Records 1 - 20 / 2217
Participatory governance in Lake Victoria (Kenya) fisheries : whose voices are heard?
Etiegni, Christine Adhiambo ; Irvine, Kenneth ; Kooy, Michelle - \ 2020
Maritime Studies (2020). - ISSN 1872-7859
BMUs - Co-management - Critical institutionalism - Fisheries - Lake Victoria - Participation
Co-management is advocated as a means to improve human equity and the ecological sustainability of common-pool resources. The promotion of co-management of fisheries often assumes the participation of resource users in decision-making ensures more ecologically sustainable outcomes than top–down management approaches while improving livelihoods and food security. However, in fisheries co-management approaches, participation is often poorly defined and measured by co-management proponents. For resource users, it may not be clear what their participation in co-management entails, and what such participation might involve or achieve. For the fisheries of Lake Victoria (Kenya), the introduction of co-management established Beach Management Units (BMUs) on a model of participatory decision-making. Unsurprisingly, given global experiences of institutions for resource users’ participation in co-management, the structures established across Lake Victoria (Kenya) have not resulted in effective participation of fisher folk. We examine why this is so. Specifically, we examine the influence of institutions on fisher folks’ participation in co-management, using critical institutionalism to explain how participation of resource users is shaped by the relation between formal government institutions and informal social norms. We take four BMUs as case studies to investigate how historical administrative structures shape the development of co-management, how power relationships within co-management are negotiated at the local beach level and the fisher folks’ understanding of their participation in co-management. We document how informal institutions undermine and replace formal institutions at the local beach level, while formal institutions suppress and ignore informal ones at the national and regional levels. From this, we argue power sharing between the government and fisher folk is key for fisher folk participation in fisheries co-management, capable of addressing both social and ecological challenges facing fisheries management.
Removing top leaves increases yield and nutrient uptake in maize plants
Raza, Muhammad Ali ; Werf, Wopke van der; Ahmed, Mukhtar ; Yang, Wenyu - \ 2020
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 118 (2020)1. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 57 - 73.
Maize - Nitrogen - Phosphorus - Potassium - Seed filling-phase
Abstract: Intraspecific competition for light affects nutrient uptake of maize, especially during the seed filling phase (from the blistering-stage to physiological-maturity). Partial leaf removal only affects the top leaves and improves the light-environment, which could then enhance nutrient uptake during the seed filling phase. However, there is a shortage of quantitative information on the yield effects of such a management measure. A 3-year field trial was conducted to evaluate the impact of different leaf removal treatments (no removal of leaves (D0: control), removal of two leaves (D2), removal of four leaves (D4), and removal of six leaves (D6) from maize-canopy) on total dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium uptake at the blistering-stage and physiological-maturity, plus seed number per plant, seed weight, and seed yield at physiological maturity. Compared to D0, at physiological-maturity, D2 significantly increased total dry matter accumulation (by 9%), and uptake of nitrogen (by 5%), phosphorus (by 10%), and potassium (by 4%); while excessive leaf removal treatments considerably reduced dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake. Importantly, during the seed filling phase of maize, treatment D2 significantly enhanced the uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium by 76%, 40%, and 65%, respectively, compared to control. Treatment D2 increased seed number per plant (by 6.4%, from 448 under D0 to 477 in D2) and seed weight (by 5.7%). Relative to control, maize in D2 had 12%, 14%, and 11%, higher seed-yields in 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively, and it also improved the economic profit when taking into account labor costs. Graphic abstract: Graphical representation of changes in light transmittance, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, carbohydrate, and dry matter accumulation in maize plants as affected by different leaf removal treatments. Treatment codes represent no defoliation (D0: control), removal of two leaves (D2), removal of four leaves (D4), and removal of six leaves (D6) from the top of maize canopy. Yellow and green arrows show the light environment and leaf area of maize plants. The black arrows represent the regulating directions of leaf removal treatments on maize growth and development in this paper. The graphical abstract clearly demonstrates the significant improvement of optimum leaf removal treatment (D2) as compared to control (D0). The red and blue arrows show the relevant increase and decrease of the mentioned components between the optimal leaf removal and control. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
Applying Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) with stakeholders to explore and codesign options for water resource interventions
Singto, Chakaphon ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Vos, Jeroen ; Quinn, Claire - \ 2020
Sustainable Water Resources Management 6 (2020)2. - ISSN 2363-5037
Bayesian belief network - Conflicts - Policymakers - Stakeholder involvement - Water resources planning
Bayesian Belief networks (BBNs) are a useful tool to account for uncertainty and can be used to incorporate stakeholder understandings of how a system works. In this study, BBNs were applied to elicit and discuss local stakeholders’ concerns in conflicts over water resource planning in two cases in southern Thailand. One concerned the construction of a dam proposed by a top-down project. The other concerned a bottom-up participatory process at the catchment scale to assess the need for water resources interventions and explore perceptions on alternative design options. In the top-down project, the responses of participants during the elaboration of the BBN showed that potentially affected stakeholders were particularly concerned about limited consultation and lack of shared benefits, which led them to oppose the dam project. In the bottom-up project, local stakeholders expected and agreed with the benefits of a dam, proposing to locate the dam upstream of community land. The BBN method did not facilitate dialogue in the top-down dam-building project because no alternative design options could be discussed and potentially affected stakeholders did not want to discuss compensation because of mistrust and differences in valuation of effects. In the bottom-up project, the BBN method did facilitate dialogue on alternative intervention options and their effects. The replicable BBN framework can support policy-makers to better understand water conflict situations in different stages of planning. Its application supports exploring a wider repertoire of options, enlarging the scope for more inclusive and sustainable solutions to water resource conflicts.
