Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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    Onderzoek naar een kennisbasis voor natuurgedreven landbouw
    Dijk, J. van; Veer, G. van der; Woestenburg, M. ; Stoop, J. ; Wijdeven, M. ; Veluw, K. van; Schrijver, R. ; Akker, J. van den; Woudenberg, E. van; Kerkhoven, D. ; Slot, M. - \ 2020
    WINK - 52
    Is nutrition science ready for the twenty-first century? Moving towards transdisciplinary impacts in a changing world
    Tufford, Adèle R. ; Calder, Philip C. ; Van’t Veer, Pieter ; Feskens, Edith F. ; Ockhuizen, Theo ; Kraneveld, Aletta D. ; Sikkema, Jan ; Vries, Jan de - \ 2020
    European Journal of Nutrition 59 (2020). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 10.

    Malnutrition in an obese world was the fitting title of the 13th Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS) conference held in October 2019. Many individuals do not eat a healthy, well-balanced diet, and this is now understood to be a major driver of increased disease risk and illness. Moreover, both our current eating patterns and the food system as a whole are environmentally unsustainable, threatening the planetary systems we depend on for survival. As we attempt to feed a growing global population, food systems will increasingly be confronted with their environmental impacts, with the added challenge of climate change-induced threats to food production. As we move into the third decade of the twenty-first century, these challenges demand that the nutrition research community reconsider its scope, concepts, methods, and societal role. At a pre-meeting workshop held at the FENS conference, over 70 researchers active in the field explored ways to advance the discipline’s capacity to address cross-cutting issues of personal, public and planetary health. Using the world cafe method, four themed discussion tables explored (a) the breadth of scientific domains needed to meet the current challenges, (b) the nature and definition of the shifting concepts in nutrition sciences, (c) the next-generation methods required and (d) communication and organisational challenges and opportunities. As a follow-up to earlier work [1], here we report the highlights of the discussions, and propose the next steps to advance responsible research and innovation in the domain of nutritional science.

    Designing healthier and acceptable diets using data envelopment analysis
    Kanellopoulos, A. ; Gerdessen, J.C. ; Ivancic, Ante ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2020
    Public Health Nutrition 23 (2020)13. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 2290 - 2302.
    Benchmark - DEA - Diet model - Efficiency - Nutrition - public health
    Objective: The objective of this research is to propose methodology that can be used to benchmark current diets based on their nutrient intakes and to provide guidelines for improving less healthy diets in a way that is acceptable for the studied population.
    Design: We discuss important limitations of current diet models that use optimization techniques to design healthier and acceptable diets. We illustrate how data envelopment analysis could be used to overcome such limitations, and we describe mathematical models that can be used to calculate not only healthier but also acceptable diets.
    Setting: We used data from the Nutrition Questionnaires plus dataset of habitual diets of a general population of adult men and women in The Netherlands (n 1735).
    Participants: Adult population.
    Results: We calculated healthier diets with substantial higher intakes of protein, fibre, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and vitamins, and substantially lower intakes of Na, saturated fats and added sugars. The calculated diets are combinations of current diets of individuals that belong to the same age/gender group and comprise of food itemintakes in proportions observed in the sample.
    Conclusions: The proposed methodology enables the benchmarking of existing diets and provides a framework for proposing healthier alternative diets that resemble the current diet in terms of foods intake as much as possible.
    Towards "improved Standards in the Science of Nutrition" through the Establishment of Federation of European Nutrition Societies Working Groups
    Calder, Philip C. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kraneveld, Aletta D. ; Plat, Jogchum ; 'T Veer, Pieter Van; Vries, Jan De - \ 2020
    Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 76 (2020)2. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 2 - 5.
    Validity of absolute intake and nutrient density of protein, potassium, and sodium assessed by various dietary assessment methods: An exploratory study
    Trijsburg, Laura ; Geelen, Anouk ; Hulshof, Paul J.M. ; Van’T Veer, Pieter ; Boshuizen, Hendriek C. ; Hollman, Peter C.H. ; Dijk, Gertjan van; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Vries, Jeanne H.M. de - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)1. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Dietary assessment - Doubly labeled water - Measurement errors - Multivariate models - Nutrient density - Validation

    It is suggested that nutrient densities are less affected by measurement errors than absolute intake estimates of dietary exposure. We compared the validity of absolute intakes and densities of protein (kJ from protein/total energy (kJ)), potassium, and sodium (potassium or sodium (in mg)/total energy (kJ)) assessed by different dietary assessment methods. For 69 Dutch subjects, two duplicate portions (DPs), five to fifteen 24-h dietary recalls (24 hRs, telephone-based and web-based) and two food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were collected and compared to duplicate urinary biomarkers and one or two doubly labelled water measurements. Multivariate measurement error models were used to estimate validity coefficients (VCs) and attenuation factors (AFs). This research showed that group bias diminished for protein and sodium densities assessed by all methods as compared to the respective absolute intakes, but not for those of potassium. However, the VCs and AFs for the nutrient densities did not improve compared to absolute intakes for all four methods; except for the AF of sodium density (0.71) or the FFQ which was better than that of the absolute sodium intake (0.51). Thus, using nutrient densities rather than absolute intakes does not necessarily improve the performance of the DP, FFQ, or 24 hR.

    Towards healthy and environmentally sustainable diets for European consumers
    Mertens, Elly - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.M. Geleijnse; P. van ‘t Veer, co-promotor(en): A. Kuijsten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463951531 - 287

    Poor diet is a leading risk for non-communicable diseases, but adherence to food-based dietary guidelines in Europe is low. In addition, our current diet has a major impact on the environment. There is thus an urgent need to improve the diets for European consumers. This thesis shows and evaluates possible solutions for improved diets using a benchmarking diet model. The great advantage of this model is that it implicitly incorporates dietary preferences of consumers by making use of existing diets. Within the ranges of observed dietary practices, results show that consumers may improve their nutrient quality up to 16% and reduce their diet-related greenhouse gas emissions up to 20%. However, to simultaneously achieve these improvements, dietary preferences need to be inspired by the rich diversity of European diets and complementary changes in the food supply chain are needed.

