Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Yield components, reproductive allometry and the tradeoff between grain yield and yield stability in dryland spring wheat
    Du, Yan Lei ; Xi, Yue ; Cui, Ting ; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Weiner, Jacob ; Li, Xinmao ; Turner, Neil C. ; Zhao, Yi Min ; Li, Feng Min - \ 2020
    Field Crops Research 257 (2020). - ISSN 0378-4290
    Risk reduction - Smallholder farms - Variety screening - Wheat breeding - Yield stability

    Yield improvement for smallholder farmers in developing countries via crop breeding has been slow, in part because breeders have focused primarily on higher yields rather than stability of yield across environments. We investigated the relationships between (i) grain yield and yield-component traits, (ii) grain yield and yield stability, and (iii) reproductive (R) and vegetative (V) biomass in a field experiment with 18 spring wheat genotypes varying from landraces to recently-released breeding lines in a semiarid region under three different levels of precipitation. Genotypic differences in grain yield varied with the environment. The relationship between grain yield and yield components was also dependent on the environment, making it difficult to identify early-screening parameters for use in breeding programs. A genotype main effects and genotype by environment interaction effect analysis (GGE) showed a negative relationship between mean grain yield and yield stability across environments. There were significant differences among genotypes in the allometric exponent of the R-V relationship (slope of the log R – log V relationship). For the three highest yielding but less stable genotypes, this slope value was > 1, while the five lowest yielding, but more stable genotypes, it was < 1. We hypothesize that the tradeoff between grain yield and yield stability reported here is biologically constrained and cannot be eliminated through breeding. Therefore, a balance between yield stability and high yield should be considered in future wheat breeding programs for smallholder farmers, rather than attempting to improve both.

    An integrated linkage map of interspecific backcross 2 (BC2) populations reveals QTLs associated with fatty acid composition and vegetative parameters influencing compactness in oil palm
    Yaakub, Zulkifli ; Kamaruddin, Katialisa ; Singh, Rajinder ; Mustafa, Suzana ; Marjuni, Marhalil ; Ting, Ngoot Chin ; Amiruddin, Mohd Din ; Leslie, Low Eng Ti ; Cheng-Li, Ooi Leslie ; Sritharan, Kandha ; Nookiah, Rajanaidu ; Jansen, Johannes ; Ong Abdullah, Meilina - \ 2020
    BMC Plant Biology 20 (2020)1. - ISSN 1471-2229 - 18 p.
    Compactness - Fatty acid composition - Interspecific hybrids - Oil palm - QTL

    BACKGROUND: Molecular breeding has opened new avenues for crop improvement with the potential for faster progress. As oil palm is the major producer of vegetable oil in the world, its improvement, such as developing compact planting materials and altering its oils' fatty acid composition for wider application, is important. RESULTS: This study sought to identify the QTLs associated with fatty acid composition and vegetative traits for compactness in the crop. It integrated two interspecific backcross two (BC2) mapping populations to improve the genetic resolution and evaluate the consistency of the QTLs identified. A total 1963 markers (1814 SNPs and 149 SSRs) spanning a total map length of 1793 cM were integrated into a consensus map. For the first time, some QTLs associated with vegetative parameters and carotene content were identified in interspecific hybrids, apart from those associated with fatty acid composition. The analysis identified 8, 3 and 8 genomic loci significantly associated with fatty acids, carotene content and compactness, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Major genomic region influencing the traits for compactness and fatty acid composition was identified in the same chromosomal region in the two populations using two methods for QTL detection. Several significant loci influencing compactness, carotene content and FAC were common to both populations, while others were specific to particular genetic backgrounds. It is hoped that the QTLs identified will be useful tools for marker-assisted selection and accelerate the identification of desirable genotypes for breeding.