Global status and conservation potential of reef sharks
MacNeil, Aaron ; Chapman, Demian D. ; Heupel, Michelle ; Simpfendorfer, Colin A. ; Heithaus, Michael ; Meekan, Mark ; Harvey, Euan ; Goetze, Jordan ; Kiszka, Jeremy ; Bond, Mark E. ; Currey-Randall, Leanne M. ; Speed, Conrad W. ; Sherman, Samantha ; Rees, Matthew J. ; Udyawer, Vinay ; Flowers, Kathryn I. ; Clementi, Gina ; Valentin-Albanese, Jasmine ; Gorham, Taylor ; Adam, Shiham ; Khadeeja, Ali ; Pina-Amargós, Fabián ; Angulo-Valdés, Jorge A. ; Asher, Jacob ; García Barcia, Laura ; Beaufort, Océane ; Benjamin, Cecilie ; Bernard, Anthony T.F. ; Berumen, Michael L. ; Bierwagen, Stacy ; Bonnema, Erika ; Bown, Rosalind M.K. ; Bradley, Darcey ; Brooks, Edd ; Brown, Jed ; Buddo, Dayne ; Burke, Patrick ; Cáceres, Camila ; Cardeñosa, Diego ; Carrier, Jeffrey C. ; Caselle, Jennifer E. ; Charloo, Venkatesh ; Claverie, Thomas ; Clua, Eric ; Cochran, Jesse E.M. ; Cook, Neil ; Cramp, Jessica ; D’Alberto, Brooke ; Graaf, Martin de; Dornhege, Mareike ; Estep, Andy ; Fanovich, Lanya ; Farabough, Naomi F. ; Fernando, Daniel ; Flam, Anna L. ; Floros, Camilla ; Fourqurean, Virginia ; Garla, Ricardo ; Gastrich, Kirk ; George, Lachlan ; Graham, Rory ; Guttridge, Tristan ; Hardenstine, Royale S. ; Heck, Stephen ; Henderson, Aaron C. ; Hertler, Heidi ; Hueter, Robert ; Johnson, Mohini ; Jupiter, Stacy ; Kasana, Devanshi ; Kessel, Steven T. ; Kiilu, Benedict ; Kirata, Taratu ; Kuguru, Baraka ; Kyne, Fabian ; Langlois, Tim ; Lédée, Elodie J.I. ; Lindfield, Steve ; Luna-Acosta, Andrea ; Maggs, Jade ; Manjaji-Matsumoto, Mabel ; Marshall, Andrea ; Matich, Philip ; McCombs, Erin ; McLean, Dianne ; Meggs, Llewelyn ; Moore, Stephen ; Mukherji, Sushmita ; Murray, Ryan ; Kaimuddin, Muslimin ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Nogués, Josep ; Obota, Clay ; O’Shea, Owen ; Osuka, Kennedy ; Papastamatiou, Yannis P. ; Perera, Nishan ; Peterson, Bradley ; Ponzo, Alessandro ; Prasetyo, Andhika ; Quamar, Sjamsul ; Quinlan, Jessica ; Ruiz-Abierno, Alexei ; Sala, Enric ; Samoilys, Melita ; Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle ; Schlaff, Audrey ; Simpson, Nikola ; Smith, Adam N.H. ; Sparks, Lauren ; Tanna, Akshay ; Torres, Rubén ; Travers, Michael J. ; Zinnicq Bergmann, Maurits van; Vigliola, Laurent ; Ward, Juney ; Watts, Alexandra M. ; Wen, Colin ; Whitman, Elizabeth ; Wirsing, Aaron J. ; Wothke, Aljoscha ; Zarza-Gonzâlez, Esteban ; Cinner, Joshua E. - \ 2020
Nature 583 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 801 - 806.
Decades of overexploitation have devastated shark populations, leaving considerable doubt as to their ecological status1,2. Yet much of what is known about sharks has been inferred from catch records in industrial fisheries, whereas far less information is available about sharks that live in coastal habitats3. Here we address this knowledge gap using data from more than 15,000 standardized baited remote underwater video stations that were deployed on 371 reefs in 58 nations to estimate the conservation status of reef sharks globally. Our results reveal the profound impact that fishing has had on reef shark populations: we observed no sharks on almost 20% of the surveyed reefs. Reef sharks were almost completely absent from reefs in several nations, and shark depletion was strongly related to socio-economic conditions such as the size and proximity of the nearest market, poor governance and the density of the human population. However, opportunities for the conservation of reef sharks remain: shark sanctuaries, closed areas, catch limits and an absence of gillnets and longlines were associated with a substantially higher relative abundance of reef sharks. These results reveal several policy pathways for the restoration and management of reef shark populations, from direct top-down management of fishing to indirect improvement of governance conditions. Reef shark populations will only have a high chance of recovery by engaging key socio-economic aspects of tropical fisheries.
Opportunities for fraudsters : When would profitable milk adulterations go unnoticed by common, standardized FTIR measurements?
