Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Onderzoek naar een kennisbasis voor natuurgedreven landbouw
    Dijk, J. van; Veer, G. van der; Woestenburg, M. ; Stoop, J. ; Wijdeven, M. ; Veluw, K. van; Schrijver, R. ; Akker, J. van den; Woudenberg, E. van; Kerkhoven, D. ; Slot, M. - \ 2020
    WINK - 52
    Is nutrition science ready for the twenty-first century? Moving towards transdisciplinary impacts in a changing world
    Tufford, Adèle R. ; Calder, Philip C. ; Van’t Veer, Pieter ; Feskens, Edith F. ; Ockhuizen, Theo ; Kraneveld, Aletta D. ; Sikkema, Jan ; Vries, Jan de - \ 2020
    European Journal of Nutrition 59 (2020). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 10.

    Malnutrition in an obese world was the fitting title of the 13th Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS) conference held in October 2019. Many individuals do not eat a healthy, well-balanced diet, and this is now understood to be a major driver of increased disease risk and illness. Moreover, both our current eating patterns and the food system as a whole are environmentally unsustainable, threatening the planetary systems we depend on for survival. As we attempt to feed a growing global population, food systems will increasingly be confronted with their environmental impacts, with the added challenge of climate change-induced threats to food production. As we move into the third decade of the twenty-first century, these challenges demand that the nutrition research community reconsider its scope, concepts, methods, and societal role. At a pre-meeting workshop held at the FENS conference, over 70 researchers active in the field explored ways to advance the discipline’s capacity to address cross-cutting issues of personal, public and planetary health. Using the world cafe method, four themed discussion tables explored (a) the breadth of scientific domains needed to meet the current challenges, (b) the nature and definition of the shifting concepts in nutrition sciences, (c) the next-generation methods required and (d) communication and organisational challenges and opportunities. As a follow-up to earlier work [1], here we report the highlights of the discussions, and propose the next steps to advance responsible research and innovation in the domain of nutritional science.

    Designing healthier and acceptable diets using data envelopment analysis
    Kanellopoulos, A. ; Gerdessen, J.C. ; Ivancic, Ante ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2020
    Public Health Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 1368-9800
    Benchmark - DEA - Diet model - Efficiency - Nutrition - public health
    Objective: The objective of this research is to propose methodology that can be used to benchmark current diets based on their nutrient intakes and to provide guidelines for improving less healthy diets in a way that is acceptable for the studied population.
    Design: We discuss important limitations of current diet models that use optimization techniques to design healthier and acceptable diets. We illustrate how data envelopment analysis could be used to overcome such limitations, and we describe mathematical models that can be used to calculate not only healthier but also acceptable diets.
    Setting: We used data from the Nutrition Questionnaires plus dataset of habitual diets of a general population of adult men and women in The Netherlands (n 1735).
    Participants: Adult population.
    Results: We calculated healthier diets with substantial higher intakes of protein, fibre, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and vitamins, and substantially lower intakes of Na, saturated fats and added sugars. The calculated diets are combinations of current diets of individuals that belong to the same age/gender group and comprise of food itemintakes in proportions observed in the sample.
    Conclusions: The proposed methodology enables the benchmarking of existing diets and provides a framework for proposing healthier alternative diets that resemble the current diet in terms of foods intake as much as possible.
    Towards "improved Standards in the Science of Nutrition" through the Establishment of Federation of European Nutrition Societies Working Groups
    Calder, Philip C. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kraneveld, Aletta D. ; Plat, Jogchum ; 'T Veer, Pieter Van; Vries, Jan De - \ 2020
    Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 76 (2020)2. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 2 - 5.
    Validity of absolute intake and nutrient density of protein, potassium, and sodium assessed by various dietary assessment methods: An exploratory study
    Trijsburg, Laura ; Geelen, Anouk ; Hulshof, Paul J.M. ; Van’T Veer, Pieter ; Boshuizen, Hendriek C. ; Hollman, Peter C.H. ; Dijk, Gertjan van; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Vries, Jeanne H.M. de - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)1. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Dietary assessment - Doubly labeled water - Measurement errors - Multivariate models - Nutrient density - Validation