    Effecten van integraal beekherstel op de loopkeverfauna
    Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2020
    De Levende Natuur 121 (2020)4. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 129 - 133.
    Loopkevers zijn goede indicatoren van de ecologische kwaliteit van de oeverzone van stromende wateren. In drie gebieden in Drenthe waar vernat-ting van het beekdal heeft plaatsgevonden zijn deze organismen gebruikt om de effecten van deze maatregel in beeld te krijgen. Hiervoor is de loopkever-gemeenschap van beekoevers in herstelde beekdalen vergeleken met boven-stroomse, niet-herstelde trajecten in hetzelfde stroomgebied en gerelateerd aan de biotoopvoorkeur van de aangetroffen soorten.
    Comparison of expression profiles for Nicotiana benthamiana agroinfiltrated with aryophyllene synthase and SNARE-RNAi [Nicotiana benthamiana]
    Krol, Sander van der; Ting, Jimmy - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    GSE60061 - PRJNA257401 - Nicotiana benthamiana
    Here we show for the first time that vesicle fusion is one of multiple pathways in plant cells involved in terpene emissions. We demonstrate a positive feedback on terpene production when vesicle fusion is inhibited in cells producing high levels of terpenes, which relates to an induced proteasome malfunction
    A Homeotic Mutation Changes Legume Nodule Ontogeny into Actinorhizal-Type Ontogeny
    Shen, Defeng ; Xiao, Ting Ting ; Velzen, Robin van; Kulikova, Olga ; Gong, Xiaoyun ; Geurts, René ; Pawlowski, Katharina ; Bisseling, Ton - \ 2020
    The Plant Cell 32 (2020)6. - ISSN 1040-4651 - p. 1868 - 1885.

    Some plants fix atmospheric nitrogen by hosting symbiotic diazotrophic rhizobia or Frankia bacteria in root organs known as nodules. Such nodule symbiosis occurs in 10 plant lineages in four taxonomic orders: Fabales, Fagales, Cucurbitales, and Rosales, which are collectively known as the nitrogen-fixing clade. Nodules are divided into two types based on differences in ontogeny and histology: legume-type and actinorhizal-type nodules. The evolutionary relationship between these nodule types has been a long-standing enigma for molecular and evolutionary biologists. Recent phylogenomic studies on nodulating and nonnodulating species in the nitrogen-fixing clade indicated that the nodulation trait has a shared evolutionary origin in all 10 lineages. However, this hypothesis faces a conundrum in that legume-type and actinorhizal-type nodules have been regarded as fundamentally different. Here, we analyzed the actinorhizal-type nodules formed by Parasponia andersonii (Rosales) and Alnus glutinosa (Fagales) and found that their ontogeny is more similar to that of legume-type nodules (Fabales) than generally assumed. We also show that in Medicago truncatula, a homeotic mutation in the co-transcriptional regulator gene NODULE ROOT1 (MtNOOT1) converts legume-type nodules into actinorhizal-type nodules. These experimental findings suggest that the two nodule types have a shared evolutionary origin.

    Valuing the effect of land use change on landscape services on the urban–rural fringe
    Zhou, Ting ; Kennedy, Erin ; Koomen, Eric ; Leeuwen, Eveline S. van - \ 2020
    Journal of Environmental Planning and Management (2020). - ISSN 0964-0568
    economic valuation - land-use change - lansdscape services - the Netherlands - urban–rural fringe

    The urban–rural fringe is a dynamic environment where urban expansion limits the provision of landscape services. Economic valuation of these services is proposed to quantify the impact of urbanisation and inform planners of the potential losses that attribute to these land-use changes. However, most evaluation methods remain controversial regarding shortcomings in providing reliable results. This study applies market price, contingent valuation and value transfer methods and compares their performance in assessing the economic impact of land-use changes on the urban–rural fringe of the Amstelland (the Netherlands). Results with these applied methods differ greatly due to their respective advantages in revealing use values or non-use values of landscape services and dependence on land-use change. Thus, results are sensitive to value types, the scarcity of landscape services, scale of the study area, and involved stakeholders. This paper reflects on the strengths and weaknesses of these methods in different planning contexts.