Yang, Yuzheng ; Hettinga, Kasper A. ; Erasmus, Sara W. ; Pustjens, Annemieke M. ; Ruth, Saskia M. van - \ 2020
Food Research International 136 (2020). - ISSN 0963-9969
Ammonium chloride (PubChem CID: 25517) - Ammonium sulphate (PubChem CID: 6097028) - Dicyandiamide (PubChem CID: 10005) - Formaldehyde (PubChem CID: 712) - Fourier transform infrared - Fructose (PubChem CID: 5984) - Glucose (PubChem CID: 79025) - Hydrogen peroxide (PubChem CID: 784) - Lactose (PubChem CID: 104938) - Maltodextrin (PubChem CID: 68229136) - Melamine (PubChem CID: 7955) - Milk adulteration - Milk composition - Milkoscan measurements - One class classification - Profitability - Sodium bicarbonate (PubChem CID: 516892) - Sodium carbonate (PubChem CID: 10340) - Sodium citrate (PubChem CID: 23666341) - Sodium hydroxide (PubChem CID: 14798) - Starch (PubChem CID: 24836924) - Sucrose (PubChem CID: 5988) - Urea (PubChem CID: 1176)
Milk is regarded as one of the top food products susceptible to adulteration where its valuable components are specifically identified as high-risk indicators for milk fraud. The current study explores the impact of common milk adulterants on the apparent compositional parameters of milk from the Dutch market as measured by standardized Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. More precisely, it examines the detectability of these adulterants at various concentration levels using the compositional parameters individually, in a univariate manner, and together in a multivariate approach. In this study we used measured boundaries but also more practical variance-adjusted boundaries to set thresholds for detection of adulteration. The potential economic impact of these adulterations under a milk payment scheme is also evaluated. Twenty-four substances were used to produce various categories of milk adulterations, each at four concentration levels. These substances comprised five protein-rich adulterants, five nitrogen-based adulterants, seven carbohydrate-based adulterants, six preservatives and water, resulting in a set of 360 samples to be analysed. The results showed that the addition of protein-rich adulterants, as well as dicyandiamide and melamine, increased the apparent protein content, while the addition of carbohydrate-based adulterants, whey protein isolate, and skimmed milk powder, increased the apparent lactose content. When considering the compositional parameters univariately, especially protein- and nitrogen-based adulterants did not raise a flag of unusual apparent concentrations at lower concentration levels. Addition of preservatives also went unnoticed. The multivariate approach did not improve the level of detection. Regarding the potential profit of milk adulteration, whey protein and corn starch seem particularly interesting. Combining the artificial inflation of valuable components, the resulting potential profit, and the gaps in detection, it appears that the whey protein isolates deserve particular attention when thinking like a criminal.
Estimation of nitrogen supply for winter wheat production through a long-term field trial in China
Huang, Shaohui ; Ding, Wencheng ; Yang, Junfang ; Zhang, Jiajia ; Ullah, Sami ; Xu, Xinpeng ; Liu, Yingxia ; Yang, Yunma ; Liu, Mengchao ; He, Ping ; Jia, Liangliang - \ 2020
Journal of Environmental Management 270 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4797
Nitrogen use efficiency - Relative yield - Total nitrogen supply - Winter wheat
Excessive synthetic nitrogen (N) applications, high mineral N accumulation and low N use efficiency (NUE) are current issues in intensively cultivated winter wheat production system impeding the sustainable development of agriculture in China. To solve these problems, soil accumulated N in the top 1 m of the soil profile before sowing (Nsoil), returned straw-N from the previous maize crop (Nstraw) and fertilizer N application (Nfertilizer) should be comprehensively considered N supply sources in N management. As such, the objective of this research was to determine the optimal total N supply (TNsupply) level needed to meet crop requirements while minimizing environmental impacts. A 9-year on-farm experiment was conducted in accordance with a split-plot design involving two different fertilizer management systems (main treatments) and three N application strategies (sub treatments). Extensive TNsupply levels (ranging from 61 kg ha−1 to 813 kg ha−1) were detected, and relative yield (RY), N input and N output in response to the TNsupply were measured. The relationships between TNsupply and RY, N input, and N output strongly fit linear-plateau, linear, and linear-plateau models, respectively. The minimum TNsupply levels needed to achieve the maximum RY and N output were 325 and 392 kg ha−1, respectively. On the basis of N supply capacity, the TNsupply was removed from the growing system by 61% (N input). As the N input increased past 209 kg ha−1, the NUE declined, at which point the TNsupply reached 433 kg ha−1. Therefore, the suitable TNsupply should range from 325 kg ha−1 (ensuring a total N supply for high yield and N uptake) to 433 kg ha−1 (obtaining a relatively higher NUE and less N loss to the environment). The TNsupply was highlighted to be an indicator for use in N management recommendations. Considering the average high N accumulation in winter wheat production systems, N management should essentially take into account the consumption of Nsoil, the levels of Nstraw and the minimum application of Nfertilizer to obtain high yields while minimizing environmental impacts under suitable TNsupply levels.
Increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency of spring maize in Northeast China through ecological intensification management
Xu, Rui ; Xu, Rui ; Xu, Xin Peng ; Hou, Yun Peng ; Zhang, Jia Jia ; Huang, Shao Hui ; Ding, Wen Cheng ; Liu, Ying Xia ; He, Ping - \ 2020
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers 26 (2020)3. - ISSN 1008-505X - p. 461 - 471.