    It is suggested that nutrient densities are less affected by measurement errors than absolute intake estimates of dietary exposure. We compared the validity of absolute intakes and densities of protein (kJ from protein/total energy (kJ)), potassium, and sodium (potassium or sodium (in mg)/total energy (kJ)) assessed by different dietary assessment methods. For 69 Dutch subjects, two duplicate portions (DPs), five to fifteen 24-h dietary recalls (24 hRs, telephone-based and web-based) and two food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were collected and compared to duplicate urinary biomarkers and one or two doubly labelled water measurements. Multivariate measurement error models were used to estimate validity coefficients (VCs) and attenuation factors (AFs). This research showed that group bias diminished for protein and sodium densities assessed by all methods as compared to the respective absolute intakes, but not for those of potassium. However, the VCs and AFs for the nutrient densities did not improve compared to absolute intakes for all four methods; except for the AF of sodium density (0.71) or the FFQ which was better than that of the absolute sodium intake (0.51). Thus, using nutrient densities rather than absolute intakes does not necessarily improve the performance of the DP, FFQ, or 24 hR.

    Towards healthy and environmentally sustainable diets for European consumers
    Mertens, Elly - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.M. Geleijnse; P. van ‘t Veer, co-promotor(en): A. Kuijsten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463951531 - 287

    Poor diet is a leading risk for non-communicable diseases, but adherence to food-based dietary guidelines in Europe is low. In addition, our current diet has a major impact on the environment. There is thus an urgent need to improve the diets for European consumers. This thesis shows and evaluates possible solutions for improved diets using a benchmarking diet model. The great advantage of this model is that it implicitly incorporates dietary preferences of consumers by making use of existing diets. Within the ranges of observed dietary practices, results show that consumers may improve their nutrient quality up to 16% and reduce their diet-related greenhouse gas emissions up to 20%. However, to simultaneously achieve these improvements, dietary preferences need to be inspired by the rich diversity of European diets and complementary changes in the food supply chain are needed.

    Infrastructure for Innovative Research on Healthy Food Choice, Preparation and Consumption: A Position Paper on the RICHFIELDS project
    Seljak, Barbara Korousic ; Poppe, Krijn ; Finglas, Paul ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Zimmerman, Karin - \ 2019
    In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2019. - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2019 ) - ISBN 9781728108582 - p. 5183 - 5185.
    consumer - data - food choice - interoperability - nutrition

    This paper presents the recently finished EU-funded RICHFIELDS project aimed to design a new research infrastructure that would foster research in the areas of food and nutrition with a focus on consumers' behavior and lifestyle. In this project, an architecture of a new consumer data platform was designed and discussed from the researchers, business, management, ethical and legal points of view. Also new methodology for supporting big and open data standardization and interoperability was developed.

    CATT-behandeling: Geen effect op tulpenoogst
    Dam, Martin van - \ 2019
    SHARP-Indicators Database towards a public database for environmental sustainability
    Mertens, Elly ; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Zanten, Hannah van; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Veer, Pieter van 't - \ 2019
    Data in Brief 27 (2019). - ISSN 2352-3409
    Diet - Environment - Europe - Food - Greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) - Land use (LU) - Life cycle analyses (LCA)

    To initiate the achievement of an European-wide applicable public database for indicators of environmental sustainability of the diet, we developed the SHARP Indicators Database (SHARP-ID). A comprehensive description of the development of the SHARP-ID is provided in this article. In the SHARP-ID, environmental impact assessment was based on attributional life cycle analyses using environmental indicators greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use (LU). Life cycle inventory data of 182 primary products were combined with data on production, trade and transport, and adjusted for consumption amount using conversions factors for production, edible portion, cooking losses and gains, and for food losses and waste in order to derive estimates of GHGE and LU for the foods as eaten. Extrapolations based on similarities in type of food, production system and ingredient composition were made to obtain estimates of GHGE and LU per kg of food as eaten for 944 food items coded with a unique FoodEx2-code of EFSA and consumed in four European countries, i.e. Denmark, Czech Republic, Italy and France. This LCA-food-item database can be linked to food intake data collected at the individual level in order to calculate the environmental impact of individual's diets. The application of this database to European survey data is described in an original research article entitled “Dietary choices and environmental impact in four European countries” (Mertens et al., 2019).

