Water-Food-Energy Nexus under Climate Change in Sardinia
Trabucco, Antonio ; Sušnik, Janez ; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia ; Evans, Barry ; Masia, Sara ; Blanco, Maria ; Roson, Roberto ; Sartori, Martina ; Alexandri, Eva ; Brouwer, Floor ; Spano, Donatella ; Damiano, Alfonso ; Virdis, Andrea ; Sistu, Giovanni ; Pulino, Daniele ; Statzu, Vania ; Madau, Fabio ; Strazzera, Elisabetta ; Mereu, Simone - \ 2018
BMC Proceedings 2 (2018)11. - ISSN 1753-6561
Land, food, energy, water and climate are linked and interconnected into a Nexus, characterized by complexity and feedbacks. An integrated management of the Nexus is critical to understand conflicts/synergies and secure efficient and sustainable use of resources, especially under climate change. The Nexus perspective is applied to Sardinia, as regional case study, to better understand and improve integrated resource management and relevant policy initiatives. Vulnerability of Sardinia Nexus is assessed under several climate projections by articulated balances of resources (water, energy) availability and sustainable development goals, at regional and sub-regional scales, accounting for demands and conflicts among key economic sectors (agriculture, hydro-power, tourism).
Multi-stakeholder development of a serious game to explore the water-energy-food-land-climate nexus : The SIM4NEXUS approach
Sušnik, Janez ; Chew, Chengzi ; Domingo, Xavier ; Mereu, Simone ; Trabucco, Antonio ; Evans, Barry ; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia ; Savić, Dragan A. ; Laspidou, Chrysi ; Brouwer, Floor - \ 2018
Water 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 2073-4441
Nexus - Participatory modelling - Serious game - System dynamics - Water-food-land-energy-climate
Water, energy, food, land and climate form a tightly-connected nexus in which actions on one sector impact other sectors, creating feedbacks and unanticipated consequences. This is especially because at present, much scientific research and many policies are constrained to single discipline/sector silos that are often not interacting (e.g., water-related research/policy). However, experimenting with the interaction and determining how a change in one sector could impact another may require unreasonable time frames, be very difficult in practice and may be potentially dangerous, triggering any one of a number of unanticipated side-effects. Current modelling often neglects knowledge from practice. Therefore, a safe environment is required to test the potential cross-sectoral implications of policy decisions in one sector on other sectors. Serious games offer such an environment by creating realistic 'simulations', where long-term impacts of policies may be tested and rated. This paper describes how the ongoing (2016-2020) Horizon2020 project SIM4NEXUS will develop serious games investigating potential plausible cross-nexus implications and synergies due to policy interventions for 12 multi-scale case studies ranging from regional to global. What sets these games apart is that stakeholders and partners are involved in all aspects of the modelling definition and process, from case study conceptualisation, quantitative model development including the implementation and validation of each serious game. Learning from playing a serious game is justified by adopting a proof-of-concept for a specific regional case study in Sardinia (Italy). The value of multi-stakeholder involvement is demonstrated, and critical lessons learned for serious game development in general are presented.
The Nexus Concept Integrating Energy and Resource Efficiency for Policy Assessments : A Comparative Approach from Three Cases
Brouwer, Floor ; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia ; Alexandri, Eva ; Bremere, Ingrida ; Griffey, Matthew ; Linderhof, Vincent - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2071-1050
As the world increasingly runs up against physical constraints of energy, land, water, and food, there is a growing role for policy to reduce environmental pressures without adversely affecting increases in prosperity. There is therefore a need for policy makers to understand the potential trade-offs and/or synergies between the uses of these different resources, i.e., to encompass the water–energy–food–land nexus for policy and decision making, where it is no longer possible to ignore the limitations in land availability and its links to other natural resources. This paper proposes a modelling approach to help to assess various policies from a nexus perspective. The global macro-econometric model (E3ME) explores a low-carbon transition through different sets of energy and climate policies applied at different spatial scales. The limitations of the E3ME model in assessing nexus interactions are discussed. The paper also argues and offers an explanation for why no single traditional or classic model has the potential to cover all parts of the nexus in a satisfactory way, including feedback loops and interactions between nexus components. Other approaches and methodologies suitable for complexity science modelling (e.g., system dynamics modelling) are proposed, providing a possible means to capture the holistic approach of the nexus in policy-making by including causal and feedback loops to the model components. Based on three case studies in Europe, the paper clarifies the different steps (from policy design towards conceptual model) in modelling the nexus linkages and interactions at the national and regional levels. One case study (The Netherlands) considers national low-carbon transitions at national level. Two other case studies (Latvia and southwest UK) focus on how renewable energy may impact the nexus. A framework is proposed for the generic application of quantitative modelling approaches to assess nexus linkages. The value of the nexus concept for the efficient use of resources is demonstrated, and recommendations for policies supporting the nexus are presented.
The water-land-food-energy-climate Nexus for a resource efficient Europe
Laspidou, C. ; Witmer, M. ; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, L.S. ; Domingo, X. ; Brouwer, F.M. ; Howells, M. ; Sušnik, J. ; Blanco, M. ; Bonazountas, M. ; Fournier, M. ; Papadopoulou, M.P. - \ 2017
- 5 p.
Α novel methodology for addressing policy
inconsistencies and knowledge gaps that hinder the
transition to a greater resource efficiency Europe is
proposed. We focus on the integration of all different
sectors that interact and influence each other, namely the
“water- energy- food- land use- climate nexus” and we
develop tools for identifying and quantifying their complex
interlinkages under the influence of climate change. In
order to achieve this, we employ a series of sophisticated
models (referred to as “thematic models”), each of which
addresses a different nexus dimension, or a combination of
a few, while none addresses all nexus dimensions in an
integrative manner. We use dynamic systems modeling
and other complexity science techniques in order to
“merge” different thematic model outputs in a single
coherent result, which is presented to the user in an easy to
comprehend Serious Game environment. This way, the
effect of policies that are designed to affect one field
(nexus dimension) on others can be quantified and
simulated, thus informing policy-makers for the
unintended consequences of their policies, reducing
uncertainties, covering knowledge gaps and leading to a
resource efficient Europe faster.