Ecological intensive nutrient management - Nitrogen balance - Nitrogen use efficiency - Spring maize
[Objectives] In view of the problems in ecological environment and sustainable agricultural development caused by excessive and unreasonable fertilizer application in spring maize production in China, the effects of ecological intensive nutrient management on spring maize yield, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen balance in Northeast China were studied in order to make full use of resources, increase production efficiency and ensure national food security scientifically and rationally. [Methods] A long-term experiment was conducted from 2009 to 2017 in Gongzhuling City, Jilin Province. Two factors of split plot were designed in the experiment. The main plot was two fertilization managements: the ecological intensive nutrient management (EI) and farmer practice management (FP). The sub-plot was three N application methods, including no N application treatment (N0), N application in two of three years (N2/3) and in three years (N3/3). In EI treatment, P2O575 kg/hm2, K2O 90 kg/hm2, S 30 kg/hm2, Zn 5 kg/hm2and 1/4 of N (180 kg/hm2in 2009-2014, 200 kg/hm2in 2015-2017) applied as basal, 1/2 N top dressed at jointing stage and 1/4 N at tassel stage. In the treatment of FP, N 251 kg/hm2, P2O5145 kg/hm2and K2O 100 kg/hm2were applied once as basal. The yield, N uptake and accumulation of maize and the balance of soil N were investigated. [Results] In N0 treatment, the yield and N uptake showed a downward trend since 2010. In N2/3 treatment, the yield and N uptake decreased in the year without N application, and increased to the level of N3/3 treatment in the case of N application in the following year. In EI treatment, the average yield of N3/3 treatment was 11505 kg/hm2in 9 years, while that of FP treatment was significantly lower, which was 10764 kg/hm2. Compared with FP treatment, EI treatment significantly increased nitrogen agronomic efficiency (AEN), recovery efficiency (REN) and partial factor productivity (PFPN) by 47.4%, 39.6% and 43.8%, respectively. The residual N and apparent loss of N in EI treatment were 49.2% and 63.9% lower than those in FP treatment, respectively. [Conclusions] Ecological intensive nutrient management, including right fertilization rate and time, and suitable cultivar and plant density, is proved to be effective in increasing spring maize yield and N utilization, reducing residue and apparent loss of N in soil. The experiment also confirms that continuous appropriate N fertilizer application is essential for high and stable yield of maize in Northeast China.
Interactions Between the Amazonian Rainforest and Cumuli Clouds: A Large‐Eddy Simulation, High‐Resolution ECMWF, and Observational Intercomparison Study
Vilà‐Guerau De Arellano, J. ; Wang, Xuemei ; Pedruzo‐Bagazgoitia, X. ; Sikma, M. ; Agustí‐Panareda, A. ; Boussetta, S. ; Balsamo, G. ; Machado, L.A.T. ; Biscaro, T. ; Gentine, P. ; Martin, S.T. ; Fuentes, J.D. ; Gerken, T. - \ 2020
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12 (2020)7. - ISSN 1942-2466 - 33 p.
The explicit coupling at meter and second scales of vegetation's responses to the atmospheric‐boundary layer dynamics drives a dynamic heterogeneity that influences canopy‐top fluxes and cloud formation. Focusing on a representative day during the Amazonian dry season, we investigate the diurnal cycle of energy, moisture and carbon dioxide at the canopy top, and the transition from clear to cloudy conditions. To this end, we compare results from a large‐eddy simulation technique, a high‐resolution global weather model, and a complete observational data set collected during the GoAmazon14/15 campaign. The overall model‐observation comparisons of radiation and canopy‐top fluxes, turbulence, and cloud dynamics are very satisfactory, with all the modeled variables lying within the standard deviation of the monthly aggregated observations. Our analysis indicates that the timing of the change in the daylight carbon exchange, from a sink to a source, remains uncertain and is probably related to the stomata closure caused by the increase in vapor pressure deficit during the afternoon. We demonstrate quantitatively that heat and moisture transport from the subcloud layer into the cloud layer are misrepresented by the global model, yielding low values of specific humidity and thermal instability above the cloud base. Finally, the numerical simulations and observational data are adequate settings for benchmarking more comprehensive studies of plant responses, microphysics, and radiation
Pasikola : A co-creation process in urban transportation innovation of Makassar City, Indonesia
Wahidayat Putra, Zulfikar Dinar ; Knaap, Wim G.M. van der - \ 2020
International Journal of E-Planning Research 9 (2020)3. - ISSN 2160-9918 - p. 24 - 46.
Co-Creation - Collaboration - Digital Era - Innovation - Participatory - Top-Down
In this digital era, innovation becomes an important element within urban planning and management to support a more effective and efficient urban service. Until now, most of the local governments in Indonesia still rely on a fully top-down approach to solve urban transportation problems. This article investigates the co-creation process in solving an urban transportation problem in Makassar City, Indonesia, by analyzing key success factors of the process. A literature review and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data from key actors involved in the process. It revealed that there are five important factors contributing to the success of a co-creation process, namely back up from the mayor, diversity of stakeholder involvement, local NGO facilitation, international NGO facilitation, and a committed team. A combination of the top-down approach and co-creation, as a participatory approach, and utilization of digital means seems to offer an opportunity for a more effective and impactful urban solution implementation in a contemporary (Indonesian) city.
