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The effect of ingredient item depiction on the packaging frontal view on pre- And post-consumption product evaluations
Timmerman, Nicole ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2019
Foods — Open Access Food Science Journal 8 (2019)8. - ISSN 2304-8158
Expected/perceived flavor intensity - Experiential cognitive style - Mismatch perception - Packaging cues - Perceived deception - Rational cognitive style

The current research focused on the (in)congruity between pictorial (ingredient item depiction) and textual (ingredient list) information on food packaging, namely, an apple–mango juice. Specifically, the influence of these information sources on expected and perceived flavor intensities, mismatched perceptions, perceived deception, and intention to purchase was studied by taking into account the possible moderating role of consumers’ thinking style. Three studies were performed, the first and third at a Dutch University by means of surveys and sensory tests, and the second via an online survey. The results showed that, overall, most consumers did not perceive the incongruity between pictorial and textual information as mismatching. However, a perceived mismatch from packaging, whether originated by the design manipulations or not, did increase perceived deception and lowered willingness to purchase. This effect was robust for both mismatches, among packaging elements (pre-consumption) and from expected and perceived flavor ratios (post-consumption), but was more substantial for the post-consumption mismatch. Although the moderating effect of cognitive processing style regarding expected and perceived flavor ratios from pictorial and textual (ingredient list) information was not confirmed, the results indicated that the effect of salient textual information is substantial, independent of a particular processing style or label usage.

Energie & Landbouw : modelbedrijven
Voort, M.P.J. van der; Timmerman, M. - \ 2019
Lelystad : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Open Teelten (Wageningen Plant Research rapport WPR-784) - 29
Het doel van de PPS Energie & Landbouw is om invulling te geven aan de rol van de landbouw in de energietransitie. Dit door het maximaliseren van de bijdrage van de landbouw op een wijze dat hernieuwbare energieproductie en consumptie een integraal rendabel onderdeel van het agrarische bedrijf wordt. Voor een aantal representatieve bedrijfssystemen met veel grondgebruik (akkerbouw en melkveehouderij) wordt het energieverbruik in kaart gebracht. De modelgegevens bieden partijen inzicht in het energieverbruik in regionale energienetwerken. Door regionale spreiding van bedrijfstypen geeft dit project onderdeel input voor andere onderdelen van deze PPS Energie & Landbouw.
Drought and conflicts at the local level: Establishing a water sharing mechanism for the summer-autumn rice production in Central Vietnam
Huynh, Chuong Van; Scheltinga, Catharien Terwisscha van; Pham, Ty Huu ; Duong, Non Quoc ; Tran, Phuong Thi ; Nguyen, Linh Hoang Khanh ; Pham, Tung Gia ; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich ; Timmerman, Jos - \ 2019
International Soil and Water Conservation Research (2019). - ISSN 2095-6339
Adaptation - Agriculture - Climate change - Governance - Rice production - Water sharing

In recent years, water for agricultural production gradually became a significant challenge in the context of climate change in Vietnam. Sustainable solutions are required, which consider the use of resources for both human needs and ecology, and that account for the equitable distribution and the livelihood of the farmers now and in the future. In particular, the farmers in the province of Quang Nam facing water shortage in the cultivation of paddy in the summer-autumn season. Conflicts arise regarding the sharing of the water between the farmers, the drinking water company and the hydropower company. In the context of climate change, the water shortage is expected to increase in the future. The article presents the results of participatory action research (PAR) approach to develop a local level mechanism for water sharing, in which stakeholders actively participated. Water sharing mechanism was developed, envisioning a sustainable solution for inclusive water sharing. The mechanism was successfully implemented in two cases, one at commune level (Tho stream) and one at the district level (Mo stream). The participatory approach proved to be successful in setting up a broadly acceptable mechanism that will need to be further incorporated in the institutional set-up.

Analyse van gedragsverandering bij het verminderen van de ammoniakemissie in de Proeftuin Veenweiden
Galama, P. ; Timmerman, M. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1180) - 73
This is a report about behavioral research among pilot and follower farmers in ‘Proeftuin Veenweiden’. It provides insight into the most important measures that have been taken to reduce ammonia emissions and what motivates and hinders or demotivates them. Recommendations have also been made to strengthen the knowledge infrastructure in general.
Mineralenprestaties van de melkveehouderij in Noord-Nederland
Timmerman, M. ; Plomp, M. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen Livestock Research 1173) - 32
In this study the realized soil surpluses (N and P2O5), ammonia- and greenhouse gas emissions and the percentage protein of own land of the dairy farms in the Northern part of the Netherlands have been established for the years 2016 and 2017. The realized values were subsequently compared with previous published results over 2013.
Dynamics of faecal shedding of ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli on dairy farms
Hordijk, Joost ; Fischer, Egil A.J. ; Werven, Tine van; Sietsma, Steven ; Gompel, Liese Van; Timmerman, Arjen J. ; Spaninks, Mirlin P. ; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Nielen, Mirjam ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Stegeman, Arjan - \ 2019
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 74 (2019)6. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 1531 - 1538.