    Infrastructure for Innovative Research on Healthy Food Choice, Preparation and Consumption: A Position Paper on the RICHFIELDS project
    Seljak, Barbara Korousic ; Poppe, Krijn ; Finglas, Paul ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Zimmerman, Karin - \ 2019
    In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2019. - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2019 ) - ISBN 9781728108582 - p. 5183 - 5185.
    consumer - data - food choice - interoperability - nutrition

    This paper presents the recently finished EU-funded RICHFIELDS project aimed to design a new research infrastructure that would foster research in the areas of food and nutrition with a focus on consumers' behavior and lifestyle. In this project, an architecture of a new consumer data platform was designed and discussed from the researchers, business, management, ethical and legal points of view. Also new methodology for supporting big and open data standardization and interoperability was developed.

    CATT-behandeling: Geen effect op tulpenoogst
    Dam, Martin van - \ 2019
    SHARP-Indicators Database towards a public database for environmental sustainability
    Mertens, Elly ; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Zanten, Hannah van; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Veer, Pieter van 't - \ 2019
    Data in Brief 27 (2019). - ISSN 2352-3409
    Diet - Environment - Europe - Food - Greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) - Land use (LU) - Life cycle analyses (LCA)

    To initiate the achievement of an European-wide applicable public database for indicators of environmental sustainability of the diet, we developed the SHARP Indicators Database (SHARP-ID). A comprehensive description of the development of the SHARP-ID is provided in this article. In the SHARP-ID, environmental impact assessment was based on attributional life cycle analyses using environmental indicators greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use (LU). Life cycle inventory data of 182 primary products were combined with data on production, trade and transport, and adjusted for consumption amount using conversions factors for production, edible portion, cooking losses and gains, and for food losses and waste in order to derive estimates of GHGE and LU for the foods as eaten. Extrapolations based on similarities in type of food, production system and ingredient composition were made to obtain estimates of GHGE and LU per kg of food as eaten for 944 food items coded with a unique FoodEx2-code of EFSA and consumed in four European countries, i.e. Denmark, Czech Republic, Italy and France. This LCA-food-item database can be linked to food intake data collected at the individual level in order to calculate the environmental impact of individual's diets. The application of this database to European survey data is described in an original research article entitled “Dietary choices and environmental impact in four European countries” (Mertens et al., 2019).

    Flower Science meets Wageningen University & Research (WUR)
    Looman, B.H.M. ; Leman, A. ; Wildschut, J. - \ 2019
    Rethinking the food system: an Operations Research approach
    Rohmer, Sonja U.K. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.M. Bloemhof; P. van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): G.D.H. Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463951029 - 188

    The food system is a complex global structure, comprising an intrinsic web of inter-related supply chain and consumption activities. As such, it is deeply embedded in our society, contributing significantly to our economy and well-being. However, its current setup also leaves a considerable environmental footprint, by depleting valuable resources and polluting the planet, thus threatening the food security of future generations. A growing population and increasing standard of living further contribute to these environmental threats, while unhealthy consumption behaviour causes a rise in obesity and non-communicable diseases.

    This thesis shows how Operations Research approaches can contribute to finding solutions for a more sustainable food system. By applying mathematical optimisation and solution techniques, the research reconsiders the system's setup and evaluates possible alternative scenarios in order to address the current challenges. In order to provide a holistic view of the system and consider the perspective of different decision makers, different decision levels are presented and investigated in this thesis.

    In Chapter 2, the food system is considered from a network perspective, taking into account relations between consumption and supply chain decisions. In this context, a network flow problem is proposed to investigate the shifting towards a more plant-based dietary consumption on the basis of a number of alternative scenarios. The problem includes several echelons and interlinkages between different food supply chains by integrating sourcing, production and transportation decisions within a common framework. Consumption decisions are incorporated in the form of different types of consumer demands, maintaining a sufficient dietary intake level for the Dutch population. The problem is illustrated, with the help of real-life LCA data, on the basis of a case study and solved for different objectives using a linear programming approach. A multi-objective analysis, based on the epsilon-method and compromise programming, provides further insights into the existing trade-offs between the investigated environmental and economic objectives. The findings show that a plant-based dietary consumption holds the largest potential to reduce the environmental impact of the food system, while indicating the implications of such a shift for the supply chain configuration. Moreover, insights are provided on the allocation and shifting of burdens in the system depending on the chosen impact indicator.

    Chapter 3 continues the investigation at the network level from a more nutritional perspective. Building on the modelling approach of Chapter 2, the research is more restrictive in terms of dietary intake choices and applies tighter nutritional bounds. Minimising several environmental impact indicators, the resulting consumption alternatives are compared with regards to environmental footprint, product mix and the underlying supply chain configuration. Given the nutritional emphasis, the comparison also includes the effect of different alternatives on the overall dietary intake. The findings indicate benefits of shifting towards a more plant-based consumption both from a health perspective as well as from an environmental standpoint. Highlighting the connection between meat and dairy products, the research also shows the importance of taking product relations into account.

    Chapter 4 shifts the focus to operational aspects in the system, by addressing inventory management and routing decisions in the context of innovative last mile distribution concepts for perishable products. Assuming a two-echelon framework, the considered inventory-routing problem consists of a supplier, an intermediary depot and individual customer locations. The supplier delivers products to the depot, where storage may occur and from which they are then delivered by smaller vehicles to the customer locations. Storage at the depot incurs a holding costs, while customer preferences and availability for delivery are specified in the form of customer delivery patterns. Minimising total transportation and holding cost, the problem is formulated as a mixed-integer program. Given the complexity of the problem, a two-stage matheuristic is proposed for finding solutions on the basis of an adaptive large neighbourhood search and a reduced version of the problem. Three variants of the heuristic are compared in terms of their computational performance on a variety of randomly generated instances. Focusing on computational aspects, the findings highlight the importance of taking the cost structure into account when choosing the most suitable solution approach.