Disentangling Benefit-Sharing Complexities of Oil Extraction on the North Slope of Alaska
Tysyachnyouk, M. - \ 2020
Sustainability 12 (2020)13. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 31 p.
benefit-sharing - oil production - Arctic - Indigenous Peoples - Alaska - participatory equity - distributive equity
This paper analyses benefit-sharing arrangements between oil companies, native corporations, the North Slope Borough, and Indigenous Peoples in Alaska. It aims to disentangle the complexities of benefit-sharing to understand existing procedural and distributive equity. We identified benefit-sharing regimes involving modes, principles, and mechanisms of benefit-sharing. This includes modes that reflect institutionalized interactions, such as paternalism, company centered social responsibility (CCSR), partnership, and shareholders. Principles can be based on compensation, investment and charity. Mechanisms can involve negotiated benefits and structured benefits, mandated by legislation, contracts, or regulation. Furthermore, mechanisms can involve semi-formal and trickle-down benefits. Trickle-down benefits come automatically to the community along with development. The distribution of money by the North Slope Borough represents the paternalistic mode, yet involves investment and mandated principles with top–down decision making. They are relatively high in distributional equity and low in participatory equity. Native corporations predominantly practice the shareholders’ mode, investment principle, and mandated mechanisms. The oil companies’ benefit-sharing represents a mixed type combining CCSR and partnership modess, several principles (investment, compensatory, charity) and multiple types of mechanisms, such as mandated, negotiated, semi-formal and trickle-down. These arrangements vary in terms of distributive equity, and participatory equity is limited.
Light response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of rose leaves in the canopy profile : The effect of lighting on the adaxial and the abaxial sides
Paradiso, Roberta ; Visser, Pieter H.B. De; Arena, Carmen ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. - \ 2020
Functional Plant Biology (2020). - ISSN 1445-4408
absorptance - bent shoot - hydroponics - mechanistic model - reflectance - Rosa hybrida - transmittance
We investigated the light response of leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and optical properties in rose plants grown in a glasshouse with bending technique. Leaves were lighted from the adaxial or the abaxial side during measurements, performed in four positions in the upright and bent shoots: top leaves, middle leaves, bottom leaves, and bent shoot leaves. Moreover, the effect of the irradiation on the adaxial or abaxial leaf side on whole canopy photosynthesis was estimated through model simulation. No significant differences were found in light transmission, reflection and absorption of leaves and in photosynthesis light response curves among the four positions. In all the leaf positions, light absorption, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were higher when leaves were lighted from the adaxial compared with the abaxial side. The model showed that a substantial part of the light absorbed by the crop originated from light reflected from the greenhouse floor, and thus the abaxial leaf properties have impact on whole crop light absorbance and photosynthesis. Simulations were performed for crops with leaf area index (LAI) 1, 2 and 3. Simulation at LAI 1 showed the highest reduction of simulated crop photosynthesis considering abaxial properties however, to a lesser extent photosynthesis was also reduced at LAI 2 and 3. The overall results showed that the model may be helpful in designing crop systems for improved light utilisation by changing lamp position or level of leaf bending and pruning.
Fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway and incidence of type 2 diabetes : A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies
Imamura, Fumiaki ; Fretts, Amanda M. ; Marklund, Matti ; Ardisson Korat, Andres V. ; Yang, Wei Sin ; Lankinen, Maria ; Qureshi, Waqas ; Helmer, Catherine ; Chen, Tzu An ; Virtanen, Jyrki K. ; Wong, Kerry ; Bassett, Julie K. ; Murphy, Rachel ; Tintle, Nathan ; Yu, Chaoyu Ian ; Brouwer, Ingeborg A. ; Chien, Kuo Liong ; Chen, Yun Yu ; Wood, Alexis C. ; Gobbo, Liana C. Del; Djousse, Luc ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Giles, Graham G. ; Goede, Janette de; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Harris, William S. ; Hodge, Allison ; Hu, Frank ; Koulman, Albert ; Laakso, Markku ; Lind, Lars ; Lin, Hung Ju ; McKnight, Barbara ; Rajaobelina, Kalina ; Riserus, Ulf ; Robinson, Jennifer G. ; Samieri, Cecilia ; Senn, Mackenzie ; Siscovick, David S. ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. ; Sotoodehnia, Nona ; Sun, Qi ; Tsai, Michael Y. ; Tuomainen, Tomi Pekka ; Uusitupa, Matti ; Wagenknecht, Lynne E. ; Wareham, Nick J. ; Wu, Jason H.Y. ; Micha, Renata ; Lemaitre, Rozenn N. - \ 2020
PLOS Medicine 17 (2020)6. - ISSN 1549-1676 - p. e1003102 - e1003102.