OBJECTIVES: To explore the dynamics of faecal ESBL/AmpC shedding in dairy cattle and farmers, a study was conducted to examine changes in shedding by individual animals, as well as environmental exposure, and to study the association between antimicrobial use (AMU) and ESBL/AmpC shedding. METHODS: The study comprised a cross-sectional survey of 20 farms and a 1 year follow-up of 10 farms. Faecal samples were cultured by both direct inoculation on MacConkey agar + 1 mg/L cefotaxime (MC+) and enrichment in LB-broth + 1 mg/L cefotaxime with subsequent inoculation on MC+. Dust samples were collected using electrostatic dustfall collectors (EDCs). Human faecal samples were collected by the farmers. Presence of ESBL/AmpC genes was screened for by PCR and sequencing. Using mixed effects logistic regression, ORs were determined and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) calculated subsequently. RESULTS: In Phase 1, 8/20 farms were positive for ESBL/AmpC and, with 2 negative farms, were selected for Phase 2. Transient shedding of dominant allele variants was observed in the animals. EDCs and human faecal samples did not reflect what was observed in the animals. AMU was related to shedding of ESBLs in the next sampling moment [OR 14.6 (95% CI 3.0-80.0)] and the PAF of AMU was 0.36 (95% CI 0.08-0.77). Calves fed with colostrum from cows on dry-off therapy was not a risk factor [OR 1.7 (95% CI 0.7-4.9, P = 0.28)]. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of ESBL/AmpC could only be partly explained by AMU. No link was shown between shedding in cattle and humans or the environment. Interventions should focus on prevention of introduction.

Cursus dierenwelzijn
Ruis, M.A.W. ; Luyten, I. ; Hilverda, H. ; Smeets, M. ; Jessen, E. van; Jong-Timmerman, M. de; Bolderman, K. ; Heemink, G. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Dierenwelzijnsweb
dierhouderij - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - diergedrag - diervoeding - huisvesting, dieren - dierethiek - dierverzorging - lesmaterialen - animal husbandry - animal welfare - animal health - animal behaviour - animal nutrition - animal housing - animal ethics - care of animals - teaching materials
Deze cursus helpt je te begrijpen wat dierenwelzijn precies inhoudt. De cursus behandelt de onderwerpen gedrag en gezondheid, informatiebronnen voor dierenwelzijn, huisvesting en voeding, omgevingsfactoren die een belangrijke invloed hebben op dierenwelzijn. Daarnaast helpt de cursus je te begrijpen wat dierethiek is en leer je zelf een afweging te maken over hoe jij vindt dat wij met dieren om moeten gaan. Aan de hand van praktische voorbeelden, dilemma's en casussen leer je na te denken over dierenwelzijn. De voorbeelden betreffen o.a. gezelschapsdieren, landbouwhuisdieren, proefdieren en in het wild levende dieren. Aan het eind van elk blok vind je een toets, waarmee je je kennis over dat onderwerp kunt testen.
T lymphocytes actively suppress intestinal pathobionts in zebrafish
Lopez Nadal, Adria ; Boekhorst, Jos ; Timmerman, Harro M. ; Kleerebezem, M. ; Brugman, S. - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Verkennende studie naar hittestress bij melkvee tijdens weidegang in gematigde klimaatstreken
Timmerman, M. ; Reenen, K. van; Holster, H. ; Evers, A. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1117) - 53
An exploratory study has been conducted to gain insight into the effects of heat stress during grazing on milk production, health and welfare of dairy cows, and the economic consequences of this under Dutch climate conditions. Furthermore an exploration was carried out into options to reduce the effects of heat stress during grazing. The results of this study are described in this report.
Reliability of a participant-friendly fecal collection method for microbiome analyses : A step towards large sample size investigation
Szopinska, Joanna W. ; Gresse, Raphaële ; Marel, Saskia van der; Boekhorst, Jos ; Lukovac, Sabina ; Swam, Iris van; Franke, Barbara ; Timmerman, Harro ; Belzer, Clara ; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias - \ 2018
BMC Microbiology 18 (2018)1. - ISSN 1471-2180
Bacterial DNA extraction - Fecal collection and storage method - Microbiome - Next generation sequencing - OMNIgene•GUT