    Impacts of cropland expansion on carbon storage : A case study in Hubei, China
    Tang, Lanping ; Ke, Xinli ; Zhou, Ting ; Zheng, Weiwei ; Wang, Liye - \ 2020
    Journal of Environmental Management 265 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4797
    Carbon storage - Cropland expansion - Cropland protection policies - Ecosystem services - Land use model

    When cropland expansion encroaches on ecological land (e.g., forest, grassland, wetland), it seriously affects carbon storage which plays an important role in global climate change. Taking Hubei as the study area, this study explored the effects of cropland expansion on carbon storage in both 2000–2010 and 2010–2030 in different scenarios by using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model and the LAND System Cellular Automata model for Potential Effects (LANDSCAPE). The results showed that cropland expansion led to a massive loss of carbon storage (1.76 Tg C) during 2000–2010, which is expected to continue during 2010–2030 in different scenarios. The loss is predicted to be 3.70 Tg C in the Business-As-Usual scenario and be 0.88 Tg C in the Requisition–Compensation Balance of Cropland Policy scenario. Noticeably, the loss of carbon storage due to cropland expansion was 1.12 times more than that due to urban expansion during 2000–2010. For the period of 2010–2030, the loss of carbon storage caused by cropland expansion is predicted to be 3.89 times more than that caused by urban expansion in the Business-As-Usual scenario, while the losses caused by cropland expansion and urban expansion are predicted to be almost equal in the Requisition–Compensation Balance of Cropland Policy scenario. The main cause of carbon storage loss due to cropland expansion is that it leads to the considerable loss of forest and wetland. This study highlights the importance of considering the loss of carbon storage caused by cropland expansion when conducting cropland protection policies and land use planning.

    INNOVA Ezine5 – Taiwan megacity Kaohsiung: how to beat extreme climate events in a tropical metropole
    Timmermans, W. ; Jong, F. de; Wei, Kuan-Hung ; Chen, Yi-Tsen ; Huang, Sin-Jia ; Huang-Lachmann, Jo-Ting ; Bruijn, Daphne de; Harsema, Harry - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Uitgeverij Blauwdruk
    Born migrators: Historical biogeography of the cosmopolitan family Cannabaceae
    Jin, Jian Jun ; Yang, Mei Qing ; Fritsch, Peter W. ; Velzen, Robin van; Li, De Zhu ; Yi, Ting Shuang - \ 2020
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution 58 (2020)4. - ISSN 1674-4918 - p. 461 - 473.
    ancestral geographical range analysis - Cannabaceae - dispersal - molecular dating - Northern Hemisphere - phylogeny

    Dispersal scenarios have been favored over tectonic vicariance as an explanation for disjunct distributions in many plant taxa during the last two decades. However, this argument has been insufficiently addressed in cosmopolitan groups showing disjunct patterns in both the temperate and tropical regions. In this study, we used the Cannabaceae, an angiosperm family distributed in tropical and temperate regions of both the New World and the Old World, to explore the role of dispersal in shaping disjunct patterns and species diversification of cosmopolitan plants. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of all 10 genera and 75 species of Cannabaceae (ca. 64.1% of recognized species) based on eight DNA regions. Based on fossil calibrations, we estimated the divergence times and net diversification rates. We further inferred the ancestral geographical ranges with several models and compared the fitness of different models. The Cannabaceae and most genera were strongly supported as monophyletic except for the Parasponia being embedded within the Trema. The Celtis were resolved into two strongly supported clades primarily corresponding to temperate and tropical regions. We inferred that the Cannabaceae originated at ca. 93 Ma, and that subsequent rampant and widespread dispersals shaped the intercontinentally disjunct distribution of the Cannabaceae. Dispersal coincides with adaptation to drier and colder climate in the Northern Hemisphere, or humid and warm climate in the tropical regions, followed by rapid species diversification. This study advances our understanding as to the formation of distribution patterns and species diversification of a plant family with tropical to temperate disjunct distributions.