    Another last mile delivery concept for the distribution of fresh products is considered in Chapter 5, investigating the effect of alternative delivery locations, in the form of customer pick-up points, on daily routing operations. Due to the existence of customer pick-up points, customers can either be delivered directly at the customer location, or indirectly through a pick-up point, where products are stored until pick-up occurs. Customer pick-up points allow for more flexibility, as direct delivery is restricted by tight time windows. However, storage is capacitated and requires cooling, resulting in an additional cost to operate the facility. Minimising total transport and storage cost, the location-routing problem is formulated using a mixed-integer program and solved by means of an adaptive large neighbourhood search. The heuristic is tested on a set of benchmark instances. The results from these experiments indicate the potential of incorporating customer pick-up stations in last mile distribution systems for fresh products to save costs and make delivery operations more efficient.

    Zooming further into consumer plates, Chapter 6 looks at individual product concepts and how to design more sustainable alternatives to currently consumed products. Revisiting the shifting towards a more plant-based dietary consumption, the study focuses on the design of meat replacers with an equivalent nutritional contribution as chicken or beef, with regards to a set of key nutrients. Particular attention is given to protein quality and iron absorbability. Minimising different environmental impact indicators, a number of alternatives are proposed, as solutions to the linear programming based blending problem. Environmental impacts of ingredients are quantified through life-cycle assessment (LCA) data. The findings show that the largest impact reduction can be achieved through a vegan replacement, except for water use where the best result is provided by an insect-based replacement. The results further indicate the potential benefits of soy as an ingredient, due to its favourable amino acid composition.

    Chapter 7 presents a general discussion and conclusion following from the main findings of this thesis.

    The thesis highlights the multifaceted nature of challenges in the current food system and demonstrates the ability of Operations Research approaches to contribute to decision making on different levels in the system. At the same time, synergies between Operations Research and other food related disciplines give rise to new optimisation problems with practical implications, providing insights into different application areas.

    SHARP Indicators Database: Towards a public database for environmental sustainability
    Mertens, E. ; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Kuijsten, A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
    environment - greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) - land use (LU) - life cycle analyses (LCA) - Europe - food - diet
    In the SHARP-ID, environmental impact assessment was based on attributional life cycle analyses using environmental indicators greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use (LU). Life cycle inventory data of 182 primary products were combined with data on production, trade and transport, and adjusted for consumption amount using conversions factors for production, edible portion, cooking losses and gains, and for food losses and waste in order to derive estimates of GHGE and LU for the foods as eaten.
    Dietary choices and environmental impact in four European countries
    Mertens, Elly ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Zanten, Hannah H.E. van; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Dofková, Marcela ; Mistura, Lorenza ; Addezio, L. D'; Turrini, Aida ; Dubuisson, Carine ; Havard, Sabrina ; Trolle, E. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Veer, Pieter van 't - \ 2019
    Journal of Cleaner Production 237 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526
    Dietary quality - Energy intake - Greenhouse gas emission - Land use - Sustainability

    Effective food policies in Europe require insight into the environmental impact of consumers’ diet to contribute to global nutrition security in an environmentally sustainable way. The present study therefore aimed to assess the environmental impact associated with dietary intake across four European countries, and to explain sources of variations in environmental impact by energy intake, demographics and diet composition. Individual-level dietary intake data were obtained from nationally-representative dietary surveys, by using two non-consecutive days of a 24-h recall or a diet record, from Denmark (DK, n = 1710), Czech Republic (CZ, n = 1666), Italy (IT, n = 2184), and France (FR, n = 2246). Dietary intake data were linked to a newly developed pan-European environmental sustainability indicator database that contains greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and land use (LU) values for ∼900 foods. To explain the variation in environmental impact of diets, multilevel regression models with random intercept and random slopes were fitted according to two levels: adults (level 1, n = 7806) and country (level 2, n = 4). In the models, diet-related GHGE or LU was the dependent variable, and the parameter of interest, i.e. either total energy intake or demographics or food groups, the exploratory variables. A 200-kcal higher total energy intake was associated with a 9% and a 10% higher daily GHGE and LU. Expressed per 2000 kcal, mean GHGE ranged from 4.4 (CZ) to 6.3 kgCO2eq/2000 kcal (FR), and LU ranged from 5.7 (CZ) to 8.0 m2*year/2000 kcal (FR). Dietary choices explained most of the variation between countries. A 5 energy percent (50 g/2000 kcal) higher meat intake was associated with a 10% and a 14% higher GHGE and LU density, with ruminant meat being the main contributor to environmental footprints. In conclusion, intake of energy, total meat and the proportion of ruminant meat explained most of the variation in GHGE and LU of European diets. Contributions of food groups to environmental footprints however varied between countries, suggesting that cultural preferences play an important role in environmental footprints of consumers. In particular, Findings from the present study will be relevant for national-specific food policy measures towards a more environmentally-friendly diet.

    The role of self-control and the presence of enactment models on sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: A pilot study
    Wenzel, Mario ; Geelen, Anouk ; Wolters, Maike ; Hebestreit, Antje ; Laerhoven, Kristof Van; Lakerveld, Jeroen ; Andersen, Lene Frost ; van't Veer, Pieter ; Kubiak, Thomas - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Psychology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-1078
    Diet - Ecological momentary assessment - Self-control - Social norms - Sugar-sweetened beverages

    The objective of the present research was to investigate associations of dispositional and momentary self-control and the presence of other individuals consuming SSBs with the consumption frequency of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in a multi-country pilot study. We conducted an Ambulatory Assessment in which 75 university students (52 females) from four study sites carried smartphones and received prompts six times a day in their everyday environments to capture information regarding momentary self-control and the presence of other individuals consuming SSBs. Multilevel models revealed a statistically significant negative association between dispositional self-control and SSB consumption. Moreover, having more self-control than usual was only beneficial in regard to lower SSB consumption frequency, when other individuals consuming SSBs were not present but not when they were present. The findings support the hypothesis that self-control is an important factor regarding SSB consumption. This early evidence highlights self-control as a candidate to design interventions to promote healthier drinking through improved self-control.

