, Chris ; Seifert, Frank Martin ; Tansey, Kevin ; Balzter, Heiko - \ 2019
International Journal of applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 77 (2019). - ISSN 0303-2434 - p. 53 - 68.
The amount and spatial distribution of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) were estimated using a range of regionally developed methods using Earth Observation data for Poland, Sweden and regions in Indonesia (Kalimantan), Mexico (Central Mexico and Yucatan peninsula), and South Africa (Eastern provinces) for the year 2010. These regions are representative of numerous forest biomes and biomass levels globally, from South African woodlands and savannas to the humid tropical forest of Kalimantan. AGB retrieval in each region relied on different sources of reference data, including forest inventory plot data and airborne LiDAR observations, and used a range of retrieval algorithms. This is the widest inter-comparison of regional-to-national AGB maps to date in terms of area, forest types, input datasets, and retrieval methods. The accuracy assessment of all regional maps using independent field data or LiDAR AGB maps resulted in an overall root mean square error (RMSE) ranging from 10 t ha−1 to 55 t ha−1 (37% to 67% relative RMSE), and an overall bias ranging from −1 t ha−1 to +5 t ha−1 at pixel level. The regional maps showed better agreement with field data than previously developed and widely used pan-tropical or northern hemisphere datasets. The comparison of accuracy assessments showed commonalities in error structures despite the variety of methods, input data, and forest biomes. All regional retrievals resulted in overestimation (up to 63 t ha−1) in the lower AGB classes, and underestimation (up to 85 t ha−1) in the higher AGB classes. Parametric model-based algorithms present advantages due to their low demand on in situ data compared to non-parametric algorithms, but there is a need for datasets and retrieval methods that can overcome the biases at both ends of the AGB range. The outcomes of this study should be considered when developing algorithms to estimate forest biomass at continental to global scale level.
Citizen Science Terminology Matters: Exploring Key Terms
Eitzel, M.V. ; Cappadonna, Jessica L. ; Santos-Lang, Chris ; Duerr, Ruth Ellen ; Virapongse, Arika ; West, Sarah Elizabeth ; Kyba, Christopher Conrad Maximillian ; Bowser, Anne ; Cooper, Caren Beth ; Sforzi, Andrea ; Metcalfe, Anya Nova ; Harris, Edward S. ; Thiel, Martin ; Haklay, Mordechai ; Ponciano, Lesandro ; Roche, Joseph ; Ceccaroni, Luigi ; Shilling, Fraser Mark ; Dörler, Daniel ; Heigl, Florian ; Kiessling, Tim ; Davis, Brittany Y. ; Jiang, Qijun - \ 2017
Citizen Science: Theory and Practice 2 (2017)1. - ISSN 2057-4991 - 20 p.
Much can be at stake depending on the choice of words used to describe citizen science, because terminology impacts how knowledge is developed. Citizen science is a quickly evolving field that is mobilizing people’s involvement in information development, social action and justice, and large-scale information gathering. Currently, a wide variety of terms and expressions are being used to refer to the concept of ‘citizen science’ and its practitioners. Here, we explore these terms to help provide guidance for the future growth of this field. We do this by reviewing the theoretical, historical, geopolitical, and disciplinary context of citizen science terminology; discussing what citizen science is and reviewing related terms; and providing a collection of potential terms and definitions for ‘citizen science’ and people participating in citizen science projects. This collection of terms was generated primarily from the broad knowledge base and on-the-ground experience of the authors, by recognizing the potential issues associated with various terms. While our examples may not be systematic or exhaustive, they are intended to be suggestive and invitational of future consideration. In our collective experience with citizen science projects, no single term is appropriate for all contexts. In a given citizen science project, we suggest that terms should be chosen carefully and their usage explained; direct communication with participants about how terminology affects them and what they would prefer to be called also should occur. We further recommend that a more systematic study of terminology trends in citizen science be conducted.
|DUE GlobBiomass - Estimates of Biomass on a Global Scale
Schmullius, Christiane ; Thiel, C. ; Pathe, Carsten ; Herold, M. ; Avitabile, V. - \ 2016
|The role of vegetation in Building with Nature pilot sandy foreshore Houtribdijk
Lange, H.J. de; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Groot, G.A. de; Penning, E. ; Steetzel, H.J. ; Fiselier, J. ; Ouwerkerk, S. ; Thiel de Vries, J.S.M. van - \ 2016
- 1 p.