    Protist communities are more sensitive to nitrogen fertilization than other microorganisms in diverse agricultural soils
    Zhao, Zhi Bo ; He, Ji Zheng ; Geisen, Stefan ; Han, Li Li ; Wang, Jun Tao ; Shen, Ju Pei ; Wei, Wen Xue ; Fang, Yun Ting ; Li, Pei Pei ; Zhang, Li Mei - \ 2019
    Microbiome 7 (2019)1. - ISSN 2049-2618
    High-throughput sequencing - Microbiome - Nitrogen fertilizers - Soil protists - Soil type

    Background: Agricultural food production is at the base of food and fodder, with fertilization having fundamentally and continuously increased crop yield over the last decades. The performance of crops is intimately tied to their microbiome as they together form holobionts. The importance of the microbiome for plant performance is, however, notoriously ignored in agricultural systems as fertilization disconnects the dependency of plants for often plant-beneficial microbial processes. Moreover, we lack a holistic understanding of how fertilization regimes affect the soil microbiome. Here, we examined the effect of a 2-year fertilization regime (no nitrogen fertilization control, nitrogen fertilization, and nitrogen fertilization plus straw amendment) on entire soil microbiomes (bacteria, fungi, and protist) in three common agricultural soil types cropped with maize in two seasons. Results: We found that the application of nitrogen fertilizers more strongly affected protist than bacterial and fungal communities. Nitrogen fertilization indirectly reduced protist diversity through changing abiotic properties and bacterial and fungal communities which differed between soil types and sampling seasons. Nitrogen fertilizer plus straw amendment had greater effects on soil physicochemical properties and microbiome diversity than nitrogen addition alone. Moreover, nitrogen fertilization, even more together with straw, increased soil microbiome network complexity, suggesting that the application of nitrogen fertilizers tightened soil microbiomes interactions. Conclusions: Together, our results suggest that protists are the most susceptible microbiome component to the application of nitrogen fertilizers. As protist communities also exhibit the strongest seasonal dynamics, they serve as the most sensitive bioindicators of soil changes. Changes in protist communities might have long-term effects if some of the key protist hubs that govern microbiome complexities as top microbiome predators are altered. This study serves as the stepping stone to promote protists as promising agents in targeted microbiome engineering to help in reducing the dependency on exogenous unsustainably high fertilization and pesticide applications.

    A nexus modeling framework for assessing water scarcity solutions
    Kahil, Taher ; Albiac, Jose ; Fischer, Guenther ; Strokal, Maryna ; Tramberend, Sylvia ; Greve, Peter ; Tang, Ting ; Burek, Peter ; Burtscher, Robert ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 40 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 72 - 80.

    Water scarcity has become a crucial environmental issue worldwide. It has increased substantially in the last decades in many parts of the world, and it is expected to further exacerbate in the future driven by socio-economic and climatic changes. Several solution options could be implemented to address this growing water scarcity, including supply and demand-side management options that span the water, energy, and agricultural sectors. However, these options involve tradeoffs among various societal objectives, especially when the interactions between these objectives are not properly considered. This paper provides a review of the impending water scarcity challenges and suggests assessing water scarcity solution options using a nexus modeling framework that links well-established sectoral-oriented models.

    Lateral root formation involving cell division in both pericycle, cortex and endodermis is a common and ancestral trait in seed plants
    Xiao, Ting Ting ; Velzen, Robin van; Kulikova, Olga ; Franken, Carolien ; Bisseling, Ton - \ 2019
    Development 146 (2019)20. - ISSN 0950-1991
    Endodermis - Lateral root development - Medicago - Primordium - Quiescent centre - Stem cells

    Studies on the model plant Arabidopsis have led to the common view that lateral roots are exclusively formed from pericycle cells and that the latter are unique in their ability to be reprogrammed into stem cells. By analysing lateral root formation in an evolutionary context, we show that lateral root primordium formation in which cortex, endodermis and pericycle are mitotically activated, is a common and ancestral trait in seed plants, whereas the exclusive involvement of pericycle evolved in the Brassicaceae. Furthermore, the endodermis can also be reprogrammed into stem cells in some species.