    Taste profiles of diets high and low in environmental sustainability and health
    Bussel, L.M. van; Kuijsten, A. ; Mars, M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
    Food Quality and Preference 78 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - 8 p.
    Environmental sustainability - Health - Taste

    To mitigate the effects of climate change, we need to shift towards a more sustainable and healthier diet. This presumably affects the taste and texture of the diet. We assessed the taste profiles of current diets, of healthier and more sustainable diets and of less healthy and less sustainable diets in a Dutch adult population (n = 1380) in the Nutritional Questionnaire Plus study. The Dutch Healthy Diet index and the pReCiPe-score were used to create tertiles by healthiness and sustainability of diets respectively. Based on the lowest and highest tertiles of these two indicators we constructed four subgroups. For each participant, we calculated the proportional contribution of taste clusters (n = 6) to the total daily energy intake (en%) and the total amount consumed (gram%) using a taste database including ∼469 foods. The six taste clusters consisted of 1) neutral, 2) salt, umami, fat, 3) sweet, sour, 4) sweet, fat, 5) fat and 6) bitter tasting foods. ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences between subjects in the extreme tertiles. Results show that participants who have a healthier and more sustainable diet consumed less food products from the taste cluster ‘umami, salt, fat’ (16.1 en%) and ‘bitter’ (17.1 g%) and more products from the taste cluster ‘neutral’ (41.9 en%) compared to participants that have a less healthy and less sustainable diet (umami, salt, fat: 25.6 en%; bitter: 29.0 g%; neutral: 33.0 en%). Therefore, taste profiles should be taken into account when proposing menus and diets that are healthier and more sustainable.

    The strengths and limitations of the SUSFANS metrics and models for assessing sustainable food and nutrition security in Europe : Deliverable No. D9.6
    Latka, Catharina ; Kuiper, M.H. ; Heckelei, Thomas ; Havlík, Petr ; Frank, Stefan ; Dijk, M. van; Veer, P. van 't; Achterbosch, T.J. ; Hsu, S.H. - \ 2019
    SUSFANS - 33 p.
    The SUSFANS model toolbox comprises state-of-the-art foresight and newly developed diet models for a holistic sustainability and dietary assessment. The toolbox is ready to assess the food system transitions to support healthy and sustainable diets of EU citizens. A future research agenda for the modelling of food system properties is proposed regarding modelling of food supply, consumer choices, global impacts and for assessing and communicating complex model results.
    Combining tree species and decay stages to increase invertebrate diversity in dead wood
    Andringa, Joke I. ; Zuo, Juan ; Berg, Matty P. ; Klein, Roy ; van't Veer, Jip ; Geus, Rick de; Beaumont, Marco de; Goudzwaard, Leo ; Hal, Jurgen van; Broekman, Rob ; Logtestijn, Richard S.P. van; Li, Yikang ; Fujii, Saori ; Lammers, Mark ; Hefting, Mariet M. ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute ; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C. - \ 2019
    Forest Ecology and Management 441 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 80 - 88.
    Biodiversity - Chilipoda - Coarse woody debris - Coleoptera - Diplopoda - Habitat heterogeneity - Invertebrates - Isopoda - Managed forest - Wood decomposition

    Dead wood availability and the variability in dead wood quality, i.e. tree species and decay stages, are often low in managed forests, which negatively affects biodiversity of invertebrate species. Leaving more (coarse) dead wood can increase invertebrate richness, but it remains unclear how many and which combinations of tree taxa and decay stages are required to optimize niche heterogeneity in managed forests. We investigated the diversity of the main arthropod groups associated with dead wood, i.e. millipedes, centipedes, isopods and beetles, through the first four years of decomposition of logs of twenty common temperate tree species placed in the “common garden” experiment LOGLIFE. We hypothesized that (1) invertebrate richness for combinations of a given number of tree species would be promoted by mixing both tree species and decay period and that (2) invertebrate richness increases up to a saturation point with more tree species at different decay stages added. We also hypothesized that (3) an increase in phylogenetic distance among the tree species in combinations would promote their overall invertebrate diversity. We found that the better combinations, in terms of invertebrate richness, after one and two years of decay, but not after four years, consisted of a mix of gymnosperms and angiosperms, indicating that variation in tree species is especially important during the initial decomposition period. The best combinations in terms of invertebrate richness consisted of at least one tree species from each decay period, indicating that also variation in the decay stage of the tree is important to promote invertebrate diversity. We observed that at least four wood types were required to approach the 95% saturation point for species richness. The third hypothesis, that dissimilarity in phylogenetic position could be a predictive tool for increasing invertebrate richness in combinations of tree species, was not supported by our results. Thus, in order to maintain diversity of dead wood invertebrates in forests we recommend not only to provide richness in tree species, but also to plant particular combinations of trees (preferably angiosperm-gymnosperm combinations) that differ in the invertebrate communities they typically host and to temporally spread the logging of trees. This way the logging residues cover different resources and habitats at each moment in time, which is likely to result in a large diversity of dead wood invertebrates.

