Genetic Variability of Morphological, Flowering, and Biomass Quality Traits in Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
Petit, Jordi ; Salentijn, Elma M.J. ; Paulo, Maria João ; Thouminot, Claire ; Dinter, Bert Jan van; Magagnini, Gianmaria ; Gusovius, Hans Jörg ; Tang, Kailei ; Amaducci, Stefano ; Wang, Shaoliang ; Uhrlaub, Birgit ; Müssig, Jörg ; Trindade, Luisa M. - \ 2020
Frontiers in Plant Science 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-462X
Cannabis sativa - cell wall composition - fiber quality - flowering time - genetic variability - genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions - hemp - sex determination
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a bast-fiber crop well-known for the great potential to produce sustainable fibers. Nevertheless, hemp fiber quality is a complex trait, and little is known about the phenotypic variability and heritability of fiber quality traits in hemp. The aim of this study is to gain insights into the variability in fiber quality within the hemp germplasm and to estimate the genetic components, environmental components, and genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions on fiber quality traits in hemp. To investigate these parameters, a panel of 123 hemp accessions was phenotyped for 28 traits relevant to fiber quality at three locations in Europe, corresponding to climates of northern, central, and southern Europe. In general, hemp cultivated in northern latitudes showed a larger plant vigor while earlier flowering was characteristic of plants cultivated in southern latitudes. Extensive variability between accessions was observed for all traits. Most cell wall components (contents of monosaccharides derived from cellulose and hemicellulose; and lignin content), bast fiber content, and flowering traits revealed large genetic components with low G×E interactions and high broad-sense heritability values, making these traits suitable to maximize the genetic gains of fiber quality. In contrast, contents of pectin-related monosaccharides, most agronomic traits, and several fiber traits (fineness and decortication efficiency) showed low genetic components with large G×E interactions affecting the rankings across locations. These results suggest that pectin, agronomic traits, and fiber traits are unsuitable targets in breeding programs of hemp, as their large G×E interactions might lead to unexpected phenotypes in untested locations. Furthermore, all environmental effects on the 28 traits were statistically significant, suggesting a strong adaptive behavior of fiber quality in hemp to specific environments. The high variability in fiber quality observed in the hemp panel, the broad range in heritability, and adaptability among all traits prescribe positive prospects for the development of new hemp cultivars of excellent fiber quality.
Effect of the middle lamella biochemical composition on the non-linear behaviour of technical fibres of hemp under tensile loading using strain mapping
Fuentes, C.A. ; Willekens, P. ; Petit, J. ; Thouminot, C. ; Müssig, J. ; Trindade, L.M. ; Vuure, A.W. Van - \ 2017
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 101 (2017). - ISSN 1359-835X - p. 529 - 542.
A. Biocomposite - A. Natural fibres - B. Fibre deformation - Strain mapping
This manuscript describes the effects of alterations in biochemical composition on structural morphology and the mechanical behaviour of technical fibres of hemp used for composite applications. First, the strength and apparent Young's modulus distribution of technical fibres of hemp of 96 hemp samples, corresponding to 32 different hemp accessions cultivated in 3 locations, were analysed using Weibull distribution. From these, 2 samples (one with high and one with low fibre strength) were selected for further analysis. Next, full-field strain measurement at the micro-scale during tensile loading via digital image correlation analysis was used for evaluating both, the stress-strain behaviour at a global scale and the local mechanical behaviour heterogeneity at a micro-scale, along a technical fibre of hemp. The analysis reveals 2 typical types of tensile stress-strain curves, and a complex and very irregular pattern of strain concentrations, which are associated to the technical fibre strength. The non-linear behaviour of the stress-strain curve is explained by the development of shear strain at the elementary fibre (botanically defined as the individual cell) interphases. Micro tomography and biochemical analysis of the technical fibre microstructure showed that alterations in cell wall composition, in particular substitution of pectin, leads to changes in the non-linear behaviour of technical fibres of hemp under tensile loading.