    Earthworms Coordinate Soil Biota to Improve Multiple Ecosystem Functions
    Liu, Ting ; Chen, Xiaoyun ; Gong, Xin ; Lubbers, Ingrid M. ; Jiang, Yangyang ; Feng, Wen ; Li, Xianping ; Whalen, Joann K. ; Bonkowski, Michael ; Griffiths, Bryan S. ; Hu, Feng ; Liu, Manqiang - \ 2019
    Current Biology 29 (2019)20. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 3420 - 3429.
    bacterial-dominated channel - earthworm - ecosystem engineer - ecosystem service - soil fauna - soil microbe - sustainable agriculture

    Liu et al. study a 13-year-old field experiment to show that earthworms are beneficial to agroecosystems from a multifunctional perspective. This work incorporates the concerns of negative effects of earthworms in recently published syntheses and highlights the potential pathways in which earthworms contribute to sustainable agriculture.

    Propolis modulates the gut microbiota and improves the intestinal mucosal barrier function in diabetic rats
    Xue, Meilan ; Liu, Ying ; Xu, Hongwei ; Zhou, Zhitong ; Ma, Yan ; Sun, Ting ; Liu, Man ; Zhang, Huaqi ; Liang, Hui - \ 2019
    Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 118 (2019). - ISSN 0753-3322
    16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing - Diabetes - Gut microbiota - Propolis - Short chain fatty acid

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus is associated with gut microbiota disturbance and intestinal mucosal injuries. This study investigated the influence of propolis on the gut microbiota and intestinal mucosa in rats with diabetes. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to the control group, model group, and three propolis groups (supplemented with 80, 160, and 240 mg/kg·bw propolis, respectively). A high-fat diet combined with a streptozotocin (STZ) abdominal injection were used to induce diabetes in the rats. After 4 weeks, the intestinal histopathological analysis of the ileum was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma insulin, glucose tolerance (OGTT) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured. The expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the ileum was measured using western blotting. The molecular ecology of the fecal gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. The contents of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: After propolis treatment, compared to the model group, FBG and HbA1c levels declined, while the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) increased. The levels of TJ proteins in the ileum increased in the propolis groups. The tight junctions and gap junctions of the intestinal epithelium were also improved in the propolis groups. The contents of the feces acetic acid, propionic acid and butyrate were increased in the propolis groups. 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing revealed that the composition of the gut microbiota of rats in the propolis supplement group was significantly improved. Conclusions: Compared to the model group, propolis exerted hypoglycemic effects in diabetic rats, and it repaired intestinal mucosal damage, benefited the communities of the gut microbiota and increased SCFA levels in diabetic rats.

    Increasing nitrogen export to sea: A scenario analysis for the Indus River
    Wang, Mengru ; Tang, Ting ; Burek, P. ; Havlík, Petr ; Krisztin, Tamás ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Leclère, D. ; Strokal, Maryna ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Wang, Yaoping ; Langan, S. - \ 2019
    Science of the Total Environment 694 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Indus River - Nitrogen sources - Representative concentration pathways - River export of nitrogen (N) - Shared socio-economic pathways - Sub-basins

    The Indus River Basin faces severe water quality degradation because of nutrient enrichment from human activities. Excessive nutrients in tributaries are transported to the river mouth, causing coastal eutrophication. This situation may worsen in the future because of population growth, economic development, and climate change. This study aims at a better understanding of the magnitude and sources of current (2010) and future (2050) river export of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) by the Indus River at the sub-basin scale. To do this, we implemented the MARINA 1.0 model (Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs). The model inputs for human activities (e.g., agriculture, land use) were mainly from the GLOBIOM (Global Biosphere Management Model) and EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Model) models. Model inputs for hydrology were from the Community WATer Model (CWATM). For 2050, three scenarios combining Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs 1, 2 and 3) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6 and 6.0) were selected. A novelty of this study is the sub-basin analysis of future N export by the Indus River for SSPs and RCPs. Result shows that river export of TDN by the Indus River will increase by a factor of 1.6–2 between 2010 and 2050 under the three scenarios. >90% of the dissolved N exported by the Indus River is from midstream sub-basins. Human waste is expected to be the major source, and contributes by 66–70% to river export of TDN in 2050 depending on the scenarios. Another important source is agriculture, which contributes by 21–29% to dissolved inorganic N export in 2050. Thus a combined reduction in both diffuse and point sources in the midstream sub-basins can be effective to reduce coastal water pollution by nutrients at the river mouth of Indus.