    FFQ versus repeated 24-h recalls for estimating diet-related environmental impact
    Mertens, E. ; Kuijsten, A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
    Nutrition Journal 18 (2019). - ISSN 1475-2891
    Background: There is an increasing interest in estimating environmental impact of individuals’ diets by using individual-level food consumption data. However, like assessment of nutrient intakes, these data are prone to substantial measurement errors dependent on the method of dietary assessment, and this often result in attenuation of associations. Purpose: To investigate the performance of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for estimating the environmental impact of the diet as compared to independent 24-h recalls (24hR), and to study the association between environmental impact and dietary quality for the FFQ and 24hR. Methods: We analysed cross-sectional data from 1169 men and women, aged 20–76 years, who participated in the NQplus study, the Netherlands. They completed a 216-item FFQ and two replicates of web-based 24hR. Life cycle assessments of 207 food products were used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy and land use, summarised into an aggregated score, pReCiPe. Validity of the FFQ was evaluated against 24hRs using correlation coefficients and attenuation coefficients. Associations with dietary quality were based on Dutch Healthy Diet 15-index (DHD15-index) and Nutrient Rich Diet score (NRD9.3). Results: For pReCiPe, correlation coefficient between FFQ and 24hR was 0.33 when adjusted for covariates age, gender and BMI, and increased to 0.76 when de-attenuated for within-subject variation in the 24hR. Energy-adjustment slightly reduced these correlations (r = 0.71 for residuals of observed values and 0.59 for residuals of density values). Covariate-adjusted attenuation coefficient for the FFQ was 0.56 (ʎ1 = 0.56 and ʎ1 = 0.65 for observed and density residuals), slightly lower than without covariate adjustment. Diet-related environmental impact was inversely associated with the food-based DHD15-index for both FFQ and 24hR, while associations with the nutrient-based NRD9.3 were inconsistent. Conclusions: The FFQ slightly underestimated environmental impact when compared to 24hR. Associations with dietary quality are highly dependent on the diet score used, and less dependent on the method of dietary assessment.
    Food identification by barcode scanning in the Netherlands : a quality assessment of labelled food product databases underlying popular nutrition applications
    Maringer, Marcus ; Wisse-Voorwinden, Nancy ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Geelen, Anouk - \ 2019
    Public Health Nutrition 22 (2019)7. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1215 - 1222.
    Barcode scanning - Barcodes - Diet apps - Dietary intake assessment - Food database - Food identification - Labelled food products - Technological innovations

    Objective: The quality of labelled food product databases underlying popular diet applications (apps) with barcode scanners was investigated. Design: Product identification rates for the scanned products and the availability and accuracy of nutrient values were calculated. Setting: One hundred food products were selected from the two largest supermarket chains in the Netherlands. Using the barcode scanners of the selected apps, the products were scanned and the results recorded as food diary entries. The collected data were exported. Subjects: Seven diet apps with barcode scanner and food recording feature were selected from the Google Play and Apple app stores. Results: Energy values were available for 99 % of the scanned products, of which on average 79 % deviated not more than 5 % from the true value. MyFitnessPal provided values for sixteen nutrients, while Virtuagym Food and Yazio provided values for only four nutrients. MyFitnessPal also showed the largest percentage of correctly identified products (i.e. 96 %) and SparkPeople the smallest (i.e. 5 %). The accuracy of the provided nutrient values varied greatly between apps and nutrients. Conclusions: While energy was the most consistently and accurately reported value, the availability and accuracy of other values varied greatly between apps. Whereas popular diet apps with barcode scanners might be valuable tools for dietary assessments on the product and energy level, they appear less suitable for assessments on the nutrient level. The presence of user-generated database entries implies that the availability of food products might vary depending on the size and diversity of an app’s user base.

    Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries
    Mertens, Elly ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Dofková, Marcela ; Mistura, Lorenza ; D’Addezio, Laura ; Turrini, Aida ; Dubuisson, Carine ; Favret, Sandra ; Havard, Sabrina ; Trolle, Ellen ; van’t Veer, Pieter ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2019
    European Journal of Nutrition 58 (2019)4. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 19.
    Diet - Dietary guidelines - Europe - Foods - Nutrients - SUSFANS
    Purpose: Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Methods: Individual-level dietary intake data in adults were obtained from nationally-representative surveys from Denmark and France using a 7-day diet record, Italy using a 3-day diet record, and Czech Republic using two replicates of a 24-h recall. Energy-standardised food and nutrient intakes were calculated for each subject from the mean of two randomly selected days. Results: There was clear geographical variability, with a between-country range for mean fruit intake from 118 to 199 g/day, for vegetables from 95 to 239 g/day, for fish from 12 to 45 g/day, for dairy from 129 to 302 g/day, for sweet beverages from 48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmark for dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (< 20 g/day), and nuts and seeds (< 5 g/day), but high for red and processed meat (> 80 g/day). Within countries, food intakes also varied by socio-economic factors such as age, gender, and educational level, but less pronounced by anthropometric factors such as overweight status. For nutrients, intakes were low for dietary fibre (15.8–19.4 g/day) and vitamin D (2.4–3.0 µg/day) in all countries, for potassium (2288–2938 mg/day) and magnesium (268–285 mg/day) except in Denmark, for vitamin E in Denmark (6.7 mg/day), and for folate in Czech Republic (212 µg/day). Conclusions: There is considerable variation in food and nutrient intakes across Europe, not only between, but also within countries. Individual-level dietary data provide insight into the heterogeneity of dietary habits beyond per capita food supply data, and this is crucial to balancing healthy and environmentally-friendly diets for European citizens.
    A systematic review of methods to assess intake of saturated fat (SF) among healthy European adults and children: A DEDIPAC (Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity) study
    Riordan, Fiona ; McGann, Roisin ; Kingston, Ciara ; Perry, Ivan J. ; Schulze, Matthias B. ; Frost Andersen, Lene ; Geelen, Anouk ; Veer, Pieter Van 't; Eussen, Simone J.P.M. ; Dongen, Martien C.J.M. Van; Wijckmans-Duysens, Nicole E.G. ; Harrington, Janas M. - \ 2018
    BMC Nutrition 4 (2018)1. - ISSN 2055-0928
    DEDIPAC - Dietary assessment - Europe - Saturated fat