A comprehensive study of planting density and nitrogen fertilization effect on dual-purpose hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation
Tang, K. ; Struik, P.C. ; Yin, X. ; Calzolari, D. ; Musio, S. ; Thouminot, C. ; Bjelková, M. ; Stramkale, V. ; Magagnini, G. ; Amaducci, S. - \ 2017
Industrial Crops and Products 107 (2017). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 427 - 438.
Critical dilution curve - Density - Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) - Nitrogen - Seed - Stem
Harvesting hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) for both stems and seeds is now a common practice in Europe while crop management strategies for dual-purpose hemp cultivation have not been properly addressed so far. In the present study, the effects of planting density and nitrogen fertilization on hemp stem and seed yields were tested with the cultivars Futura 75 and/or Bialobrzeskie in eight contrasting environments (Italy in 2013; Italy and Latvia in 2014; Italy (two sites), Latvia, the Czech Republic, and France in 2015). Stem yield ranged between 1.3 and 22.3Mgha-1. The effects of planting density and nitrogen fertilization on stem yield did not interact significantly with each other, or with cultivar and harvest time. Increasing planting density from 30 to 120 plants m-2 and increasing nitrogen fertilization rate from 0 to 60kgNha-1 increased stem yield by 29% and 32%, respectively. Further increase in planting density and nitrogen fertilization did not result in a significant increase in stem yield. Seed yield ranged from 0.3 to 2.1Mgha-1. The seed yield was not affected significantly by planting density between 30 and 240 plants m-2. Although the seed yield showed an increasing trend with increasing nitrogen fertilization, the effects of nitrogen fertilization on seed yield were not statistically significant.To grow hemp as a dual-purpose crop it is recommended to plant 90-150 plants m-2 across all tested environments. Nitrogen fertilization rate at 60kg N ha-1 was generally sufficient in the tested environments whereas further optimization of nitrogen fertilization requires accurate assessment of plant nitrogen status. To facilitate assessing plant nutritional status, a critical nitrogen dilution curve was determined for hemp and a practical method to determine nitrogen nutritional status was discussed.
Comparing hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars for dual-purpose production under contrasting environments
Tang, Kailei ; Struik, P.C. ; Yin, X. ; Thouminot, C. ; Bjelková, M. ; Stramkale, V. ; Amaducci, S. - \ 2016
Industrial Crops and Products 87 (2016). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 33 - 44.
Cultivar - Fibre - Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) - Modelling - Phenology - Seed
Interest in hemp as a multi-purpose crop is growing worldwide and for the first time in 2015 it was cultivated in Europe on more than 20.000 ha as a dual-purpose crop, for the seeds and for the fibre. In the present study, fibre and seed productivity of 14 commercial cultivars were tested in four contrasting European environments (Latvia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy). At full flowering, the stem yield ranged from 3.7 Mg ha-1 to 22.7 Mg ha-1, the bast fibre content ranged from 21% to 43%, and the bast fibre yield ranged from 1.3 Mg ha-1 to 7.4 Mg ha-1. When harvesting was postponed from full flowering until seed maturity, the stem yield of monoecious cultivars significantly increased but in dioecious cultivars it decreased at all tested sites, except for Italy. Only the early cultivars Fedora 17 and Markant produced seed in the most northern location Latvia. The seed yield ranged from 0.3 Mg ha-1 to 2.4 Mg ha-1 in Italy, France and the Czech Republic. The cultivar effect on stem and seed yield was mainly determined by the genetic variation in time of flowering. Stem yield at full flowering was strictly related to the duration of the vegetative phase while seed yield was lowest in the late flowering cultivar. The late cultivar CS is suitable for stem and fibre production as it had the highest stem yield at full flowering in all locations. Both Fedora 17 and Futura 75 are candidate cultivars for dual-purpose production in Italy, France and the Czech Republic, with Fedora 17 being more suitable for seed production and Futura 75 for fibre production.The application of modelling to design production strategies for dual-purpose hemp is promising. However, accurate parameterisation is needed based on large data sets and diverse genetic background.