BACKGROUND: De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is the primary metabolic pathway synthesizing fatty acids from carbohydrates, protein, or alcohol. Our aim was to examine associations of in vivo levels of selected fatty acids (16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, 18:1n9) in DNL with incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Seventeen cohorts from 12 countries (7 from Europe, 7 from the United States, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan; baseline years = 1970-1973 to 2006-2010) conducted harmonized individual-level analyses of associations of DNL-related fatty acids with incident T2D. In total, we evaluated 65,225 participants (mean ages = 52.3-75.5 years; % women = 20.4%-62.3% in 12 cohorts recruiting both sexes) and 15,383 incident cases of T2D over the 9-year follow-up on average. Cohort-specific association of each of 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, and 18:1n9 with incident T2D was estimated, adjusted for demographic factors, socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, menopausal status, and adiposity. Cohort-specific associations were meta-analyzed with an inverse-variance-weighted approach. Each of the 4 fatty acids positively related to incident T2D. Relative risks (RRs) per cohort-specific range between midpoints of the top and bottom quintiles of fatty acid concentrations were 1.53 (1.41-1.66; p < 0.001) for 16:0, 1.40 (1.33-1.48; p < 0.001) for 16:1n-7, 1.14 (1.05-1.22; p = 0.001) for 18:0, and 1.16 (1.07-1.25; p < 0.001) for 18:1n9. Heterogeneity was seen across cohorts (I2 = 51.1%-73.1% for each fatty acid) but not explained by lipid fractions and global geographical regions. Further adjusted for triglycerides (and 16:0 when appropriate) to evaluate associations independent of overall DNL, the associations remained significant for 16:0, 16:1n7, and 18:0 but were attenuated for 18:1n9 (RR = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.13). These findings had limitations in potential reverse causation and residual confounding by imprecisely measured or unmeasured factors. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of fatty acids in the DNL were positively associated with T2D incidence. Our findings support further work to investigate a possible role of DNL and individual fatty acids in the development of T2D.
Modelling temperature effects in a membrane cascade system for oligosaccharides
Rizki, Zulhaj ; Suryawirawan, Eric ; Janssen, Anja E.M. ; Padt, Albert van der; Boom, Remko M. - \ 2020
Journal of Membrane Science 610 (2020). - ISSN 0376-7388
Membrane cascades - Modelling - Nanofiltration - Oligosaccharide fractionation - Temperature effect
Open nanofiltration of mixtures of fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed by experiment and by modelling the overall permeation behaviour of 3 different membranes. The temperature effect was modelled using the steric pore model, incorporating the molecular volumetric expansion of fructo-oligosaccharides as solutes, the decrease in the solution viscosity and the volumetric expansion of the membrane with increasing temperature. The thermal expansion of the solute was described as a linear increase in the bare molecular volume plus a non-linear decrease in its hydration number. The viscosity reduction was modelled by incorporating the temperature as a variable into an existing exponential relation derived by Chirife and Buera. The thermal expansion of membranes was described with a linear increase in the pore size and a linear decrease in its hydrodynamic resistance. Although the purity of the oligosaccharide product was hardly affected by the temperature, the yield was much lower at higher temperatures. The yield can therefore be improved by decreasing the temperature while maintaining the product purity. This behaviour was also observed in a 3-stage filtration cascade. The temperature effect is closely related to the increase in fluxes with temperature, leading to a different split of the feed into permeate and retentate. In a membrane cascade, the lower yield with higher temperatures was seen most strongly at the top stage, and much less at the middle and lower stages, which can be explained by the configuration of the cascade.
Community-based governance : Implications for ecosystem service supply in Berg en Dal, the Netherlands
Bussel, Lenny G.J. Van; Haan, Nina De; Remme, Roy P. ; Lof, Marjolein E. ; Groot, Rudolf De - \ 2020
Ecological Indicators 117 (2020). - ISSN 1470-160X
Agricultural landscape - Co-management - Collaborative management - Land-use maps - Multi-level governance - Temporal dynamics
Governance is an essential element in land-use decision-making and ecosystem management choices and thus for ecosystem service provisioning. Although a community-based approach, i.e. governance involving actors from all spheres of society (the state, market and civil society), is considered most appropriate for natural resource management, there is a lack of knowledge about its actual effects on environmental outcomes and ecosystem service supply in particular. To obtain insight in the effect of governance on ecosystem service provision in our study region (Berg en Dal, the Netherlands), we constructed ecosystem service maps for the period 1995 to 2012 using land-use maps. Also an inventory of the implemented governance models was created, based on interviews with stakeholders, supplemented with literature research. Our results show that 1) governance in Berg en Dal changed from top-down to more community-based models during the studied period; and 2) that the potential and actual supply of the majority of the investigated regulating, cultural and habitat ecosystem services increased during the studied period, at the expense of agricultural production. The interviewed local stakeholders also indicated that they have the perception that the landscape has improved during the last two decades. Although there is a clear connection between governance and improved ecosystem service supply, more research is needed to further develop causal relationships explaining the indirect effects and non-linear behavior within ecosystem service governance systems.
