Argumentation Competence: Students’ Argumentation Knowledge, Behavior and Attitude and their Relationships with Domain-Specific Knowledge Acquisition
Valero Haro, Anahuac ; Noroozi, Omid ; Biemans, Harm ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2020
Journal of Constructivist Psychology (2020). - ISSN 1072-0537
Following constructivist paradigms for learning, this article explores the relationships between the components of argumentation competence (knowledge, behavior and attitude), their relationships with domain-specific knowledge acquisition, and the differences in argumentation behavior between successful and less-successful students. An exploratory study, with a pre- and post-test design, in an authentic, non-scaffolded, online learning environment was conducted. Contrary to our expectations, no significant relationships between the components of argumentation competence were found. Nevertheless, a significant relationship between argumentation behavior and domain-specific knowledge acquisition was found. Moreover, results suggested that the capacity of students to transfer argumentation behavior to similar argumentation tasks can be related to students’ domain-specific knowledge acquisition. Finally, successful students in terms of domain-specific knowledge acquisition scored higher with regard to their argumentation behavior than less-successful students. These findings are discussed followed by theoretical and practical implications and suggestion for future work.
Acquiring plant features with optical sensing devices in an organic strip-cropping system
Krus, Anne ; Apeldoorn, Dirk Van; Valero, Constantino ; Ramirez, Juan José - \ 2020
Agronomy 10 (2020)2. - ISSN 2073-4395
Cabbages - Lidar - Plant extraction - Point cloud - Weighted sum
The SUREVEG project focuses on improvement of biodiversity and soil fertility in organic agriculture through strip-cropping systems. To counter the additional workforce a robotic tool is proposed. Within the project, a modular proof of concept (POC) version will be produced that will combine detection technologies with actuation on a single-plant level in the form of a robotic arm. This article focuses on the detection of crop characteristics through point clouds obtained with two lidars. Segregation in soil and plants was successfully achieved without the use of additional data from other sensor types, by calculating weighted sums, resulting in a dynamically obtained threshold criterion. This method was able to extract the vegetation from the point cloud in strips with varying vegetation coverage and sizes. The resulting vegetation clouds were compared to drone imagery, to prove they perfectly matched all green areas in said image. By dividing the remaining clouds of overlapping plants by means of the nominal planting distance, the number of plants, their volumes, and thereby the expected yields per row could be determined.
First- and second-order scaffolding of argumentation competence and domain-specific knowledge acquisition: a systematic review
Valero Haro, A. ; Noroozi, O. ; Biemans, H.J.A. ; Mulder, M. - \ 2019
Technology, Pedagogy and Education 28 (2019)3. - ISSN 1475-939X - p. 329 - 345.
Results of research on intentions and effects of first- and second-order argument scaffolding of computer-supported collaborative argumentation competence development and domain-specific knowledge acquisition are ambivalent. A systematic review of research in secondary and higher education (SE and HE) has been conducted to clarify and synthesise these intentions and effects, thereby differentiating between communication type (synchronous–asynchronous) and group size. Empirical research with pre-post-test designs was included only. Using specific search terms, 527 articles were found; 19 of these met pre-set selection criteria. Results indicate that HE studies intended to foster argumentation knowledge and domain-specific knowledge acquisition (i.e. knowledge construction), and reported significant effects for both types of knowledge. SE studies, however, intended to foster argumentation behaviour and domain specific knowledge acquisition (i.e. learning by doing), and showed significant effects regarding the latter only. HE studies predominantly used asynchronous, and SE studies synchronous communication. Choice of group size was not explicitly justified.