The natural situation of foreshores in shallow lakes with a gradual slope, sometimes a sandy beach and a well-developed riparian zone (submerged macrophytes and helophytes) is quite rare in the Netherlands. Still, the various ecosystem services that natural foreshores offer, e.g. attenuation of incoming wave action and habitat for fauna, gives inspiration to innovative solutions. Especially the wave attenuation service has received attention as a viable alternative to conventional dike reinforcement. To increase our understanding of a constructed foreshore, we applied 70.000 m3 of sand along a 400 m long stretch of the Houtribdijk (Markermeer) during the summer of 2014, creating a foreshore with a gradual slope (1:30). The pilot was divided into four sections, two of which have an additional top layer of a sand-clay mixture to promote vegetation development. Each section was partially planted with selected wetland species, related to the possibilities and limitations to construct the desired abiotic environment. The vegetation is expected to deliver two ecosystem services related to flood protection: roots will prevent erosion of the sand, and aboveground biomass will dissipate wave energy. One of the chosen species is Common reed (Phragmites australis). To further enhance our understanding of the success of reed, we study the genetic diversity of Common reed in the Netherlands to identify if specific genotypes or phenotypes can be associated with its success at a given habitat. We present the first results of this genetic analysis and give advice on how this species can be promoted in newly constructed foreshores.
Establishing vegetated foreshores to increase dike safety along lake shores
Penning, E. ; Steetzel, H.J. ; Santen, R. van; Lange, H.J. de; Ouwerkerk, S. ; Vuik, V. ; Fiselier, J. ; Thiel de Vries, J.S.M. van - \ 2016
- p. 6 - 6.
Vegetated foreshores in front of existing dikes can contribute to the overall reduction of wave loads on the dike. In order to test this concept in large shallow lakes a field pilot was constructed along the Houtribdijk in Lake Markermeer (the Netherlands) in 2014 to gain experience with construction, stability, maintenance and governance aspects. A large scale monitoring programme was set up to follow the hydrodynamic forcing, morphological changes and vegetation development on the pilot. The pilot is located on an exposed south-westerly direction, and experiences substantial wave impact. As a result the desired vegetation on the land-water interface has not been able to establish, but a rather dynamic sandy beach is currently the main feature along the waterline of the site. Higher up the slope planted reeds, and a mixture of willows has well established itself in the first growing season. The exposed position of the location makes that hardly any natural pioneer vegetation has settled, only in small sheltered areas some annuals were able to germinate and maintain themselves.
Distinct Longitudinal Associations of MBL, MASP-1, MASP-2, MASP-3, and MAp44 With Endothelial Dysfunction and Intima-Media Thickness: The CODAM Study
Hertle, E. ; Arts, I.C.W. ; Kallen, C.J.H. van der; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Hoffmann-Petersen, I. ; Thiel, S. ; Stehouwer, C.D. ; Greevenbroek, M.M. - \ 2016
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 36 (2016)6. - ISSN 1079-5642 - p. 1278 - 1285.
Previous studies suggested that the lectin-complement pathway plays a complex role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). To date, no prospective human studies have investigated the relationship between the initiating factor of the lectin pathway, that is, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and low-grade inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, or carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT). Moreover, MBL-associated proteases (MASPs) and MBL-associated proteins (MAps), which mediate downstream complement activation, have not been studied in the development of CVD.
Natural foreshores as an alternative to traditional dike re-enforcements: a field pilot in the large shallow lake Markermeer, The Netherlands
Penning, W.E. ; Steetzel, H.J. ; Santen, R. van; Fiselier, J. ; Lange, H.J. de; Vuik, V. ; Ouwerkerk, S. ; Thiel de Vries, J.S.M. van - \ 2015
In: E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress. - 2015 : - 4
nature development - flood control - dykes - riparian vegetation - coasts - hydrodynamics - natuurontwikkeling - hoogwaterbeheersing - dijken - oevervegetatie - kusten - hydrodynamica
Natural foreshores are shallow zones and beaches with a gradual slope and a (near-)natural vegetation that can be used
as an additional protection against flooding by reducing the wave attack on existing dikes, or can even completely
replace an existing dike system. In order to test the applicability of this concept a 500 m long pilot section of a sandy
foreshore was constructed along an already existing dike in the large shallow lake Markermeer, the Netherlands. The
pilot was equipped with permanent monitoring equipment for hydrodynamics and meteorological conditions and monthly
surveys of the morphology of the pilot section. These measurements will be carried out for the coming four years. This
paper presents the first results after the construction and the first winter season with the pilot in place.