Background: The effects of gut microbiota on human traits are expected to be small to moderate and adding the complexity of the human diseases, microbiome research demands big sample sizes. Fecal samples for such studies are mostly self-collected by participants at home. This imposes an extra level of complexity as sample collection and storage can be challenging. Effective, low-burden collection and storage methods allowing fecal samples to be transported properly and ensuring optimal quality and quantity of bacterial DNA for upstream analyses are necessary. Moreover, accurate assessment of the microbiome composition also depends on bacterial DNA extraction method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and efficiency of the OMNIgene•GUT kit as a participant-fecal friendly collection method (storage at room temperature for 24 h (O24h) or 7 days (O7d)) in comparison to the standard collection method (Fresh, storage at 4 °C for less than 24 h) in terms of amount of variability and information content accounting for two common DNA extraction methods. Results: Fourteen fecal samples were collected from healthy individuals (7 males, 7 females). Collection and storage methods did not differ significantly in terms of DNA concentration and Shannon diversity index. Phylum relative abundance showed significant differences for Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The differences were observed between control (Fresh) and O24h methods, but not between Fresh and O7d. These differences were not seen when performing bacterial DNA quantification based on three bacterial groups: Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium cluster IV, which represent three major phyla: Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes respectively. The two DNA extraction methods differ in terms of DNA quantity, quality, bacterial diversity and bacterial relative abundance. Furthermore, principal component analysis revealed differences in microbial structure, which are driven by the DNA extraction methods more than the collection/storage methods. Conclusion: Our results have highlighted the potential of using the OMNIgene•GUT kit for collection and storage at ambient temperature, which is convenient for studies aiming to collect large samples by giving participants the possibility to send samples by post. Importantly, we revealed that the choice of DNA extraction method have an impact on the microbiome profiling.

Campylobacter blaseri sp. Nov., isolated from common seals (Phoca vitulina)
Gilbert, Maarten J. ; Zomer, Aldert L. ; Timmerman, Arjen J. ; Spaninks, Mirlin P. ; Rubio-García, Ana ; Rossen, John W. ; Duim, Birgitta ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. - \ 2018
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 68 (2018)5. - ISSN 1466-5026 - p. 1787 - 1794.
Average nucleotide identity - Campylobacter - Common seal - Core genome phylogeny - Microbiome - Novel species
During a study to assess the faecal microbiome of common seals (Phoca vitulina) in a Dutch seal rehabilitation centre, 16S rRNA gene sequences of an unknown Campylobacter taxon were identified. Campylobacter isolates, which differed from the established Campylobacter taxa, were cultured and their taxonomic position was determined by a polyphasic study based on ten isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA gene sequence analyses and by conventional phenotypic testing. Based on the whole genome sequences, the average nucleotide identity and core genome phylogeny were determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other Campylobacter taxa and most closely related to Campylobacter corcagiensis, Campylobacter geochelonis and Campylobacter ureolyticus. The isolates can be distinguished phenotypically from all other Campylobacter taxa based on their lack of motility, growth at 25 °C and growth on MacConkey agar. This study shows that these isolates represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter blaseri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for this novel species is 17S00004-5T (=LMG 30333T=CCUG 71276T).
Afbraak van organische stof uit (bewerkte) rundermest na toediening aan een zandgrond
Boer, H.C. de; Timmerman, M. ; Verdoes, N. ; Schilder, H. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1095) - 24
Orthofosfaat gehalten in varkensmest en potentieel voor terugwinning
Timmerman, M. ; Verdoes, N. ; Kupers, G.C.C. ; Verheijen, R. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1089) - 26
This report describes the results of the research into the orthophosphate content in (separated) pig manure and faeces. Manure from several different animal categories was collected and separated with a screw press or a centrifuge, and samples were collected of the manure and fractions and analyzed on the content of available orthophosphate and total phosphate. Furthermore, the orthophosphate was extracted from the liquid fractions of the centrifuge with calcium hydroxide. The orthophosphate contents were low with the exception of the faeces of piglets and finisher pigs fed dry feed which had a content of around 2459 mg/kg.
Effect van vergisting op het orthofosfaat gehalte in rundermest en potentieel voor terugwinning
Timmerman, M. ; Boer, H.C. de; Verdoes, N. ; Schilder, H. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1088) - 22
This report describes the results of the research into the effect of anaerobic digestion on the orthophosphate content in dairy manure. On different dairy farms with a manure digester and separators samples were taken from the manure, digestate, liquid fraction, thick fraction and analyzed on the content of orthophosphate. Furthermore, the orthophosphate was extracted from the liquid fraction with calcium hydroxide. The orthophosphate content decreases as a result of anaerobic digestion. The orthophosphate content was on average 34 mg/kg in the digestate and was lower than in the incoming manure with average content of 75 mg/kg.
Fosfaatvormen in melkveemest en potentieel voor terugwinning
Timmerman, M. ; Regelink, I.C. ; Verdoes, N. ; Kupers, G. ; Blanken, K. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1087) - 30
This report describes the results of the research into the phosphate forms and the potential of recovery of phosphate from dairy manure. On different dairy farms with different types of manure separators, slurry robots and scrapers samples were taken from the manure, liquid fraction, thick fraction and/or faeces and analyzed on the content of different phosphate forms. Furthermore calcium hydroxide was added to the liquid fraction to separate the orthophosphate with the sediment and are the thick fractions diluted and acidified to pH 6 and 5 to determine the amount of phosphate being released as orthophosphate. On the basis of these analysis is the potential for recovery of phosphate determined.
Oral cholera vaccination promotes homing of IgA+ memory B cells to the large intestine and the respiratory tract
Splunter, M. van; Hoffen, E. van; Floris-Vollenbroek, E.G. ; Timmerman, H. ; Bos, E.L. van de; Meijer, B. ; Ulfman, L.H. ; Witteman, B. ; Wells, J.M. ; Brugman, S. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Neerven, R.J.J. van - \ 2018
Mucosal Immunology 11 (2018)4. - ISSN 1933-0219 - p. 1254 - 1264.
Oral cholera vaccination is used to induce immune responses in the intestines to protect against cholera infection. However, oral vaccination may also affect immune responses in other mucosal tissues. To study this, tissue-specific homing potential and kinetics of B-cell responses were characterized after oral cholera vaccination. Healthy adult volunteers received two doses of Dukoral® and blood, saliva, nasal wash, and fecal samples were collected over time to detect vaccine-specific antibodies. Additionally, homing potential of lymphocytes to small intestine, colon, airways, skin, and periphery was measured by expression of Integrin β1 and β7, CCR9, CCR10, CCR7, and CLA. After vaccination, antibody responses to cholera toxin B (CTB) and Dukoral® were detected in serum and nasal wash. CTB-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood and tissue homing profiles of memory B cells peaked at day 18. IgA+ memory B cells expressed markers that enable homing to the airways and colon, while IgA− memory B cells primarily expressed small-intestine-homing markers. These data show that oral cholera vaccination has a differential effect on immune responses in various mucosal sites, including the respiratory tract.
Van Robuuste Natuur tot Herstel Ecologische Veerkracht in de Rijkswateren : een analyse over de mogelijkheden van het gebruik van Infographics als een handreiking voor het realiseren van herstel ecologische veerkracht en extra dynamiek in de Rijkswateren
Veraart, J.A. ; Timmerman, J.G. ; Lange, H.J. de; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Bogers, M. ; Spijkerman, A. ; Holz Amorim de Sena, N.C. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2860) - 79
Market consultation for a multi-level monitoring system with robots to support poultry farmers
Timmerman, M. ; Emous, R.A. Van; Riel, J.W. Van; Vroegindeweij, B.A. ; Lokhorst, C. - \ 2017
- 8 p.
Farm automation - Market research - Monitoring - Poultry - Robotics - Support system