Comparative genomics of plant pathogenic Botrytis species with distinct host specificity
Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A. ; Veloso, Javier ; Staats, Martijn ; Kan, Jan A.L. van - \ 2019
BMC Genomics 20 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2164
Effector - Grey mould - Necrotroph - Secondary metabolite - Secretome
Background: Fungi of the genus Botrytis (presently containing ~ 35 species) are able to infect more than 1400 different plant species and cause losses in a wide range of crops of economic importance. The best studied species is B. cinerea, which has a broad host range and is one of the best studied necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi. Most other Botrytis spp. have a narrow host range and have been studied in less detail. To characterize genomic variation among different representatives of Botrytis spp., we sequenced and annotated the draft genomes of nine Botrytis species: B. calthae, B. convoluta, B. elliptica, B. galanthina, B. hyacinthi, B. narcissicola, B. paeoniae, B. porri and B. tulipae. Results: Bioinformatics and comparative genomics tools were applied to determine a core of 7668 shared protein families in all Botrytis species, which grouped them in two distinct phylogenetic clades. The secretome of all nine Botrytis spp. was similar in number (ranging from 716 to 784 predicted proteins). A detailed analysis of the molecular functions of the secretome revealed that shared activities were highly similar. Orthologs to effectors functionally studied in B. cinerea were also present in the other Botrytis species. A complex pattern of presence/absence of secondary metabolite biosynthetic key enzymes was observed. Conclusions: Comparative genomics of Botrytis show that overall, species share the main signatures and protein families in the secreted proteins, and of known effectors. Our study provides leads to study host range determinants in the genus Botrytis and provides a stepping stone to elucidate the roles of effector candidates in the infection process of these species.
Spatio-temporal patterns of genetic variation in Arbacia lixula, a thermophilous sea urchin in expansion in the Mediterranean
Pérez-Portela, Rocío ; Wangensteen, Owen S. ; Garcia-Cisneros, Alex ; Valero-Jiménez, Claudio ; Palacín, Cruz ; Turon, Xavier - \ 2019
Heredity 122 (2019)2. - ISSN 0018-067X - p. 244 - 259.
The genetic structure of 13 populations of the amphiatlantic sea urchin Arbacia lixula, as well as temporal genetic changes in three of these localities, were assessed using ten hypervariable microsatellite loci. This thermophilous sea urchin is an important engineer species triggering the formation of barren grounds through its grazing activity. Its abundance seems to be increasing in most parts of the Mediterranean, probably favoured by warming conditions. Significant genetic differentiation was found both spatially and temporally. The main break corresponded to the separation of western Atlantic populations from those in eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. A less marked, but significant differentiation was also found between Macaronesia (eastern Atlantic) and the Mediterranean. In the latter area, a signal of differentiation between the transitional area (Alboran Sea) and the rest of the Mediterranean was detected. However, no genetic structure is found within the Mediterranean (excluding Alboran) across the Siculo-Tunisian Strait, resulting from either enough gene flow to homogenize distance areas or/and a recent evolutionary history marked by demographic expansion in this basin. Genetic temporal variation at the Alboran Sea is as important as spatial variation, suggesting that temporal changes in hydrological features can affect the genetic composition of the populations. A picture of genetic homogeneity in the Mediterranean emerges, implying that the potential expansion of this keystone species will not be limited by intraspecific genetic features and/or potential impact of postulated barriers to gene flow in the region.
The effects of an online learning environment with worked examples and peer feedback on students’ argumentative essay writing and domain-specific knowledge acquisition in the field of biotechnology
Valero Haro, Anahuac ; Noroozi, Omid ; Biemans, Harm J.A. ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2019
Journal of Biological Education 53 (2019)4. - ISSN 0021-9266 - p. 390 - 398.
biotechnology - Essay writing - example-based learning - online learning environment - peer feedback
The present study investigated the effects of an online learning environment supported with worked examples and peer feedback on students’ argumentative essay writing and domain-specific knowledge acquisition in the field of biotechnology. As part of a bigger project, a pre- and post-test study design was used with 45 bachelor students who were randomly grouped in pairs. Students were asked to analyse a case and write an argumentative essay taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified organisms. The results showed that the combination of worked examples and peer feedback improve the quality of argumentative essay writing and facilitate the acquisition of domain-specific knowledge. Implications, suggestions, and future research are discussed.
Food Authenticity: Provenancing. A case study of fish
Pustjens, A.M. ; Boerrigter-Eenling, G.R. ; Koot, A.H. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2018
In: Descriptive Food Science / Valero Díaz, Antonio, García-Gimeno, Rosa María, InTech - ISBN 9781789845945
Authentication of food products is of ongoing interest to consumers in developed countries. Recently, a general interest in the sustainability of food productions, from both societal and environmental perspectives, developed and added a new dimension. Fish and fish products are common targets for food adulteration. The most important issue is fish management, e.g., the environmental impact of overfishing. Analytical means would be helpful for verification. The aim of the present study was to evaluate various marker groups for the distinction of European plaice from the North Sea from European plaice from other geographical origins: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), fatty acids
(FA), and isotope ratios. VOCs were analyzed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS); the FA composition was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen; and sulfur isotope ratios were analyzed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. In a principal component analysis, FA profiling appeared the best option to distinguish European plaice from the North Sea from those originating from other seas.
