Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Marine litter
Fleet, D.M. ; Dau, K. ; Gutow, L. ; Schulz, M. ; Unger, Bianca ; Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2017
Wilhelmshaven : Common Wadden Sea Secretariat (Wadden Sea Quality Status Report ) - 22 p.
The results from the various investigations and monitoring programmes presented in this report demonstrate the continuous and widespread occurrence of litter in the Wadden Sea and adjacent offshore waters. Marine litter of different sizes and from diverse sources occurs on dunes and beaches, in and on inter- to subtidal sediments and in marine organisms, including protected seabirds and mammals. The OSPAR Beach Litter Monitoring and Monitoring on Litter in Fulmars’ Stomachs provide an evaluation of the temporal development of litter abundance in the southern North Sea. Both programmes clearly show that litter densities have not declined since the last Wadden Sea QSR in 2009, indicating that large amounts of litter are still entering the marine environment either directly within the Wadden Sea or from adjacent waters. The amount of litter entering the marine environment is continuously increasing
(Jambeck et al., 2015). This increase is, however, not apparent in the results of the two monitoring programmes. Litter degrades in the marine environment and breaks down into ever smaller fragments. The fragmentation of plastic objects produces microplastics, which are not sufficiently assessed by current monitoring programmes. Densities of microplastics are expected to increase substantially in the future in all marine habitats. Accordingly, scientifically sound monitoring of these synthetic particles with standardized methods that allow for the comparison of results from different programmes will be indispensable.
Marine litter is not restricted to specific habitats but occurs in all compartments of the marine environment with a constant exchange between them. Accordingly, monitoring litter densities in both coastal and offshore habitats is essential for a sound evaluation of litter pollution of the Wadden Sea. Many of the investigations presented in this report are on-off events, which do not provide information on temporal trends. However, they do demonstrate that the Wadden Sea is contaminated with marine litter and that litter densities in the Wadden Sea are not lower than in other coastal regions. The litter densities presented in this report provide a valuable baseline for future evaluations of temporal trends. The monitoring of litter in fulmars’ stomachs and the examinations of carcasses of harbour porpoise, harbour seals and eider ducks revealed that litter does not simply occur in the marine environment but actually interacts in a potentially harmful way with the marine biota. It is well established that the ingestion of litter can have deleterious and often lethal effects on marine organisms. It is yet unknown whether marine litter has demographically relevant implications for marine species. For evaluating this, the effects of marine litter must not be considered in isolation but always together with the effects of other environmental stressors such as ocean warming and acidification, eutrophication and the exploitation of natural stocks (see reports on climate change, geomorphology, eutrophication and fisheries). Several
Wadden Sea Plan targets are compromised by the continuous pollution of the North Sea with marine litter. A proper management of the marine litter problem will require appropriate reduction measures and extended and optimized monitoring programmes in order to evaluate future developments.
Large amounts of marine debris found in sperm whales stranded along the North Sea coast in early 2016
Unger, Bianca ; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa ; Deaville, Rob ; Gröne, Andrea ; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L. ; Leopold, Mardik F. ; Siebert, Ursula ; Spitz, Jérôme ; Wohlsein, Peter ; Herr, Helena - \ 2016
Marine Pollution Bulletin 112 (2016)1-2. - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 134 - 141.
Anthropogenic impact - Fishing related debris - Marine debris ingestion - Pathological findings - Physeter macrocephalus - Plastics

30 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) stranded along the coasts of the North Sea between January and February 2016. The gastro-intestinal tracts of 22 of the carcasses were investigated. Marine debris including netting, ropes, foils, packaging material and a part of a car were found in nine of the 22 individuals. Here we provide details about the findings and consequences for the animals. While none of the items was responsible for the death of the animal, the findings demonstrate the high level of exposure to marine debris and associated risks for large predators, such as the sperm whale.

Microbes and asthma : Opportunities for intervention
Smits, Hermelijn H. ; Hiemstra, Pieter S. ; Prazeres Da Costa, Clarissa ; Ege, Markus ; Edwards, Michael ; Garn, Holger ; Howarth, Peter H. ; Jartti, Tuomas ; Jong, Esther C. De; Maizels, Rick M. ; Marsland, Ben J. ; McSorley, Henry J. ; Müller, Anne ; Pfefferle, Petra I. ; Savelkoul, Huub ; Schwarze, Jürgen ; Unger, Wendy W.J. ; Mutius, Erika Von; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria ; Taube, Christian - \ 2016
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 137 (2016)3. - ISSN 0091-6749 - p. 690 - 697.
