Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation
Ulloa Rojas, J.B. ; Weerd, J.H. van; Huisman, E.A. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2004
Waste Management 24 (2004)1. - ISSN 0956-053X - p. 87 - 97.
coffee pulp - body-composition - cyprinus-carpio - growth-response - practical diets - wastes - tilapia - replacement - meal
In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher amounts produced and, the potential use of these residues in fish feeds. In Costa Rica, during the 1993¿1994 production season, major agricultural sectors (crop and livestock) generated a total amount of 3.15¿3.25 million MT of residues (classified in by-products: used residues and wastes: not used residues). Some residues are treated to turn them into valuable items or to diminish their polluting effects (e.g., the so-called by-products). About 1.56¿1.63 million MT of by-products were used for different purposes (e.g. fertilization, animal feeding, fuel, substrates in greenhouses). However, the remainder (1.59¿1.62 million MT) was discharged into environment causing pollution. About 1.07¿1.2 million MT wastes came from major crop systems (banana, coffee, sugarcane and oil palm) whereas the remainder came from animal production systems (porcine and poultry production, slaughtering). These data are further compared to residues estimates for the 2001¿2002 production season coming from the biggest crops activities. Unfortunately, most of the studied wastes contain high levels of moisture and low levels of protein, and also contain variable amounts of antinutritional factors (e.g., polyphenols, tannins, caffeine), high fibre levels and some toxic substances and pesticides. All these reasons may limit the use of these agricultural wastes for animal feeding, especially in fish feeds. The potential use of the major vegetable and animal residues in fish feeds is discussed based on their nutritional composition, on their amount available over the year and on their pollution risks. Other constraints to use these wastes in fish feeds are the extra costs of drying and, in most cases, of transportation from several dispersed locations. It was stated that most interesting wastes are rejected green banana and coffee pulp
Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp
Ulloa Rojas, J.B. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Amato, S. ; Huisman, E.A. - \ 2003
Bioresource Technology 89 (2003)3. - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 267 - 274.
Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 g kg¿1 molasses for 2 and 3 months, (2) aerobic decomposition for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, (3) aerobic bacterial inoculation (Bacillus sp.) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Ensiled CoP (E-CoP) showed higher fat and ash contents than oven-dried-CoP (OD-CoP; P
Growth of Oreochromis aureus fed with diets containing graded levels of coffee pulp and reared in two culture systems
Ulloa Rojas, J.B. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2003
Aquaculture 217 (2003)39539. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 275 - 283.
study was conducted to compare growth and feed utilization of Oreochromis aureus fed graded levels of coffee pulp (CoP) and reared in aquaria or in pens. Diets contained 0, 130, 260 and 390 g kg-1 of oven-dried CoP. In aquaria, fish receiving increasing dietary CoP levels (from 0 to 390 g kg-1) showed a progressive reduction in final body weight, growth rate and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (P0.05). High dietary fibre levels together with the presence of antinutritional factors (ANFs) in CoP diets may explain why tilapia grew less and had lower feed utilization. Natural productivity of the pond could explain why results in pens were better than in aquaria. Results indicated that inclusion of CoP in tilapia diets might be limited to no more than 130 g kg-1 when fish are raised in earthen ponds and natural food is available.
Growth, feed utilization and nutrient digestibility in tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis aureus Steindachner) fed diets containing bacteria-treated coffee pulp
Ulloa Rojas, J.B. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2002
Aquaculture Research 33 (2002)3. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 189 - 195.