LGN2018: een nieuwe weergave van het grondgebruik in Nederland
Hazeu, G.W. ; Vittek, M. ; Schuiling, R. ; Bulens, J.D. ; Storm, M.H. ; Roerink, G.J. ; Meijninger, W.M.L. - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 3010) - 87
LGN2018 is een gridbestand dat het Nederlands landgebruik in 2018 met een ruimtelijke resolutie van 5 m weergeeft. Het bestand kent 48 landgebruiksklassen waarbij de belangrijkste landbouwgewassen, bos, water, natuur en stedelijke klassen worden onderscheiden. Naast de vergroting van het ruimtelijke detail (van 25*25m naar 5*5m), is de thematiek van met name de natuur sterk verbeterd door onder andere het gebruik van multitemporele Sentinel-2 beelden en het AHN2/3-bestand. Verder wordt bij de productie van LGN2018 gebruikt gemaakt van de topografische dataset BRT/Top10NL (versie november 2018), Basis Registratie Percelen 2018 (BRP2018), Bestand Bodem Gebruik 2015 (BBG2015), Basiskaart Natuur 2017 (BKN2017), LGN7 en de luchtfoto’s uit 2018.De productie van LGN2018 is sterk veranderd ten opzichte van de LGN7-productie (o.a. verbeterde ruimtelijke resolutie, gebruik van andere basisbestanden en verbeterde definitie/afleiding van LGN-klassen). Vanaf heden wordt elk jaar een nieuwe versie uitgebracht die het actuele landgebruik voor betreffend referentiejaar weergeeft. Monitoring van landgebruiksveranderingen wordt hierdoor mogelijk. LGN wordt in abonnementsvorm aangeboden.---LGN2018 is a grid database presenting the Dutch land use in 2018 at a spatial resolution of 5 m. The database has 48 land use classes, distinguishing the main agricultural crops, forest, water, nature and urban classes. In addition to the increase of the spatial detail (from 25m to 5m spatial resolution), the thematic detail of especially the nature areas has been greatly improved by using multitemporal Sentinel-2 images and the national height model (AHN2/3 database). Furthermore, the production of LGN2018 uses topographical data (BRT/Top10NL - version November 2018), Basic Registration of agricultural Parcels 2018 (BRP2018), Bestand Bodem Gebruik 2015 (BBG2015), Basic Nature Map 2017 (BKN2017), LGN7 and the aerial photos from 2018.LGN2018 production has changed significantly from LGN7 production (including improved spatial resolution, use of other databases, and improved definition / derivation of LGN classes). From now on, a new version is released every year that shows the current land use for the respective reference year. This makes it possible to monitor land use changes. LGN is offered in subscription form.
Mapping hotspots and bundles of forest ecosystem services across the European Union
Orsi, Francesco ; Ciolli, M. ; Primmer, E. ; Varumo, L. ; Geneletti, D. - \ 2020
Land Use Policy 99 (2020). - ISSN 0264-8377
Forests cover about 40 % of the European Union (EU), providing a wide spectrum of invaluable ecosystem services to more than half a billion people. In order to protect and harness this crucial asset, EU policies are advancing multifunctional management. This study lays a basis for such an effort by mapping the supply of key forest ecosystem services (FES) across the entire EU: wood, water supply, erosion control, pollination, habitat protection, soil formation, climate regulation and recreation. To further support the operationalization of multifunctionality and targeting of policies, our analysis delineates hotspots, assesses synergies and tradeoffs, and identifies spatial bundles. We generated maps at 1-km resolution starting from existing datasets through simple modelling (Tier 1). Out of these maps, we denoted the highest supplying pixels (i.e. top 20 %) as hotspots, and performed correlation analysis to detect synergies and tradeoffs. Finally, we used cluster analysis to identify FES bundles. Our analysis shows that hotspots of single FES are spread across the entire EU and that forests of mountain regions and Central Europe (particularly France, Germany, Slovakia) supply significant amounts of multiple FES. The cluster analysis resulted in four bundles: “balanced” in the northeast, “wood & water” in the center, “soil carbon” in the north and “rural-recreational” in the south. While a purely quantitative analysis of the produced maps may be misleading because of the strong links between FES supply and climatic and socio-economic conditions, overlaying hotspots and bundles with administrative layers can be a first step to inform about the role of different countries and regions in securing the sustainable supply of European FES.
Steering protein and salt ad- and desorption by an electrical switch applied to polymer-coated electrodes
Fritz, P.A. ; Zhang, P. ; Bruschinski, Tom ; Sahin, S. ; Smet, L.C.P.M. de; Chan-Park, M.B. ; Boom, R.M. ; Schroën, C.G.P.H. - \ 2020
Separation and Purification Technology 250 (2020). - ISSN 1383-5866
Although solid-phase chromatography is a well-established method for protein separation, chemically intensive and often costly regeneration steps are needed to make reuse of the adsorbent possible. Here, we demonstrate the use of electrochemical principles as sustainable alternative. We make use of spontaneous adsorption of proteins to solid electrodes and reverse this process by applying an electric potential to regenerate the interface. This allows for adsorption of proteins to take place at 0 V difference between the electrodes, due to electrostatic interactions between the protein and the electrode surface. The desorption is then triggered by applying a potential difference (−1.2 V) between the electrodes.
It is demonstrated that the incorporation of negatively charged polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) or positively charged polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDMAC) in or on top of the respective activated carbon electrodes increases the amount of exchanged protein from 1 to 10 mg g−1, as compared to simple activated carbon electrodes. Interestingly, salt ad- and desorption occurs in opposite cycles compared to protein ad- and desorption, resulting in simultaneous concentration and desalting of the protein when 0 V is applied. On top of that, we also found that an enrichment in β-lactoglobulin could be achieved starting from whey protein isolate. These results clearly demonstrate that electrochemical technologies can be used not only for protein separation (including removal of salt), but also for protein fractionation, while not requiring solvent use.