    Flower Science meets Wageningen University & Research (WUR)
    Looman, B.H.M. ; Leman, A. ; Wildschut, J. - \ 2019
    Rethinking the food system: an Operations Research approach
    Rohmer, Sonja U.K. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.M. Bloemhof; P. van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): G.D.H. Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463951029 - 188

    The food system is a complex global structure, comprising an intrinsic web of inter-related supply chain and consumption activities. As such, it is deeply embedded in our society, contributing significantly to our economy and well-being. However, its current setup also leaves a considerable environmental footprint, by depleting valuable resources and polluting the planet, thus threatening the food security of future generations. A growing population and increasing standard of living further contribute to these environmental threats, while unhealthy consumption behaviour causes a rise in obesity and non-communicable diseases.

    This thesis shows how Operations Research approaches can contribute to finding solutions for a more sustainable food system. By applying mathematical optimisation and solution techniques, the research reconsiders the system's setup and evaluates possible alternative scenarios in order to address the current challenges. In order to provide a holistic view of the system and consider the perspective of different decision makers, different decision levels are presented and investigated in this thesis.

    In Chapter 2, the food system is considered from a network perspective, taking into account relations between consumption and supply chain decisions. In this context, a network flow problem is proposed to investigate the shifting towards a more plant-based dietary consumption on the basis of a number of alternative scenarios. The problem includes several echelons and interlinkages between different food supply chains by integrating sourcing, production and transportation decisions within a common framework. Consumption decisions are incorporated in the form of different types of consumer demands, maintaining a sufficient dietary intake level for the Dutch population. The problem is illustrated, with the help of real-life LCA data, on the basis of a case study and solved for different objectives using a linear programming approach. A multi-objective analysis, based on the epsilon-method and compromise programming, provides further insights into the existing trade-offs between the investigated environmental and economic objectives. The findings show that a plant-based dietary consumption holds the largest potential to reduce the environmental impact of the food system, while indicating the implications of such a shift for the supply chain configuration. Moreover, insights are provided on the allocation and shifting of burdens in the system depending on the chosen impact indicator.

    Chapter 3 continues the investigation at the network level from a more nutritional perspective. Building on the modelling approach of Chapter 2, the research is more restrictive in terms of dietary intake choices and applies tighter nutritional bounds. Minimising several environmental impact indicators, the resulting consumption alternatives are compared with regards to environmental footprint, product mix and the underlying supply chain configuration. Given the nutritional emphasis, the comparison also includes the effect of different alternatives on the overall dietary intake. The findings indicate benefits of shifting towards a more plant-based consumption both from a health perspective as well as from an environmental standpoint. Highlighting the connection between meat and dairy products, the research also shows the importance of taking product relations into account.

    Chapter 4 shifts the focus to operational aspects in the system, by addressing inventory management and routing decisions in the context of innovative last mile distribution concepts for perishable products. Assuming a two-echelon framework, the considered inventory-routing problem consists of a supplier, an intermediary depot and individual customer locations. The supplier delivers products to the depot, where storage may occur and from which they are then delivered by smaller vehicles to the customer locations. Storage at the depot incurs a holding costs, while customer preferences and availability for delivery are specified in the form of customer delivery patterns. Minimising total transportation and holding cost, the problem is formulated as a mixed-integer program. Given the complexity of the problem, a two-stage matheuristic is proposed for finding solutions on the basis of an adaptive large neighbourhood search and a reduced version of the problem. Three variants of the heuristic are compared in terms of their computational performance on a variety of randomly generated instances. Focusing on computational aspects, the findings highlight the importance of taking the cost structure into account when choosing the most suitable solution approach.