|The JRC-EU-TIMES model. Bioenergy potentials for EU and neighbouring countries
Ruiz, Pablo ; Sgobbi, Alessandra ; Nijs, Wouter ; Thiel, Christian ; Longa, Francesco Dalla; Kober, Tom ; Elbersen, Berien ; Hengeveld, G.M. - \ 2015
Publications Office of the European Union - ISBN 9789279538803
bioenergy, biofuel, biogas, energy, policy analysis, sustainability
The JRC-EU-TIMES is a partial equilibrium energy system model maintained by the Institute for Energy and Transport (IET) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) to analyse the role of energy technologies development and their potential contribution to decarbonisation pathways of the energy system. The technical potentials for renewable energies are a key input in models of this kind. In this context, it is important to ensure transparency in the assumptions: making available the underlying data to the public is thus an important step that can also further contribute to a scientific and transparent debate. This report is the first in a series, and addresses the quantification of current and future biomass potentials for energy. As already identified in the 2011 European Commission’s Communication Energy roadmap 2050, biomass is expected to play a key role in strengthening the Energy Union pillars by diversifying the energy supply, increasing the energy internal market, decarbonising the economy and boosting competitiveness. Estimating the technical potentials available in EU countries using state of the art methodologies and updated data is important to fully understand the implications of an increased used of biomass for energy. Acknowledging this relevance, much work has been carried to characterise and quantify biomass resources. Building on the initial effort from the European Environment Agency, followed by key projects like BEE and Biomass Futures, this report presents the results of extending and improving current methodologies and estimation to respond to energy system modelling needs, while extending the projections to 2050.
Trends in global vegetation activity and climatic drivers indicate a decoupled response to climate change
Schut, A.G.T. ; Ivits, Eva ; Conijn, Sjaak ; Brink, Ben Ten; Fensholt, Rasmus - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 21 p.
Detailed understanding of a possible decoupling between climatic drivers of plant productivity and the response of ecosystems vegetation is required. We compared trends in six NDVI metrics (1982-2010) derived from the GIMMS3g dataset with modelled biomass productivity and assessed uncertainty in trend estimates. Annual total biomass weight (TBW) was calculated with the LINPAC model. Trends were determined using a simple linear regression, a Thiel-Sen medium slope and a piecewise regression (PWR) with two segments. Values of NDVI metrics were related to Net Primary Production (MODIS-NPP) and TBWper biome and land-use type. The simple linear and Thiel-Sen trends did not differ much whereas PWR increased the fraction of explained variation, depending on the NDVI metric considered. A positive trend in TBW indicating more favorable climatic conditions was found for 24% of pixels on land, and for 5% a negative trend. A decoupled trend, indicating positive TBWtrends and monotonic negative or segmented and negative NDVI trends, was observed for 17-36% of all productive areas depending on the NDVI metric used. For only 1-2% of all pixels in productive areas, a diverging and greening trend was found despite a strong negative trend in TBW. The choice of NDVI metric used strongly affected outcomes on regional scales and differences in the fraction of explained variation in MODIS-NPP between biomes were large, and a combination of NDVI metrics is recommended for global studies. We have found an increasing difference between trends in climatic drivers and observed NDVI for large parts of the globe. Our findings suggest that future scenarios must consider impacts of constraints on plant growth such as extremes in weather and nutrient availability to predict changes in NPP and CO2 sequestration capacity.
Motives underlying food consumption in the Western Balkans : consumers’ profiles and public health strategies
Mardon, Julie ; Thiel, Elise ; Laniau, Martine ; Sijtsema, Siet ; Zimmermann, Karin ; Barjolle, Dominique - \ 2015
International Journal of Public Health 60 (2015)5. - ISSN 1661-8556 - p. 517 - 526.