MEMOTE for standardized genome-scale metabolic model testing
Lieven, Christian ; Beber, Moritz E. ; Olivier, Brett G. ; Bergmann, Frank T. ; Ataman, Meric ; Babaei, Parizad ; Bartell, Jennifer A. ; Blank, Lars M. ; Chauhan, Siddharth ; Correia, Kevin ; Diener, Christian ; Dräger, Andreas ; Ebert, Birgitta E. ; Edirisinghe, Janaka N. ; Faria, José P. ; Feist, Adam M. ; Fengos, Georgios ; Fleming, Ronan M.T. ; García-Jiménez, Beatriz ; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily ; Helvoirt, Wout van; Henry, Christopher S. ; Hermjakob, Henning ; Herrgård, Markus J. ; Kaafarani, Ali ; Kim, Hyun Uk ; King, Zachary ; Klamt, Steffen ; Klipp, Edda ; Koehorst, Jasper J. ; König, Matthias ; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan ; Lee, Dong Yup ; Lee, Sang Yup ; Lee, Sunjae ; Lewis, Nathan E. ; Liu, Filipe ; Ma, Hongwu ; Machado, Daniel ; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan ; Maia, Paulo ; Mardinoglu, Adil ; Medlock, Gregory L. ; Monk, Jonathan M. ; Nielsen, Jens ; Nielsen, Lars Keld ; Nogales, Juan ; Nookaew, Intawat ; Palsson, Bernhard O. ; Papin, Jason A. ; Patil, Kiran R. ; Poolman, Mark ; Price, Nathan D. ; Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo ; Richelle, Anne ; Rocha, Isabel ; Sánchez, Benjamín J. ; Schaap, Peter J. ; Malik Sheriff, Rahuman S. ; Shoaie, Saeed ; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus ; Teusink, Bas ; Vilaça, Paulo ; Vik, Jon Olav ; Wodke, Judith A.H. ; Xavier, Joana C. ; Yuan, Qianqian ; Zakhartsev, Maksim ; Zhang, Cheng - \ 2020
Nature Biotechnology 38 (2020)4. - ISSN 1087-0156 - 1 p.
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
High-tech urban agriculture in Amsterdam: An actor network analysis
Farhangi, Mohsen H. ; Turvani, Margherita E. ; Valk, Arnold van der; Carsjens, Gerrit J. - \ 2020
Sustainability 12 (2020)10. - ISSN 2071-1050
Actor-network theory - High-tech urban agriculture - Multi-level perspective - Technology driven transition - Urban planning
The agriculture and horticulture sector in the Netherlands is one of the most productive in the world. Although the sector is one of the most advanced and intense agricultural production systems worldwide, it faces challenges, such as climate change and environmental and social unsustainability of industrial production. To overcome these challenges, alternative food production initiatives have emerged, especially in large cities such as Amsterdam. Some initiatives involve producing food in the urban environment, supported by new technologies and practices, so-called high-tech urban agriculture (HTUA). These initiatives make cultivation of plants inside and on top of buildings possible and increase green spaces in urban areas. The emerging agricultural technologies are creating new business environments that are shape d by technology developers (e.g., suppliers of horticultural light emitting diodes (LED) and control environment systems) and developers of alternative food production practices (e.g., HTUA start-ups). However, research shows that the uptake of these technological innovations in urban planning processes is problematic. Therefore, this research analyzes the barriers that local government planners and HTUA developers are facing in the embedding of HTUA in urban planning processes, using the city of Amsterdam as a case study. This study draws on actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the interactions between planners, technologies, technology developers and developers of alternative food production practices. Several concepts of ANT are integrated into a multi-level perspective on sustainability transitions (MLP) to create a new theoretical framework that can explain how interactions between technologies and planning actors transform the incumbent social-technical regime. The configuration of interactions between social and material entities in technology development and adoption processes in Amsterdam is analyzed through the lens of this theoretical framework. The data in this study were gathered by tracing actors and their connections by using ethnographic research methods. In the course of the integration of new technologies into urban planning practices, gaps between technologies, technology developers, and planning actors have been identified. The results of this study show a lacking connection between planning actors and technology developers, although planning actors do interact with developers of alternative food production practices. These interactions are influenced by agency of artefacts such as visualizations of the future projects. The paper concludes that for the utilization of emerging technologies for sustainability transition of cities, the existing gap between technology developers and planning actors needs to be bridged through the integration of technology development visions in urban agendas and planning processes.
Three-phase simulation of the hydraulic characteristics of an optimized Chinese dome digester using COMSOL Multiphysics
Jegede, Abiodun O. ; Gualtieri, Carlo ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Bruning, Harry - \ 2020
Renewable Energy 157 (2020). - ISSN 0960-1481 - p. 530 - 544.
Chinese dome digester (CDD) - Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) - Internal baffles - Optimized designed - Self-agitation cycle
Domestic (household) biogas plants constitute a growing sub-sector of the anaerobic digestion industry worldwide but have received low interest for improvements. The Chinese dome digester (CDD 1), a major type of domestic biogas plants, is a naturally mixed, unheated and low technology reactor mainly used in rural and pre-urban areas for cooking using animal manure. In this study, a multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was applied to evaluate an optimized CDD design and outcomes were compared with results of pilot scale experiments. The optimized digester (CDD2) under goes self-agitating cycles created by the pressure variation from the produced biogas with the aid of a baffle at the top of the reactor, whereas the blank (CDD 1) does not self-agitate. The optimized digester has two pressure zones to improve mixing viz. the self-agitation cycles. The optimized digester is characterized by more, stable and improved hydraulic characteristics and mixing.