mossambicus peters - niloticus - polyphenols - absorption - cellulose - fiber
The effectiveness of bacteria treated-coffee pulp (BT-CoP) in fish diets was evaluated in a feeding trial with Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) fingerlings. Five diets were formulated to contain 0%, 6%, 12%, 18% and 24% BT-CoP, replacing wheat meal. Fish were reared in a recirculating unit consisting of 16 aquaria. Each aquarium was stocked with 10 fish of 1.1-2.4¿g. Fish were fed ad libitum twice daily (10 and 15¿h) for 4¿weeks. Fish fed diets without BT-CoP and with 6% BT-CoP showed similar growth (body weight, growth rate: RGRm) and feed utilization (feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent net protein utilization). Diets containing 0% and 6% BT-CoP gave similar dry matter and protein digestibility coefficients, but dietary BT-CoP levels higher than 6% produced lower digestibility values, except for carbohydrate. It is concluded that O. aureus fingerlings may assimilate only small amounts (6%) of BT-CoP in the diets without adverse effects on growth and feed utilization parameters. The CoP-containing diets did not affect fish survival (100%). The depression in tilapia performance may be associated mainly with the high level of fibre present in the CoP diets.
Effect of different chemical treatments on nutritional and antinutritional properties of coffee pulp
Ulloa Rojas, J.B. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Weerd, J.H. van; Huisman, E.A. - \ 2002
Animal Feed Science and Technology 99 (2002)39539. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 195 - 204.
proteins - tannins - sorghum - beans - diets - grain
Different chemical treatments were tested to improve the nutritional value of coffee pulp (CoP): (1) alkali, NaOH solutions of 5 and 10% for 24 and 48 h; (2) a combination of acid and alkali, with first a treatment with HCl (1.5 and 3 M for 24 and 48 h), followed by a NaOH solution of 5% for 48 h; (3) A combination of alkali and ensilage, with first a treatment with a NaOH solution of 5% for 48 h, followed by ensilage with molasses (50 and 100 g molasses/kg of CoP) for 2 and 3 months. The CoP treated with NaOH alone or with the combination HCl¿NaOH showed higher contents of ash, fat and cellulose but lower contents of antinutritional factors (ANFs) (polyphenols, tannins and caffeine) than oven-dried-CoP (OD-CoP) (P
Use of coffee pulp as feed ingredient for tilapia culture
Ulloa Rojas, J.B. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.A. Huisman; J.A.J. Verreth. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058086471 - 133
tilapia - oreochromis aureus - koffiepulp - diervoeding - visvoeding - visteelt - voedingswaarde - tilapia - oreochromis aureus - coffee pulp - animal nutrition - fish feeding - fish culture - nutritive value
This research focused on the feasibility of using coffee pulp (CoP) in diets for tilapia ( Oreochromis aureus ). First, a literature survey analyzed the limitations of CoP as an animal foodstuff (several antinutritional factors: ANF's, and high fibre contents), different ways to upgrade the CoP nutritional value and the maximal inclusion level of CoP in diets for ruminants, monogastric animals and fish ( Chapter 1 ).
Next, an inventory of agricultural activities in the country (Costa Rica) was realized for one production year (1993-94). The most important agricultural activities were identified and classified in two categories: crop and animal husbandry sectors. Residues (wastes and by-products) of both sectors were characterized by their seasonality, their amounts produced, methods of treating wastes, their use (if any) and their potential pollution risk. In addition, most relevant wastes were more precisely studied and, their chemical composition and the presence of potential ANF's indicated. The CoP was selected for further study because of its annual production and its potential pollution risk. Changes of the chemical composition of CoP during the harvesting season and using different drying methods were examined in more detail ( Chapter 2 ). Limitations to use CoP as a foodstuff for fish were studied and the possible causes of differences on growth responses to CoP diets found in tilapia reared either in extensive and intensive systems (pens in ponds and recirculation-aquaria system) are mentioned ( Chapter 3 ).
As several ANF's were identified in CoP, the critical value of some of them was determined for Oreochromis aureus fingerlings. Based on the growth and feed efficiency (digestibility), the following dietary critical levels of fibre and tannins were determined: 4.4 g kg -1of tannins and 106.5 g kg -1of fibre. Dietary caffeine levels increasing from 2.4 to 4.6 g kg -1tended to reduce fish growth, feed intake and also nutrient digestibility of O. aureus ( Chapter 4 ).