The obligate alkalophilic soda-lake fungus Sodiomyces alkalinus has shifted to a protein diet
Grum-Grzhimaylo, A. ; Falkoski, D.L. ; Heuvel, Joost van den; Valero Jimenez, C.A. ; Min, B. ; Choi, I.G. ; Lipzen, A. ; Daum, C.G. ; Aanen, D.K. ; Tsang, A. ; Henrissat, B. ; Bilanenko, E.N. ; Vries, R.P. de; Kan, J.A.L. van; Grigoriev, I.V. ; Debets, A.J.M. - \ 2018
Molecular Ecology 27 (2018)23. - ISSN 0962-1083 - p. 4808 - 4819.
Sodiomyces alkalinus is one of the very few alkalophilic fungi, adapted to grow optimally at high pH. It is widely distributed at the plant‐deprived edges of extremely alkaline lakes and locally abundant. We sequenced the genome of S. alkalinus and reconstructed evolution of catabolic enzymes, using a phylogenomic comparison. We found that the genome of S. alkalinus is larger, but its predicted proteome is smaller and heavily depleted of both plant‐degrading enzymes and proteinases, when compared to its closest plant‐pathogenic relatives. Interestingly, despite overall losses, S. alkalinus has retained many proteinases families and acquired bacterial cell wall‐degrading enzymes, some of them via horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. This fungus has very potent proteolytic activity at high pH values, but slowly induced low activity of cellulases and hemicellulases. Our experimental and in silico data suggest that plant biomass, a common food source for most fungi, is not a preferred substrate for S. alkalinus in its natural environment. We conclude that the fungus has abandoned the ancestral plant‐based diet and has become specialized in a more protein‐rich food, abundantly available in soda lakes in the form of prokaryotes and small crustaceans.
Understanding social innovation for the well-being of forest-dependent communities : A preliminary theoretical framework
Kluvánková, Tatiana ; Brnkaľáková, Stanislava ; Špaček, Martin ; Slee, Bill ; Nijnik, Maria ; Valero, Diana ; Miller, David ; Bryce, Rosalind ; Kozová, Mária ; Polman, Nico ; Szabo, Tomáš ; Gežík, Veronika - \ 2018
Forest Policy and Economics 97 (2018). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 163 - 174.
Forest-dependent community - SIMRA transdisciplinary framework - Social innovation - Social innovation factors
Draft genomes of nine plant pathogenic Botrytis species
Valero Jimenez, Claudio ; Veloso, Javier ; Staats, Martijn ; Kan, Jan van - \ 2017
PRJNA401386 - Botrytis
The aim of the project is to compare the genomes of nine species of plant pathogens in the genus Botrytis with distinct host specificity, in order to identify genes involved in host range determination. Six of the nine fungal species infect ornamental bulb flower crops.
Transdisciplinary understanding of SI in MRAs
Kluvankova, Tatiana ; Gežik, Veronika ; Špaček, Martin ; Brnkalakova, Stanislava ; Slee, Bill ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Valero, Diana ; Bryce, Rosalind ; Alkhaled, Sophie ; Secco, Laura ; Burlando, Catie ; Kozova, Maria ; Miller, David ; Nijnik, Maria ; Perlik, Manfred ; Pisani, Elena ; Price, Martin ; Sarkki, Simo ; Weiss, Gerhard - \ 2017
SIMRA - 53 p.
Exploring the relationships between the components of argumentation competence and their relationships with domain-specific knowledge
Valero Haro, A. ; Noroozi, O. ; Biemans, H.J.A. ; Mulder, M. - \ 2017
In: EDULEARN17 proceedings. - IATED - ISBN 9788469737774 - p. 3954 - 3954.
Experimental evolution to increase the efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against malaria mosquitoes: Effects on mycelial growth and virulence
Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A. ; Kan, Jan A.L. van; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Zwaan, Bas J. ; Schoustra, Sijmen E. - \ 2017
Evolutionary Applications 10 (2017)5. - ISSN 1752-4571 - p. 433 - 443.
Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are currently considered as a potential control agent for malaria mosquitoes. The success of such strategies depends among others on the efficacy of the fungus to kill its hosts. As B. bassiana can use various resources for growth and reproduction, increasing the dependency on mosquitoes as a nutritional source may be instrumental for reaching this goal. Passage of entomopathogenic fungi through an insect host has been shown to increase its virulence. We evaluated the virulence, fungal outgrowth, mycelial growth rate, and sporulation rate of two B. bassiana isolates (Bb1520 and Bb8028) that underwent 10 consecutive selection cycles through malaria mosquitoes (Anopheles coluzzii) using an experimental evolution approach. This cycling resulted in an altered capacity of evolved B. Bassiana lineages to grow on different substrates while maintaining the ability to kill insects. Notably, however, there were no significant changes in virulence or speed of outgrowth when comparing the evolved lineages against their unevolved ancestors. These results suggest that fungal growth and sporulation evolved through successive and exclusive use of an insect host as a nutritional resource. We discuss the results in light of biocontrol and provide suggestions to increase fungal virulence.
Data from: Experimental evolution to increase the efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against malaria mosquitoes: effects on mycelial growth and virulence
Valero Jimenez, C.A. ; Kan, J.A.L. van; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Zwaan, B.J. ; Schoustra, S.E. - \ 2016
experimental evolution - biocontrol - malaria
Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are currently considered as a potential control agent for malaria mosquitoes. The success of such strategies depends among others on the efficacy of the fungus to kill its hosts. As B. bassiana can use various resources for growth and reproduction, increasing the dependency on mosquitoes as a nutritional source may be instrumental for reaching this goal. Passage of entomopathogenic fungi through an insect host has been shown to increase its virulence. We evaluated the virulence, fungal outgrowth, mycelial growth rate, and sporulation rate of two B. bassiana isolates (Bb1520 and Bb8028) that underwent 10 consecutive selection cycles through malaria mosquitoes (Anopheles coluzzii) using an experimental evolution approach. This cycling resulted in an altered capacity of evolved B. Bassiana lineages to grow on different substrates while maintaining the ability to kill insects. Notably, however, there were no significant changes in virulence or speed of outgrowth when comparing the evolved lineages against their un-evolved ancestors. These results suggest that fungal growth and sporulation evolved through successive and exclusive use of an insect host as a nutritional resource. We discuss the results in the light of biocontrol and provide suggestions to increase fungal virulence.
Beauveria bassiana Genome sequencing and assembly
Valero Jimenez, C.A. ; Faino, L. ; Spring in 'T Veld, Daphne ; Smit, S. ; Zwaan, B.J. ; Kan, J.A.L. van - \ 2016
Beauveria bassiana - PRJNA260878
The virulence of the entompathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, is being studied by comparative genomics of five isolates.
|The effects of first-order and second-order scaffolding on computer-supported collaborative argumentation: A systematic review
Valero Haro, A. ; Noroozi, O. ; Biemans, H.J.A. - \ 2016
In: Conference proceedings of the Competence 2016: International conference on competence theory, research and practice. - Wageningen : Education & Competence Studies group/Wageningen University & Research - p. 423 - 431.
Comparative genomics of Beauveria bassiana : Uncovering signatures of virulence against mosquitoes
Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A. ; Faino, Luigi ; Spring in 'T Veld, Daphne ; Smit, Sandra ; Zwaan, Bas J. ; Kan, Jan A.L. van - \ 2016
BMC Genomics 17 (2016). - ISSN 1471-2164
Beauveria bassiana - Comparative genomics - Genome sequencing - Virulence
Background: Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence. Results: A high-quality, near-complete genome assembly was achieved for the highly virulent isolate Bb8028, which was compared to the assemblies of the four other isolates. Whole genome analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity between the five isolates (2.85-16.8 SNPs/kb), which grouped into two distinct phylogenetic clusters. Mating type gene analysis revealed the presence of either the MAT1-1-1 or the MAT1-2-1 gene. Moreover, a putative new MAT gene (MAT1-2-8) was detected in the MAT1-2 locus. Comparative genome analysis revealed that Bb8028 contains 163 genes exclusive for this isolate. These unique genes have a tendency to cluster in the genome and to be often located near the telomeres. Among the genes unique to Bb8028 are a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) secondary metabolite gene cluster, a polyketide synthase (PKS) gene, and five genes with homology to bacterial toxins. A survey of candidate virulence genes for B. bassiana is presented. Conclusions: Our results indicate several genes and molecular processes that may underpin virulence towards mosquitoes. Thus, the genome sequences of five isolates of B. bassiana provide a better understanding of the natural variation in virulence and will offer a major resource for future research on this important biological control agent.