    Another last mile delivery concept for the distribution of fresh products is considered in Chapter 5, investigating the effect of alternative delivery locations, in the form of customer pick-up points, on daily routing operations. Due to the existence of customer pick-up points, customers can either be delivered directly at the customer location, or indirectly through a pick-up point, where products are stored until pick-up occurs. Customer pick-up points allow for more flexibility, as direct delivery is restricted by tight time windows. However, storage is capacitated and requires cooling, resulting in an additional cost to operate the facility. Minimising total transport and storage cost, the location-routing problem is formulated using a mixed-integer program and solved by means of an adaptive large neighbourhood search. The heuristic is tested on a set of benchmark instances. The results from these experiments indicate the potential of incorporating customer pick-up stations in last mile distribution systems for fresh products to save costs and make delivery operations more efficient.

    Zooming further into consumer plates, Chapter 6 looks at individual product concepts and how to design more sustainable alternatives to currently consumed products. Revisiting the shifting towards a more plant-based dietary consumption, the study focuses on the design of meat replacers with an equivalent nutritional contribution as chicken or beef, with regards to a set of key nutrients. Particular attention is given to protein quality and iron absorbability. Minimising different environmental impact indicators, a number of alternatives are proposed, as solutions to the linear programming based blending problem. Environmental impacts of ingredients are quantified through life-cycle assessment (LCA) data. The findings show that the largest impact reduction can be achieved through a vegan replacement, except for water use where the best result is provided by an insect-based replacement. The results further indicate the potential benefits of soy as an ingredient, due to its favourable amino acid composition.

    Chapter 7 presents a general discussion and conclusion following from the main findings of this thesis.

    The thesis highlights the multifaceted nature of challenges in the current food system and demonstrates the ability of Operations Research approaches to contribute to decision making on different levels in the system. At the same time, synergies between Operations Research and other food related disciplines give rise to new optimisation problems with practical implications, providing insights into different application areas.

    SHARP Indicators Database: Towards a public database for environmental sustainability
    Mertens, E. ; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Kuijsten, A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
    environment - greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) - land use (LU) - life cycle analyses (LCA) - Europe - food - diet
    In the SHARP-ID, environmental impact assessment was based on attributional life cycle analyses using environmental indicators greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use (LU). Life cycle inventory data of 182 primary products were combined with data on production, trade and transport, and adjusted for consumption amount using conversions factors for production, edible portion, cooking losses and gains, and for food losses and waste in order to derive estimates of GHGE and LU for the foods as eaten.
    Dietary choices and environmental impact in four European countries
    Mertens, Elly ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Zanten, Hannah H.E. van; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Dofková, Marcela ; Mistura, Lorenza ; Addezio, L. D'; Turrini, Aida ; Dubuisson, Carine ; Havard, Sabrina ; Trolle, E. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Veer, Pieter van 't - \ 2019
    Journal of Cleaner Production 237 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526
    Dietary quality - Energy intake - Greenhouse gas emission - Land use - Sustainability

    Effective food policies in Europe require insight into the environmental impact of consumers’ diet to contribute to global nutrition security in an environmentally sustainable way. The present study therefore aimed to assess the environmental impact associated with dietary intake across four European countries, and to explain sources of variations in environmental impact by energy intake, demographics and diet composition. Individual-level dietary intake data were obtained from nationally-representative dietary surveys, by using two non-consecutive days of a 24-h recall or a diet record, from Denmark (DK, n = 1710), Czech Republic (CZ, n = 1666), Italy (IT, n = 2184), and France (FR, n = 2246). Dietary intake data were linked to a newly developed pan-European environmental sustainability indicator database that contains greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and land use (LU) values for ∼900 foods. To explain the variation in environmental impact of diets, multilevel regression models with random intercept and random slopes were fitted according to two levels: adults (level 1, n = 7806) and country (level 2, n = 4). In the models, diet-related GHGE or LU was the dependent variable, and the parameter of interest, i.e. either total energy intake or demographics or food groups, the exploratory variables. A 200-kcal higher total energy intake was associated with a 9% and a 10% higher daily GHGE and LU. Expressed per 2000 kcal, mean GHGE ranged from 4.4 (CZ) to 6.3 kgCO2eq/2000 kcal (FR), and LU ranged from 5.7 (CZ) to 8.0 m2*year/2000 kcal (FR). Dietary choices explained most of the variation between countries. A 5 energy percent (50 g/2000 kcal) higher meat intake was associated with a 10% and a 14% higher GHGE and LU density, with ruminant meat being the main contributor to environmental footprints. In conclusion, intake of energy, total meat and the proportion of ruminant meat explained most of the variation in GHGE and LU of European diets. Contributions of food groups to environmental footprints however varied between countries, suggesting that cultural preferences play an important role in environmental footprints of consumers. In particular, Findings from the present study will be relevant for national-specific food policy measures towards a more environmentally-friendly diet.