Consumers’ food choice - Fruit - Health and weight control - Products with nutrition and health claims - Western Balkan Countries
Objectives: This study aims to identify subgroups of consumers based on the health motives underlying their food choice in Western Balkan Countries. Methods: The survey (n = 2943) was based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics, consumption frequency of healthy food products, nutrition knowledge and impulsiveness. Analysis of the FCQ data focused on items of “health and natural content” and “weight control” factors to identify clusters. Results: The biggest group of the sample was weight control and health-concerned individuals (34 %), mainly urban women older than 50. The second group of respondents (31 %) was moderately motivated about health and weight. A third group was health concerned but paid less attention to weight control (21 %), mainly comprising men and people living with children. The last group consisted of unconcerned young men (14 %) eating less fruit and showing higher impulsiveness. Conclusions: Western Balkan consumers differ in the importance they attach to health and natural content and weight control. This insight is needed to target interventions.
Genetic incompatibility drives mate choice in a parasitic wasp
Thiel, A. ; Weeda, A.C. ; Boer, J.G. de; Hoffmeister, T.S. - \ 2013
Frontiers in Zoology 10 (2013). - ISSN 1742-9994 - 6 p.
complementary sex determination - field crickets - selection - mhc - preferences - hymenoptera - quality - extinction - increases - humans
Introduction: Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choice may be an important driver of allelic diversity. A complementary sex determination (CSD) system is responsible for intraspecific allelic incompatibility in many species of ants, bees, and wasps. CSD may thus favour disassortative mating and in this, resembles the MHC of the vertebrate immune system, or the self-incompatibility (SI) system of higher plants. Results: Here we show that in the monogamous parasitic wasp Bracon brevicornis (Wesmael), females are able to reject partners with incompatible alleles. Forcing females to accept initially rejected partners resulted in sex ratio distortion and partial infertility of offspring. Conclusions: CSD-disassortative mating occurred independent of kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in our experiment. The fitness consequences of mate choice are directly observable, not influenced by environmental effects, and more severe than in comparable systems (SI or MHC), on individuals as well as at the population level. Our results thus demonstrate the strong potential of female mate choice for maintaining high offspring fitness in this species.
Measuring and modelling coastal dune development in the Netherlands
Groot, A.V. de; Vries, F.T. de; Keijsers, J.G.S. ; Riksen, M.J.P.M. ; Ye, Q. ; Poortinga, A. ; Arens, S.M. ; Bochev-Van der Burgh, L.M. ; Wijnberg, L.M. ; Schretlen, J.L. ; Thiel de Vries, J.S.M. van - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the Jubilee Conference NCK-day2 2012, 13-16 March 2012, Enschede, the Netherlands. - - p. 105 - 115.
In the past couple of years, new coastal-dune research has sprung up in the Netherlands. In this paper, we give an overview of
ongoing projects at Wageningen UR, Deltares, TU Delft and UTwente: how these are connected and what type of questions are
addressed. There is an increasing demand for the understanding and prediction of coastal dune dynamics, both on the short (year) and
long (100 years) term. We approach this from a variety of angles: scientific and applied, short-term and long-term, data-driven and
model-based, biotic and abiotic, process-based and rule-based, and focused on components and integrated. We give examples of results
and end with a discussion of the benefits of this integrated approach.
Measuring and modeling coastal dune development in the Netherlands
Groot, A.V. de; Vries, S. de; Keijsers, J.G.S. ; Riksen, M.J.P.M. ; Ye, Q. ; Poortinga, A. ; Arens, S.M. ; Bochev-Van der Burgh, L.M. ; Wijnberg, K. ; Schretlen, J.L. ; Thiel de Vries, J.S.M. van - \ 2012
duingebieden - eolische processen - kustbeheer - versterking - geomorfologie - modellen - nederland - duneland - aeolian processes - coastal management - reinforcement - geomorphology - models - netherlands
In the past couple of years, new coastal-dune research has sprung up in the Netherlands. In this paper, we give an overview of ongoing projects at Wageningen UR, Deltares, TU Delft and UTwente: how these are connected and what type of questions are addressed. There is an increasing demand for the understanding and prediction of coastal dune dynamics, both on the short (year) and long (100 years) term. We approach this from a variety of angles: scientific and applied, short-term and long-term, data-driven and model-based, biotic and abiotic, process-based and rule-based, and focused on components and integrated. We give examples of results and end with a discussion of the benefits of this integrated approach.
|Post-Consumer Plastic Packaging Waste - How to Increase the Yield and Reduce the Cost
Thoden Van Velzen, E.U. - \ 2012
In: Waste Management; / Thomé-Kozmiensky, K.J., Thiel, S., Neuruppin: TK Verlag Karl Thomé-Kozmiensky (Recycling and Recovery 3) - ISBN 9783935317832 - p. 157 - 167.