asthma - helminths - Hygiene hypothesis - immune regulation - microbes - microbiome - sensitization - viruses

The worldwide incidence and prevalence of asthma continues to increase. Asthma is now understood as an umbrella term for different phenotypes or endotypes, which arise through different pathophysiologic pathways. Understanding the many factors contributing to development of the disease is important for the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of certain asthma phenotypes. The hygiene hypothesis has been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence of allergic disease, including asthma. This hypothesis postulates that decreased exposure at a young age to certain infectious agents as a result of improved hygiene, increased antibiotic use and vaccination, and changes in lifestyle and dietary habits is associated with changes in the immune system, which predispose subjects to allergy. Many microbes, during their coevolution with human subjects, developed mechanisms to manipulate the human immune system and to increase their chances of survival. Improving models of asthma, as well as choosing adequate end points in clinical trials, will lead to a more complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms, thus providing an opportunity to devise primary and secondary interventions at the same time as identifying new molecular targets for treatment. This article reports the discussion and conclusion of a workshop under the auspices of the Netherlands Lung Foundation to extend our understanding of how modulation of the immune system by bacterial, parasitic, and viral infections might affect the development of asthma and to map out future lines of investigation.

Biosynthesis of Antinutritional Alkaloids in Solanaceous Crops Is Mediated by Clustered Genes
Itkin, M. ; Heinig, U. ; Tzfadia, O. ; Bhide, A.J. ; Shinde, B. ; Cardenas, P.D. ; Bocobza, S.E. ; Unger, T. ; Malitsky, S. ; Finkers, H.J. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Chikate, Y. ; Singh, P. ; Rogachev, I. ; Beekwilder, J. ; Giri, A.P. ; Aharoni, A. - \ 2013
Science 341 (2013)6142. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 175 - 179.
glycoalkaloids - potato - plant - metabolites - pathways - saponins - tomato
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) such as a-solanine found in solanaceous food plants—as, for example, potato—are antinutritional factors for humans. Comparative coexpression analysis between tomato and potato coupled with chemical profiling revealed an array of 10 genes that partake in SGA biosynthesis. We discovered that six of them exist as a cluster on chromosome 7, whereas an additional two are adjacent in a duplicated genomic region on chromosome 12. Following systematic functional analysis, we suggest a revised SGA biosynthetic pathway starting from cholesterol up to the tetrasaccharide moiety linked to the tomato SGA aglycone. Silencing GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM 4 prevented accumulation of SGAs in potato tubers and tomato fruit. This may provide a means for removal of unsafe, antinutritional substances present in these widely used food crops.
International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet
Ahmed, J. ; Bouloy, M. ; Ergonul, O. ; Fooks, A.R. ; Paweska, J. ; Chevalier, V. ; Drosten, C. ; Moormann, R.J.M. ; Tordo, N. ; Vatansever, Z. ; Calistri, P. ; Estrada-Pena, A. ; Mirazimi, A. ; Unger, H. ; Yin, H. ; Seitzer, U. - \ 2009
Eurosurveillance 14 (2009)12. - ISSN 1025-496X - p. 11 - 14.
congo hemorrhagic-fever - west-nile-virus - epidemic - outbreak - romania - horses
Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.
Bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in North-Western Europe in 2006: preliminary findings
Elbers, A.R.W. ; Mintiens, K. ; Staubach, C. ; Gerbier, G. ; Meiswinkel, R. ; Hendrickx, G. ; Backx, A. ; Conraths, F.J. ; Meroc, E. ; Ducheyne, E. ; Gethmann, J. ; Heesterbeek, J.A.P. ; Clercq, K. ; Unger, F. ; Stegeman, J.A. - \ 2007
In: Proceedings of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine; Helsinki, Finland, 28 - 30 March 2007. - - p. 231 - 245.
Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes
Shindell, D.T. ; Faluvegi, G. ; Stevenson, D.S. ; Krol, M.C. ; Emmons, L.K. ; Lamarque, J.F. ; Petron, G. ; Dentener, F.J. ; Ellingsen, K. ; Schultz, M.G. ; Wild, O. ; Amann, M. ; Atherton, C.S. ; Bergmann, D.J. ; Bey, I. ; Butler, T. ; Cofala, J. ; Collins, W.J. ; Derwent, R.G. ; Doherty, R.M. ; Drevet, J. ; Eskes, H.J. ; Fiore, A.M. ; Gauss, M. ; Hauglustaine, D.A. ; Horowitz, L.W. ; Isaksen, I.S.A. ; Lawrence, M.G. ; Montanaro, V. ; Muller, J.F. ; Pitari, G. ; Prather, M.J. ; Pyle, J.A. ; Rast, S. ; Rodriguez, J.M. ; Sanderson, M.G. ; Savage, N.H. ; Strahan, S.E. ; Sudo, K. ; Szopa, S. ; Unger, N. ; Noije, T.P.C. van; Zeng, G. - \ 2006
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 111 (2006). - ISSN 2169-897X - 24 p.