    Background: Dietary fat is an essential macronutrient. However, saturated fact has been associated with negative health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. Shifting consumption from saturated fat to unsaturated fats and limiting the level of saturated fat in the diet has been recommended. Currently, there is no standard method to measure saturated fat intake in etiologic studies. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain a reliable picture of saturated fat intake in Europe. To inform the development of the DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) toolbox of methods, we aimed to identify the assessment methods and specific instruments which have been used to assess saturated fat intake among children or adults in pan-European studies. Methods: Three electronic databases were searched for English language studies of any design which assessed intake of saturated fat. Reference lists were hand-searched. Studies were included if they were conducted in two or more European countries, and involved healthy, free-living children and adults. Results: The review identified 20 pan-European studies which assessed saturated fat intake. Food Frequency Questionnaires (n = 8) and diet records (n = 7) were most common, followed by 24-h recalls (n = 5). Methods differed in portion size estimation and the composition data which was used to calculate nutrient intake. Of the instruments used in more than two European countries, five Food Frequency Questionnaires had been specifically tested for validity to assess saturated fat intake; four among adults (Food4me, PURE, IMMIDIET, Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE)) and one among children (used by Piqueras et al.). Conclusions: A standardised approach to portion size estimation and a common source of food composition data are required to measure saturated fat intake across Europe effectively. Only five instruments had been used in more than two European countries and specifically tested for validity to assess saturated fat intake. These instruments may be most appropriate to evaluate intake of saturated fat in future pan-European studies. However, only two instruments had been tested for validity in more than one European country. Future work is needed to assess the validity of the identified instruments across European countries.

    Final report with recommendations for a new framework for future collaboration and interfacing between existing RIs and the RI Consumer Data Platform : deliverable D9.2
    Roe, Mark ; Berry, Rachel ; Koroušić Seljak, Barbara ; Eftimov, Tome ; Bucher, Tamara ; Nazare, Julie-Anne ; Laville, Martine ; Mantur-Vierendeel, Angelika ; Ginchev, Todor ; Costa-Requena, Jose ; Hieke, Sophie ; Freisling, Heinz ; Finglas, Paul ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 4 p.
    Semantic data model of the RI Consumer Data Platform : deliverable D11.2
    Eftimov, T. ; Koroušić Seljak, B. ; Ispirova, G. ; Korošec, P. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Alphen, Fred van - \ 2018
    EU - 3 p.
    Final design : deliverable D12.4
    Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Finglas, Paul - \ 2018
    EU - 7 p.
    Final Design of RI platform for consumer behaviour and lifestyle : deliverable D13.4
    Poppe, K.J. ; Bogaardt, M.J. ; Selnes, T. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Koroušić Seljak, Barbara ; Pourabdollahian, Golboo ; Copani, Giacomo ; Lienemann, Kerstin ; Cueva, Javier de la; Carr, Indira ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Hodgkins, Charo ; Finglas, Paul ; Mikkelsen, Bent ; Raats, Monique - \ 2018
    EU - 4 p.
    Detailed business model design : Deliverable D12.3
    Lienemann, Kerstin ; Pourabdollahian, Golboo ; Copani, Giacomo ; Hieke, Sophie ; Korousic Seljak, Barbara ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Finglas, Paul - \ 2018
    EU - 6 p.
    Roadmap and recommendations : deliverable D13.5
    Bogaardt, M.J. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Selnes, T. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Finglas, Paul - \ 2018
    EU - 4 p.
    Report on user practices - WP5-7 : deliverable D6.2
    Raats, Monique ; Bartos, Sebastian ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Peacock, Matthew ; Hodgkins, Charo ; Touray, Morro ; Geelen, Anouk ; Maringer, Marcus ; Normann, Anne ; Verain, M.C.D. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Engberg Mikkelson, Bent - \ 2018
    EU - 5 p.
    User-documented food consumption data from publicly available apps: an analysis of opportunities and challenges for nutrition research
    Maringer, Marcus ; Veer, P. van 't; Klepacz, Naomi ; Verain, M.C.D. ; Normann, Anne ; Ekman, Susanne ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Raats, Monique M. ; Geelen, M.M.E.E. - \ 2018
    Wageningen University & Research
    food consumption data - dietary intake assessment - diet apps - user-documented data - contextual data - technological innovations - data management - legal and ethical governance - research infrastructure
    Background The need for a better understanding of food consumption behaviour within its behavioural context has sparked the interest of nutrition researchers for user-documented food consumption data collected outside the research context using publicly available nutrition apps. The study aims to characterize the scientific, technical, legal and ethical features of this data in order to identify the opportunities and challenges associated with using this data for nutrition research. Method A search for apps collecting food consumption data was conducted in October 2016 against UK Google Play and iTunes storefronts. 176 apps were selected based on user ratings and English language support. Publicly available information from the app stores and app-related websites was investigated and relevant data extracted and summarized. Our focus was on characteristics related to scientific relevance, data management and legal and ethical governance of user-documented food consumption data. Results Food diaries are the most common form of data collection, allowing for multiple inputs including generic food items, packaged products, or images. Standards and procedures for compiling food databases used for estimating energy and nutrient intakes remain largely undisclosed. Food consumption data is interlinked with various types of contextual data related to behavioural motivation, physical activity, health, and fitness. While exchange of data between apps is common practise, the majority of apps lack technical documentation regarding data export. There is a similar lack of documentation regarding the implemented terms of use and privacy policies. While users are usually the owners of their data, vendors are granted irrevocable and royalty free licenses to commercially exploit the data. Conclusion Due to its magnitude, diversity, and interconnectedness, user-documented food consumption data offers promising opportunities for a better understanding of habitual food consumption behaviour and its determinants. Non-standardized or non-documented food data compilation procedures, data exchange protocols and formats, terms of use and privacy statements, however, limit possibilities to integrate, process and share user-documented food consumption data. An ongoing research effort is required, to keep pace with the technical advancements of food consumption apps, their evolving data networks and the legal and ethical regulations related to protecting app users and their personal data.
    Paper on quality criteria and overview of criteria applied to available data/methods - WP6 : deliverable D6.4
    Raats, Monique ; Bartos, Sebastian ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Peacock, Matthew ; Hodgkins, Charo ; Touray, Morro ; Geelen, Anouk ; Maringer, Marcus ; Normann, Anne ; Verain, M.C.D. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Engberg Mikkelson, Bent - \ 2018
    EU - 54 p.
    Standardisation requirements for RI Consumer Data Platform - An overview of standards in relation to the RI Consumer Data Platform : deliverable D11.3
    Koroušić Seljak, B. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Alphen, Fred van - \ 2018
    EU - 32 p.
    Roadmap RI Consumer Data Platform : deliverable D11.4
    Koroušić Seljak, B. ; Korošec, P. ; Eftimov, T. ; Carr, Indira ; Cueva, Javier de la; Finglas, Paul ; Roe, Mark ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Alphen, Fred van - \ 2018
    EU - 37 p.
    IPR Design : deliverable D13.1
    Cueva, Javier de la; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 59 p.
    Ethical design. At the Interface of Ethics for Big Data and the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation : deliverable D13.2
    Carr, Indira ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Teare, Harriet - \ 2018
    EU - 34 p.
    Governance design for RI platform for consumer behaviour and lifestyle : deliverable D13.3
    Bogaardt, M.J. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Selnes, T. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 52 p.
    Assessing sustainable food and nutrition security of the EU food system - An integrated approach
    Zurek, Monika ; Hebinck, Aniek ; Leip, Adrian ; Vervoort, Joost ; Kuiper, Marijke ; Garrone, Maria ; Havlík, Petr ; Heckelei, Thomas ; Hornborg, Sara ; Ingram, John ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Shutes, Lindsay ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Terluin, Ida ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Wijnands, Jo ; Zimmermann, Andrea ; Achterbosch, Thom - \ 2018
    Sustainability 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Food system assessment - Food systems - Interdisciplinarity - Metrics - Participatory approach - SUSFANS - Sustainable food and nutrition security