    A Medicago truncatula SWEET transporter implicated in arbuscule maintenance during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis
    An, Jianyong ; Zeng, Tian ; Ji, Chuanya ; Graaf, Sanne de; Zheng, Zijun ; Xiao, Ting Ting ; Deng, Xiuxin ; Xiao, Shunyuan ; Bisseling, Ton ; Limpens, Erik ; Pan, Zhiyong - \ 2019
    New Phytologist 224 (2019)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 396 - 408.
    arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) - glucose - Medicago truncatula - sugar export - SWEET - symbiosis

    Plants form a mutualistic symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which facilitates the acquisition of scarce minerals from the soil. In return, the host plants provide sugars and lipids to its fungal partner. However, the mechanism by which the AM fungi obtain sugars from the plant has remained elusive. In this study we investigated the role of potential SWEET family sugar exporters in AM symbiosis in Medicago truncatula. We show that M. truncatula SWEET1b transporter is strongly upregulated in arbuscule-containing cells compared to roots and localizes to the peri-arbuscular membrane, across which nutrient exchange takes place. Heterologous expression of MtSWEET1b in a yeast hexose transport mutant showed that it mainly transports glucose. Overexpression of MtSWEET1b in M. truncatula roots promoted the growth of intraradical mycelium during AM symbiosis. Surprisingly, two independent Mtsweet1b mutants, which are predicted to produce truncated protein variants impaired in glucose transport, exhibited no significant defects in AM symbiosis. However, arbuscule-specific overexpression of MtSWEET1bY57A/G58D, which are considered to act in a dominant-negative manner, resulted in enhanced collapse of arbuscules. Taken together, our results reveal a (redundant) role for MtSWEET1b in the transport of glucose across the peri-arbuscular membrane to maintain arbuscules for a healthy mutually beneficial symbiosis.

    Recently duplicated sesterterpene (C25) gene clusters in Arabidopsis thaliana modulate root microbiota
    Chen, Quingwen ; Jiang, Ting ; Liu, Yong-Xin ; Liu, Haili ; Zhao, T. ; Liu, Zhixi ; Gan, Xiangchao ; Hallab, Asis ; Wang, Xuemei ; He, Juan ; Ma, Yihua ; Zhang, Fengxia ; Jin, Tao ; Schranz, M.E. ; Wang, Yong ; Bai, Yang ; Wang, Guodong - \ 2019
    Science in China Series C-Life Sciences 62 (2019)7. - ISSN 1006-9305 - p. 947 - 958.
    Land plants co-speciate with a diversity of continually expanding plant specialized metabolites (PSMs) and root microbial communities (microbiota). Homeostatic interactions between plants and root microbiota are essential for plant survival in natural environments. A growing appreciation of microbiota for plant health is fuelling rapid advances in genetic mechanisms of controlling microbiota by host plants. PSMs have long been proposed to mediate plant and single microbe interactions. However, the effects of PSMs, especially those evolutionarily new PSMs, on root microbiota at community level remain to be elucidated. Here, we discovered sesterterpenes in Arabidopsis thaliana, produced by recently duplicated prenyltransferase-terpene synthase (PT-TPS) gene clusters, with neo-functionalization. A single-residue substitution played a critical role in the acquisition of sesterterpene synthase (sesterTPS) activity in Brassicaceae plants. Moreover, we found that the absence of two root-specific sesterterpenoids, with similar chemical structure, significantly affected root microbiota assembly in similar patterns. Our results not only demonstrate the sensitivity of plant microbiota to PSMs but also establish a complete framework of host plants to control root microbiota composition through evolutionarily dynamic PSMs.
    Improved aerosol correction for OMI tropospheric NO2 retrieval over East Asia : Constraint from CALIOP aerosol vertical profile
    Liu, Mengyao ; Lin, Jintai ; Folkert Boersma, K. ; Pinardi, Gaia ; Wang, Yang ; Chimot, Julien ; Wagner, Thomas ; Xie, Pinhua ; Eskes, Henk ; Roozendael, Michel Van; Hendrick, François ; Wang, Pucai ; Wang, Ting ; Yan, Yingying ; Chen, Lulu ; Ni, Ruijing - \ 2019
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 12 (2019)1. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 1 - 21.