chemical-transport model - stratosphere-troposphere exchange - general-circulation model - aircraft mozaic data - nonmethane hydrocarbons - ozone simulations - methane emissions - western pacific - climate-change - 3-d models
We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show large underestimates of Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropical CO, while typically performing reasonably well elsewhere. The results suggest that year-round emissions, probably from fossil fuel burning in east Asia and seasonal biomass burning emissions in south-central Africa, are greatly underestimated in current inventories such as IIASA and EDGAR3.2. Variability among models is large, likely resulting primarily from intermodel differences in representations and emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and in hydrologic cycles, which affect OH and soluble hydrocarbon intermediates. Global mean projections of the 2030 CO response to emissions changes are quite robust. Global mean midtropospheric (500 hPa) CO increases by 12.6 +/- 3.5 ppbv (16%) for the high-emissions (A2) scenario, by 1.7 +/- 1.8 ppbv (2%) for the midrange (CLE) scenario, and decreases by 8.1 +/- 2.3 ppbv (11%) for the low-emissions (MFR) scenario. Projected 2030 climate changes decrease global 500 hPa CO by 1.4 +/- 1.4 ppbv. Local changes can be much larger. In response to climate change, substantial effects are seen in the tropics, but intermodel variability is quite large. The regional CO responses to emissions changes are robust across models, however. These range from decreases of 10-20 ppbv over much of the industrialized NH for the CLE scenario to CO increases worldwide and year-round under A2, with the largest changes over central Africa (20-30 ppbv), southern Brazil (20-35 ppbv) and south and east Asia (30-70 ppbv). The trajectory of future emissions thus has the potential to profoundly affect air quality over most of the world's populated areas.
Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in Semiarid Regions
Schiere, J.B. ; Baumhardt, R.L. ; Keulen, H. van; Whitbread, A.M. ; Bruinsma, A.S. ; Goodschild, A.V. ; Gregorini, P. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Hartwell, B. - \ 2006
In: Dryland Agriculture - 2nd Edition / Peterson, G.A., Unger, P.W., Payne, W.A., Madison, Wisconsin, USA : ASA-CSSA-SSSA Book publishing Committee (Agronomy 23) - ISBN 0891181601 - p. 227 - 291.
The initial chapters of the monograph address the principles that underlie all dryland farming, and are the basis for the following chapters that address dryland farming issues around the world
European virulence survey for leaf rust in wheat
Mesterházy, A. ; Bartos, P. ; Goyeau, H. ; Niks, R.E. ; Csösz, M. ; Andersen, O. ; Casulli, F. ; Ittu, M. ; Jones, E. ; Manisterski, J. ; Manninger, K. ; Pasquini, M. ; Rubiales, D. ; Schachermayr, G. ; Strzembicka, A. ; Szunics, L. ; Todorova, M. ; Unger, O. ; Vanco, B. ; Vida, G. ; Walther, U. - \ 2000
Agronomie 20 (2000). - ISSN 0249-5627 - p. 793 - 804.
With standardised near isogenic line (NIL) differentials co-operators were able to present the first comprehensive virulence survey of the European wheat leaf rust population (1996-1999). The work included pathotype identification of 2608 isolates and field tests of NILs. Lr9 and Lr19 were very effective all over Europe. Lr24, Lr25, and Lr28 were also effective, but in some countries and locations substantial virulence frequencies were observed. In addition, the genes Lr12, Lr13, Lr22a, Lr34, Lr35 and Lr37 were effective at the adult plant stage, but locally less so. In general, the indoor seedling tests and adult plant field tests showed good agreement. Virulence to Lr1, Lr2a, Lr24, Lr25, Lr28 and Lr29 tended to increase in the period, for the other Lr-genes the virulence frequency remained more or less stable. Among the 105 pathotypes identified none was clearly predominant in Europe.
Modelle der Ertragsbildung als Brucke zwischen Prozess und System
Wit, C.T. de - \ 1977
In: Biophysikalische Analyse pflanzlicher systeme / Unger, K., Jena : VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag - p. 19 - 30.
Simulation der Assimilation und Transpiration der Pflanzendecke nach grundlegender Gesetzen
Penning de Vries, F.W.T. - \ 1977
In: Biophysikalische Analyse pflanzlicher Systeme / Unger, K., Jena : VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag - p. 107 - 114.
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