    Steering the EU food system towards a sustainability transformation requires a vast and actionable knowledge base available to a range of public and private actors. Few have captured this complexity by assessing food systems from a multi-dimensional and multi-level perspective, which would include (1) nutrition and diet, environmental and economic outcomes together with social equity dimensions and (2) system interactions across country, EU and global scales. This paper addresses this gap in food systems research and science communication by providing an integrated analytical approach and new ways to communicate this complexity outside science. Based on a transdisciplinary science approach with continuous stakeholder input, the EU Horizon2020 project 'Metrics, Models and Foresight for European SUStainable Food And Nutrition Security' (SUSFANS) developed a five-step process: Creating a participatory space; designing a conceptual framework of the EU food system; developing food system performance metrics; designing a modelling toolbox and developing a visualization tool. The Sustainable Food and Nutrition-Visualizer, designed to communicate complex policy change-impacts and trade-off questions, enables an informed debate about trade-offs associated with options for change among food system actors as well as in the policy making arena. The discussion highlights points for further research related to indicator development, reach of assessment models, participatory processes and obstacles in science communication.

    Paper on quality criteria and overview of criteria applied to available data/methods - WP7 - User-documented food consumption data from publicly available apps: an analysis of opportunities and challenges for nutrition research : deliverable D7.4
    Maringer, Marcus ; Veer, P. van 't; Klepacz, Naomi ; Verain, M.C.D. ; Normann, Anne ; Ekman, Susanne ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Raats, Monique ; Geelen, M.M.E.E. ; Zimmermann, K.L. - \ 2018
    EU - 16 p.
    Report on recommendations on future research and policy : deliverable D8.4
    Hondo, Haris ; Kaunisto, Erik ; Ofei, Kwabena Titi ; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 32 p.
    Scientific manuscript on overall case study outcomes and future framework : deliverable D9.3
    Roe, Mark ; Berry, Rachel ; Koroušić Seljak, Barbara ; Eftimov, Tome ; Bucher, Tamara ; Nazare, Julie-Anne ; Laville, Martine ; Mantur-Vierendeel, Angelika ; Ginchev, Todor ; Costa-Requena, Jose ; Hieke, Sophie ; Freisling, Heinz ; Finglas, Paul ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 38 p.
    Report on gaps and needs - WP6, Report on the potentials and limitations for the use of user-generated domestic food preparation data to answer questions regarding determinants of nutrition and eating : deliverable D6.5
    Klepacz, Naomi ; Maringer, Marcus ; Ekman, Susanne ; Normann, Anne ; Geelen, M.M.E.E. ; Raats, Monique ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg - \ 2018
    EU - 16 p.
    One-stop shop for consumer data on food, nutrition and health
    Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    Wageningen University & Research - 2 p.
    Report from third Stakeholder workshop : deliverable D3.5
    Astley, Siân ; Finglas, Paul ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 87 p.
    Report on the synthesis of the findings for WP5-7 : deliverable D4.2
    Hodgkins, Charo ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Raats, Monique ; Normann, Anne ; Maringer, Marcus ; Klepacz, Naomi ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 25 p.
    Report on the synthesis of the findings for WP8-10 : deliverable D4.3
    Hodgkins, Charo ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Finglas, Paul ; Hieke, Sophie ; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 19 p.
    Overall Synthesis Report: Outcomes of WPs 5-10 synthesised for WP11-13 : deliverable D4.5
    Hodgkins, Charo ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 10 p.
    Minutes of the Plenary Project Meetings and Project Advisory Board Meetings (4) : deliverable D1.1
    Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 132 p.
    Position and final paper of RICHFIELDS : deliverable D1.2
    Bogaardt, M.J. ; Copani, Giacomo ; Cueva, Javier de la; Finglas, Paul ; Geelen, M.M.E.E. ; Hodgkins, Charo ; Korousic, Barbara ; Mikkelsen, Bent ; Poppe, K.J. ; Pour Abdollahian, Golboo ; Puttelaar, J. van den; Raats, Monique ; Selnes, T. ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Veen, H.B. van der; Veer, P. van 't; Zimmermann, K.L. - \ 2018
    EU - 49 p.
    Dissemination materials (a flyer, a leaflet, a press release, Food Today articles, an infographics and a roll up) : deliverable D2.3
    Sadler, Christina ; Mariani, Jessica ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 22 p.
    Web-based dissemination (eufic.org, videos, social media and e-newsletter) : deliverable D2.4
    Sadler, Christina ; Mariani, Jessica ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 17 p.
    Final dissemination report : deliverable D2.5
    Sadler, Christina ; Mariani, Jessica ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 23 p.
    Report from the RICHFIELDS final event 18.09.2018 : deliverable D3.2
    Astley, Siân ; Finglas, Paul ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    EU - 97 p.
    The potential role of producer and consumer food policies in the EU to sustainable food and nutrition security
    Latka, Catharina ; Heckelei, Thomas ; Batka, Miroslav ; Boere, Esther ; Chang, Chiao-Ya ; Cui, David ; Geleijnse, Marianne ; Havlík, Petr ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Kuiper, Marijke ; Leip, Adrian ; ’t Veer, Pieter van; Witzke, Heinz-Peter ; Ziegler, Friederike - \ 2018
    Wageningen : SUSFANS - 123