    The role of self-control and the presence of enactment models on sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: A pilot study
    Wenzel, Mario ; Geelen, Anouk ; Wolters, Maike ; Hebestreit, Antje ; Laerhoven, Kristof Van; Lakerveld, Jeroen ; Andersen, Lene Frost ; van't Veer, Pieter ; Kubiak, Thomas - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Psychology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-1078
    Diet - Ecological momentary assessment - Self-control - Social norms - Sugar-sweetened beverages

    The objective of the present research was to investigate associations of dispositional and momentary self-control and the presence of other individuals consuming SSBs with the consumption frequency of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in a multi-country pilot study. We conducted an Ambulatory Assessment in which 75 university students (52 females) from four study sites carried smartphones and received prompts six times a day in their everyday environments to capture information regarding momentary self-control and the presence of other individuals consuming SSBs. Multilevel models revealed a statistically significant negative association between dispositional self-control and SSB consumption. Moreover, having more self-control than usual was only beneficial in regard to lower SSB consumption frequency, when other individuals consuming SSBs were not present but not when they were present. The findings support the hypothesis that self-control is an important factor regarding SSB consumption. This early evidence highlights self-control as a candidate to design interventions to promote healthier drinking through improved self-control.

    Taste profiles of diets high and low in environmental sustainability and health
    Bussel, L.M. van; Kuijsten, A. ; Mars, M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
    Food Quality and Preference 78 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - 8 p.
    Environmental sustainability - Health - Taste

    To mitigate the effects of climate change, we need to shift towards a more sustainable and healthier diet. This presumably affects the taste and texture of the diet. We assessed the taste profiles of current diets, of healthier and more sustainable diets and of less healthy and less sustainable diets in a Dutch adult population (n = 1380) in the Nutritional Questionnaire Plus study. The Dutch Healthy Diet index and the pReCiPe-score were used to create tertiles by healthiness and sustainability of diets respectively. Based on the lowest and highest tertiles of these two indicators we constructed four subgroups. For each participant, we calculated the proportional contribution of taste clusters (n = 6) to the total daily energy intake (en%) and the total amount consumed (gram%) using a taste database including ∼469 foods. The six taste clusters consisted of 1) neutral, 2) salt, umami, fat, 3) sweet, sour, 4) sweet, fat, 5) fat and 6) bitter tasting foods. ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences between subjects in the extreme tertiles. Results show that participants who have a healthier and more sustainable diet consumed less food products from the taste cluster ‘umami, salt, fat’ (16.1 en%) and ‘bitter’ (17.1 g%) and more products from the taste cluster ‘neutral’ (41.9 en%) compared to participants that have a less healthy and less sustainable diet (umami, salt, fat: 25.6 en%; bitter: 29.0 g%; neutral: 33.0 en%). Therefore, taste profiles should be taken into account when proposing menus and diets that are healthier and more sustainable.

    The strengths and limitations of the SUSFANS metrics and models for assessing sustainable food and nutrition security in Europe : Deliverable No. D9.6
    Latka, Catharina ; Kuiper, M.H. ; Heckelei, Thomas ; Havlík, Petr ; Frank, Stefan ; Dijk, M. van; Veer, P. van 't; Achterbosch, T.J. ; Hsu, S.H. - \ 2019
    SUSFANS - 33 p.
    The SUSFANS model toolbox comprises state-of-the-art foresight and newly developed diet models for a holistic sustainability and dietary assessment. The toolbox is ready to assess the food system transitions to support healthy and sustainable diets of EU citizens. A future research agenda for the modelling of food system properties is proposed regarding modelling of food supply, consumer choices, global impacts and for assessing and communicating complex model results.
    Combining tree species and decay stages to increase invertebrate diversity in dead wood
    Andringa, Joke I. ; Zuo, Juan ; Berg, Matty P. ; Klein, Roy ; van't Veer, Jip ; Geus, Rick de; Beaumont, Marco de; Goudzwaard, Leo ; Hal, Jurgen van; Broekman, Rob ; Logtestijn, Richard S.P. van; Li, Yikang ; Fujii, Saori ; Lammers, Mark ; Hefting, Mariet M. ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute ; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C. - \ 2019
    Forest Ecology and Management 441 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 80 - 88.
    Biodiversity - Chilipoda - Coarse woody debris - Coleoptera - Diplopoda - Habitat heterogeneity - Invertebrates - Isopoda - Managed forest - Wood decomposition