Chemical treatments have been applied to straws and coffee hulls with positive results. Uses of some of these treatments were tested in fresh CoP. The NaOH, the combined HCl-NaOH and NaOH-ensilage treatments were applied to CoP to reduce the content of caffeine, total phenols (polyphenols), tannins and cellulose. Biological treatments were also used to diminish ANF's in CoP but they also may increase CoP protein and fat contents. The ensilage of CoP with molasses was also tested at higher concentration (100 g kg -1) than normally done; however, it did not result in any additive effect. Microbial decomposition was done in a closed lab controlling parameters such as environmental moisture and temperature, photoperiod and temperature of CoP samples. Specific cellulolytic bacteria were used to degrade fibrous components and ANF's of CoP. The inoculation of CoP was done with a cocktail of five species of Bacillus for 28 days under aerobic conditions. The best result in relation with the upgrading of the nutritional quality of CoP was found with the bacterial treatment ( Chapter 5 ).
Subsequently, CoP treated with Bacillusssp. was included in diets for tilapia. The final product was included at different concentrations (0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 g kg -1) in the fish diets and fed to O. aureus fingerlings for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the fish response was evaluated in terms of growth, feed intake, protein utilization and nutrient digestibility ( Chapter 6 ). Best results were found with diets containing 0 and 60 g kg -1CoP. Problems related to the upscaling of the bacterial treatment are mentioned and discussed.
The overall results are integrated in one general discussion and several conclusions and recommendations are drawn to upgrade coffee residues for animal feeding purposes ( Chapter 7 ). The potential of using CoP in diets for tilapia cultured in extensive or semi-intensive systems is discussed. Technological and engineering aspects impaired the upscaling of the bacterial treatment for CoP and produced a final product with a lower quality than the one obtained at laboratory scale.
|The major aquacultural wastes and by-products and their potential use in fish culture: a case study in Costa Rica.
Ulloa Rojas, J. - \ 1997
In: Resumenes del I Congreso Iberoamericano de aprovechamiento de desechos y tecnologias limpias, San José, Costa Rica / Duran, M., - p. 30 - 30.
|The growth and feed utilization of Oreochromis aureus fingerlings fed diets with various coffee pulp levels.
Ulloa Rojas, J. ; Weerd, J.H. van - \ 1997
In: Proc. Fourth Int. Symp. on Tilapia in Aquaculture, K. Fitzsimmons (ed.). November 1997, Orlando, USA, vol. I - p. 40 - 49.
|The potential use of coffee pulp in fish culture.
Ulloa Rojas, J. - \ 1997
In: Memorias del XVIII Simposio Latinoamericano de Caficultura, J. Echeverri y L. Zamora (eds.). September 1997. San Jose, Costa Rica - p. 419 - 424.
The growth of juvenile 'jaguar guapote' (Cichlasoma managuense) fed diets with different carbohydrate levels
Ulloa Rojas, J.B. ; Verdegem, M.C.J. - \ 1995
Uniciencia 12 (1995)1-2. - ISSN 1011-0275 - p. 29 - 34.
|Resultados preliminares del efecto de la incorporación de pulpa de café en dietas para Oreochromis aureus sobre el crecimiento y utilización del alimento.
Ulloa Rojas, J. - \ 1995
In: Actas del I Simposio Centroamericano sobre el Cultivo de Tilapia, N. Gálvez et al. (eds.). Convenio ALA/90/09. November 1995, San José, Costa Rica - p. 66 - 72.
|A dietary effect on some blood parameters of rainbow trout, (Oncorhychus mykiss).
Schippers, C. ; Ulloa Rojas, J.B. ; Booms, G.H.R. ; Machiels, M.A.M. ; Verdegem, M.C.J. ; Boon, J.H. - \ 1994
Aquaculture and fisheries management 25 (1994). - ISSN 0266-996X - p. 649 - 659.
|The effect of feeding level on growth and survival of larvae of the jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense) fed Artemia nauplii in the primary nursing phase.
Gunther, J. ; Galvez-Hidalgo, N. ; Ulloa-Rojas, J. ; Coppoolse, J. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 1992
Aquaculture 107 (1992). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 347 - 358.