Monitoring health and welfare of poultry is a highly demanding task for a farmer in time, health and complexity, and it is usually combined with routine actions such as collecting floor eggs, removing dead animals and checking feeding and drinking lines. The expectation is that a robot also can execute such tasks and could do it 24 hours 7 days a week if needed. A concept of a multi-layer monitoring support system has been designed to assist the poultry farmer. The multi-layer support system consists of a static system for flock observation (existing PLF technology), and robot(s) for in-between bird observation of health and behaviour and for performing routine daily tasks. Poultry farmers, researchers and companies have been consulted in two workshops to identify the needs and wishes for such a system. The results of the consultations could be grouped into the following six main categories: 1) bird monitoring (e.g. behaviour, health); 2) data sharing (e.g. production, health); 3) eggs (e.g. selection, collection of floor eggs); 4) vaccination (e.g. treatment, evaluation); 5) quality control (e.g. manure consistency, litter); and 6) selection of birds (e.g. collecting dead birds, identifying non-productive birds). The overall results showed that there is a market demand of poultry farmers for such a multi-level monitoring system. A first economic survey showed that broiler farmers were willing to invest €0.58 per bird place with an desired payback time of 2 years and other poultry farmers were willing to invest €1.04 per bird place with a desired payback time of 4 years.

Genome sequence of the rat gut bacterium Romboutsia ilealis CRIB
Gerritsen, J. ; Timmerman, H.M. ; Fuentes, S. ; Minnen, L.P. van; Panneman, H. ; Konstantinov, S.R. ; Rombouts, F.M. ; Gooszen, H.G. ; Akkermans, L.M.A. ; Smidt, H. ; Rijkers, G.T. - \ 2017
Romboutsia ilealis - PRJEB4727 - ERP004037
The rat illeum bacterium Romboutsia ilealis CRIB was sequenced and assembled, using a hybrid approach, consisting out of different data types (Illumina paired end, mate pair, PacBio), as well as a custom assembly workflow.
The potential of recovery of orthophosphate from dairy manure
Verdoes, N. ; Timmerman, M. - \ 2017
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