    Dead wood availability and the variability in dead wood quality, i.e. tree species and decay stages, are often low in managed forests, which negatively affects biodiversity of invertebrate species. Leaving more (coarse) dead wood can increase invertebrate richness, but it remains unclear how many and which combinations of tree taxa and decay stages are required to optimize niche heterogeneity in managed forests. We investigated the diversity of the main arthropod groups associated with dead wood, i.e. millipedes, centipedes, isopods and beetles, through the first four years of decomposition of logs of twenty common temperate tree species placed in the “common garden” experiment LOGLIFE. We hypothesized that (1) invertebrate richness for combinations of a given number of tree species would be promoted by mixing both tree species and decay period and that (2) invertebrate richness increases up to a saturation point with more tree species at different decay stages added. We also hypothesized that (3) an increase in phylogenetic distance among the tree species in combinations would promote their overall invertebrate diversity. We found that the better combinations, in terms of invertebrate richness, after one and two years of decay, but not after four years, consisted of a mix of gymnosperms and angiosperms, indicating that variation in tree species is especially important during the initial decomposition period. The best combinations in terms of invertebrate richness consisted of at least one tree species from each decay period, indicating that also variation in the decay stage of the tree is important to promote invertebrate diversity. We observed that at least four wood types were required to approach the 95% saturation point for species richness. The third hypothesis, that dissimilarity in phylogenetic position could be a predictive tool for increasing invertebrate richness in combinations of tree species, was not supported by our results. Thus, in order to maintain diversity of dead wood invertebrates in forests we recommend not only to provide richness in tree species, but also to plant particular combinations of trees (preferably angiosperm-gymnosperm combinations) that differ in the invertebrate communities they typically host and to temporally spread the logging of trees. This way the logging residues cover different resources and habitats at each moment in time, which is likely to result in a large diversity of dead wood invertebrates.

    FFQ versus repeated 24-h recalls for estimating diet-related environmental impact
    Mertens, E. ; Kuijsten, A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
    Nutrition Journal 18 (2019). - ISSN 1475-2891
    Background: There is an increasing interest in estimating environmental impact of individuals’ diets by using individual-level food consumption data. However, like assessment of nutrient intakes, these data are prone to substantial measurement errors dependent on the method of dietary assessment, and this often result in attenuation of associations. Purpose: To investigate the performance of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for estimating the environmental impact of the diet as compared to independent 24-h recalls (24hR), and to study the association between environmental impact and dietary quality for the FFQ and 24hR. Methods: We analysed cross-sectional data from 1169 men and women, aged 20–76 years, who participated in the NQplus study, the Netherlands. They completed a 216-item FFQ and two replicates of web-based 24hR. Life cycle assessments of 207 food products were used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy and land use, summarised into an aggregated score, pReCiPe. Validity of the FFQ was evaluated against 24hRs using correlation coefficients and attenuation coefficients. Associations with dietary quality were based on Dutch Healthy Diet 15-index (DHD15-index) and Nutrient Rich Diet score (NRD9.3). Results: For pReCiPe, correlation coefficient between FFQ and 24hR was 0.33 when adjusted for covariates age, gender and BMI, and increased to 0.76 when de-attenuated for within-subject variation in the 24hR. Energy-adjustment slightly reduced these correlations (r = 0.71 for residuals of observed values and 0.59 for residuals of density values). Covariate-adjusted attenuation coefficient for the FFQ was 0.56 (ʎ1 = 0.56 and ʎ1 = 0.65 for observed and density residuals), slightly lower than without covariate adjustment. Diet-related environmental impact was inversely associated with the food-based DHD15-index for both FFQ and 24hR, while associations with the nutrient-based NRD9.3 were inconsistent. Conclusions: The FFQ slightly underestimated environmental impact when compared to 24hR. Associations with dietary quality are highly dependent on the diet score used, and less dependent on the method of dietary assessment.
    Food identification by barcode scanning in the Netherlands : a quality assessment of labelled food product databases underlying popular nutrition applications
    Maringer, Marcus ; Wisse-Voorwinden, Nancy ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Geelen, Anouk - \ 2019
    Public Health Nutrition 22 (2019)7. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1215 - 1222.
    Barcode scanning - Barcodes - Diet apps - Dietary intake assessment - Food database - Food identification - Labelled food products - Technological innovations