A multidisciplinary approach to study virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana towards malaria mosquitoes
Valero Jimenez, C.A. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Zwaan; Willem Takken, co-promotor(en): Sander Koenraadt; Jan van Kan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578548 - 131
beauveria bassiana - entomogenous fungi - virulence - vector control - mosquito-borne diseases - malaria - anopheles - culicidae - beauveria bassiana - entomopathogene schimmels - virulentie - vectorbestrijding - ziekten overgebracht door muskieten - malaria - anopheles - culicidae
Although globally malaria mortality rates have fallen by 48% between 2000 and 2015, malaria is still killing an estimated 438,000 people each year. An effective way to alleviate the burden of malaria is to control its vector (malaria mosquitoes) using insecticides. This can be achieved either with insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) or through indoor residual spraying of insecticides (IRS). However, because of rapidly expanding insecticide resistance, there is a need to find alternatives to control the mosquitoes. Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) could constitute an effective biological control tool, as is able to reduce malaria transmission under laboratory and field conditions. However, fundamental knowledge on the mechanisms and regulation of the infection process of the fungus, as well as insights into the defensive responses of the host insect to EPF, is limited. Therefore, the main goal of this thesis was to study virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana towards malaria mosquitoes using a multidisciplinary approach.
Chapter 2 provides an overview of existing knowledge of genes influencing virulence in EPF, with a special focus on B. bassiana. The infection cycle and virulence mechanisms are discussed, and put in a framework of novel strategies and experimental methods that are needed to better understand virulence and improve the usage of EPF as a biocontrol agent.
The study of natural variation in fungal virulence is a first step towards understanding the genetic mechanisms involved, because it reveals the extent of variation in the different components of virulence and their overall role. Chapter 3 describes the natural variation in virulence for 29 B. bassiana isolates that were tested on malaria mosquitoes. Furthermore, the phenotypic characteristics of the fungal isolates such as sporulation, spore size and growth were evaluated and their relationship with virulence analysed.
Based on the ample natural variation observed in fungal virulence, in Chapter 4, a comparative genomics analysis was performed on five selected isolates of contrasting virulence. In order to understand mechanisms underlying contrasting virulence, a comparison on gene gain/loss, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), secreted proteins, and secondary metabolites was performed. Insight is provided to the magnitude of the complexity of a trait such as virulence and suggests candidate genes that can be further studied using a functional analysis approach.
Chapter 5 focuses on an experimental evolution approach in which B. bassiana was solely using insects as a nutritional source for ten consecutive passages through malaria mosquitoes. Two isolates of B. bassiana that differed in virulence were compared to their respective ancestors, and they were assayed in virulence, fungal outgrowth, mycelial growth rate (MGR), and sporulation. Passage of the entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana through the insect host resulted in an altered capacity to grow on different substrates while maintaining the ability to kill insects.
Chapter 6 presents a discussion on the main findings of this thesis and describes future perspectives to study virulence of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana in the context of biological control of malaria mosquitoes.
Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana
Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A. ; Wiegers, Harm ; Zwaan, Bas J. ; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Kan, Jan A.L. van - \ 2016
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 133 (2016). - ISSN 0022-2011 - p. 41 - 49.
Beauveria bassiana - Entomopathogenic fungi - Virulence factors - Virulence genes
Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop.
Large-scale random features for kernel regression
Laparra, Valero ; Gonzalez, Diego Marcos ; Tuia, Devis ; Camps-Valls, Gustau - \ 2015
In: 2015 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS 2015 - Proceedings. - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) ) - ISBN 9781479979295 - p. 17 - 20.
Kernel methods constitute a family of powerful machine learning algorithms, which have found wide use in remote sensing and geosciences. However, kernel methods are still not widely adopted because of the high computational cost when dealing with large scale problems, such as the inversion of radiative transfer models. This paper introduces the method of random kitchen sinks (RKS) for fast statistical retrieval of bio-geo-physical parameters. The RKS method allows to approximate a kernel matrix with a set of random bases sampled from the Fourier domain. We extend their use to other bases, such as wavelets, stumps, and Walsh expansions. We show that kernel regression is now possible for datasets with millions of examples and high dimensionality. Examples on atmospheric parameter retrieval from infrared sounders and biophysical parameter retrieval by inverting PROSAIL radiative transfer models with simulated Sentinel-2 data show the effectiveness of the technique.