    Satellite retrieval of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is critical for NOx pollution and impact evaluation. For regions with high aerosol loadings, the retrieval accuracy is greatly affected by whether aerosol optical effects are treated implicitly (as additional effective clouds) or explicitly, among other factors. Our previous POMINO algorithm explicitly accounts for aerosol effects to improve the retrieval, especially in polluted situations over China, by using aerosol information from GEOS-Chem simulations with further monthly constraints by MODIS/Aqua aerosol optical depth (AOD) data. Here we present a major algorithm update, POMINO v1.1, by constructing a monthly climatological dataset of aerosol extinction profiles, based on level 2 CALIOP/CALIPSO data over 2007-2015, to better constrain the modeled aerosol vertical profiles. We find that GEOS-Chem captures the month-to-month variation in CALIOP aerosol layer height (ALH) but with a systematic underestimate by about 300-600 m (season and location dependent), due to a too strong negative vertical gradient of extinction above 1 km. Correcting the model aerosol extinction profiles results in small changes in retrieved cloud fraction, increases in cloud-top pressure (within 2 %-6 % in most cases), and increases in tropospheric NO2 VCD by 4 %-16 % over China on a monthly basis in 2012. The improved NO2 VCDs (in POMINO v1.1) are more consistent with independent ground-based MAX-DOAS observations (R2=0.80, NMB =-3.4 %, for 162 pixels in 49 days) than POMINO (R2=0.80, NMB =-9.6 %), DOMINO v2 (R2=0.68, NMB =-2.1 %), and QA4ECV (R2=0.75, NMB =-22.0 %) are. Especially on haze days, R2 reaches 0.76 for POMINO v1.1, much higher than that for POMINO (0.68), DOMINO v2 (0.38), and QA4ECV (0.34). Furthermore, the increase in cloud pressure likely reveals a more realistic vertical relationship between cloud and aerosol layers, with aerosols situated above the clouds in certain months span id=page2 instead of always below the clouds. The POMINO v1.1 algorithm is a core step towards our next public release of the data product (POMINO v2), and it will also be applied to the recently launched S5P-TROPOMI sensor.

    Modeling phosphorus in rivers at the global scale : recent successes, remaining challenges, and near-term opportunities
    Harrison, John A. ; Beusen, Arthur H.W. ; Fink, Gabriel ; Tang, Ting ; Strokal, Maryna ; Bouwman, Alexander F. ; Metson, Geneviève S. ; Vilmin, Lauriane - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 68 - 77.

    Understanding and mitigating the effects of phosphorus (P) overenrichment of waters globally, including the evaluation of the global Sustainability Development Goals, requires the use of global models. Such models quantitatively link land use, global population growth and climate to aquatic nutrient loading and biogeochemical cycling. Here we describe, compare, and contrast the existing global models capable of predicting P transport by rivers at a global scale. We highlight important insights gained from the development and application of these models, and identify important near-term opportunities for model improvements as well as additional insight to be gained through new model analysis.

    Bridging global, basin and local-scale water quality modeling towards enhancing water quality management worldwide
    Tang, Ting ; Strokal, Maryna ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Seuntjens, Piet ; Burek, Peter ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Langan, Simon ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 39 - 48.

    Global water quality (WQ) modeling is an emerging field. In this article, we identify the missing linkages between global and basin/local-scale WQ models, and discuss the possibilities to fill these gaps. We argue that WQ models need stronger linkages across spatial scales. This would help to identify effective scale-specific WQ management options and contribute to future development of global WQ models. Two directions are proposed to improve the linkages: nested multiscale WQ modeling towards enhanced water management, and development of next-generation global WQ models based-on basin/local-scale mechanistic understanding. We highlight the need for better collaboration among WQ modelers and policy-makers in order to deliver responsive water policies and management strategies across scales.

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