    Objective: The quality of labelled food product databases underlying popular diet applications (apps) with barcode scanners was investigated. Design: Product identification rates for the scanned products and the availability and accuracy of nutrient values were calculated. Setting: One hundred food products were selected from the two largest supermarket chains in the Netherlands. Using the barcode scanners of the selected apps, the products were scanned and the results recorded as food diary entries. The collected data were exported. Subjects: Seven diet apps with barcode scanner and food recording feature were selected from the Google Play and Apple app stores. Results: Energy values were available for 99 % of the scanned products, of which on average 79 % deviated not more than 5 % from the true value. MyFitnessPal provided values for sixteen nutrients, while Virtuagym Food and Yazio provided values for only four nutrients. MyFitnessPal also showed the largest percentage of correctly identified products (i.e. 96 %) and SparkPeople the smallest (i.e. 5 %). The accuracy of the provided nutrient values varied greatly between apps and nutrients. Conclusions: While energy was the most consistently and accurately reported value, the availability and accuracy of other values varied greatly between apps. Whereas popular diet apps with barcode scanners might be valuable tools for dietary assessments on the product and energy level, they appear less suitable for assessments on the nutrient level. The presence of user-generated database entries implies that the availability of food products might vary depending on the size and diversity of an app’s user base.

    Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries
    Mertens, Elly ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Dofková, Marcela ; Mistura, Lorenza ; D’Addezio, Laura ; Turrini, Aida ; Dubuisson, Carine ; Favret, Sandra ; Havard, Sabrina ; Trolle, Ellen ; van’t Veer, Pieter ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2019
    European Journal of Nutrition 58 (2019)4. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 19.
    Diet - Dietary guidelines - Europe - Foods - Nutrients - SUSFANS
    Purpose: Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Methods: Individual-level dietary intake data in adults were obtained from nationally-representative surveys from Denmark and France using a 7-day diet record, Italy using a 3-day diet record, and Czech Republic using two replicates of a 24-h recall. Energy-standardised food and nutrient intakes were calculated for each subject from the mean of two randomly selected days. Results: There was clear geographical variability, with a between-country range for mean fruit intake from 118 to 199 g/day, for vegetables from 95 to 239 g/day, for fish from 12 to 45 g/day, for dairy from 129 to 302 g/day, for sweet beverages from 48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmark for dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (< 20 g/day), and nuts and seeds (< 5 g/day), but high for red and processed meat (> 80 g/day). Within countries, food intakes also varied by socio-economic factors such as age, gender, and educational level, but less pronounced by anthropometric factors such as overweight status. For nutrients, intakes were low for dietary fibre (15.8–19.4 g/day) and vitamin D (2.4–3.0 µg/day) in all countries, for potassium (2288–2938 mg/day) and magnesium (268–285 mg/day) except in Denmark, for vitamin E in Denmark (6.7 mg/day), and for folate in Czech Republic (212 µg/day). Conclusions: There is considerable variation in food and nutrient intakes across Europe, not only between, but also within countries. Individual-level dietary data provide insight into the heterogeneity of dietary habits beyond per capita food supply data, and this is crucial to balancing healthy and environmentally-friendly diets for European citizens.
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