    EU sustainable food and nutrition security is no sure-fire success. The future of
    the agro-food system is uncertain and subject to different macro-level trends.
    Previous analysis revealed the role of food system drivers creating challenges and
    opportunities for dietary and environmental improvements under certain future
    constellations. However, these challenges and opportunities need to be addressed by policies to allow for actual improvements in the sustainability
    performance of EU food systems, for people, planet and profit. In this deliverable,
    an assessment and pre-test of potential policy measures is carried out. The policy
    analyses are contrasted to a ‘business-as-usual’ baseline scenario with current
    trends of food system drivers. We apply the SUSFANS modelling toolbox in order
    to test relevant policy measures in four distinct aqua-agro-food policy sectors.
    Regarding health and nutrition of the EU population, we provide a ranking of
    potential dietary policies and interventions based on their effectiveness,
    implementation costs and restrictiveness for consumers and producers. Based on
    this overview, options for health and nutrition policy are designed containing a
    mixture of different policy instruments. These apply – in line with the allocation
    of policy responsibilities in the EU - at the level of individual member states and
    not at the realms of an EU policy. In the context of the Common AgriculturalPolicy (CAP), we assess the impact of a livestock density restriction on EU Agricultural areas. Results indicate a reduction of soil nutrient surpluses (-9 to -13%) and of greenhouse gas emissions (-9%) at EU average and considerably stronger in the livestock density and over-fertilization hotspots. Trade openness restricts the impact on food consumption and dietary change of EU consumers. Three Common Fisheries Policies (CFP) are tested with the newly developed fish modules of GLOBIOM and CAPRI: Directing capture in EU waters to levels that keep fish stocks at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY), or at the maximum economic yield (MEY), and the implementation of national aquaculture growth plans composed by EU member states. Our results show limited policy impacts due to the rlatively small size of the EU fish producing sector with some trade but
    limited consumption changes. Finally, different storage policies are tested with the new short-term volatility module of GLOBIOM. The scenarios reveal that storage availability and intervention prices reduce price volatility caused by yield shocks. The assessments illustrate that individual, yet unaligned policy measures can already contribute significantly to reaching sustainable food and nutrition
    security. On the way to the final foresight assessment extensions are require regarding a) metrics quantifiability, b) the harmonization of metrics computation
    approaches, and c) smaller model improvements
    Building a consumer data platform to enhance interdisciplinary research on food, nutrition, and health in Europe
    Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    RICHFIELDS - 8 p.
    Supporting research on the diet of the future : food, nutrition and health research infrastructure
    Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2018
    Wageningen University & Research - 4 p.
    A recipe to support research and innovation : Developing a European Food, Nutrition and Health Research Infrastructure
    Hoes, A.C. ; Selnes, T. ; Verstegen, J.A.A.M. ; Veer, P. van 't; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Veen, H.B. van der - \ 2018
    Wageningen University & Research (Policy brief Wageningen Economic Research 2018-069) - 8 p.
    European food, nutrition and health research infrastructure
    Veer, P. van 't; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Finglas, Paul ; Poppe, K.J. ; Auria, Sabato D'; Perozzi, Giuditta - \ 2018
    Food, Nutrition and Health Research Infrastructure (FNH-RI) - 8 p.
    Designing a research infrastructure on dietary intake and its determinants
    Bogaardt, M.J. ; Geelen, A. ; Zimmermann, K. ; Finglas, P. ; Raats, M.M. ; Mikkelsen, B.E. ; Poppe, K.J. ; van't Veer, P. - \ 2018
    Nutrition Bulletin 43 (2018)3. - ISSN 1471-9827 - p. 301 - 309.
    big data - consumers - diet - food - public health - research infrastructure

    Research on dietary intake and its determinants is crucial for an adequate response to the current epidemic of diet-related non-communicable chronic diseases. In order to respond to this challenge, the RICHFIELDS project was tasked with designing a research infrastructure (RI) that connects data on dietary intake of consumers in Europe, and its determinants, collected using apps and wearable sensors, from behavioural laboratories and experimental facilities and from other RIs. The main output of the project, an RI design, describes interfaces (portals) to collect data, a meta-database and a data-model to enable data linkage and sharing. The RICHFIELDS project comprises three phases, each consisting of three work packages, and an overarching methodological support work package. Phase 1 focused on data generated by consumers (e.g. collected by apps and sensors) relating to the purchase, preparation and consumption of food. Phase 2 focused on data generated by organisations such as businesses (e.g. retail data), government (e.g. procurement data) and experimental research facilities (e.g. virtual supermarkets). Phases 1 and 2 provided Phase 3 with insights on data types and design requirements, including the business models, data integration and management systems and governance and ethics. The final design will be used in the coming years to build an RI for the scientific research community, policy makers and businesses in Europe. The RI will boost interdisciplinary multi-stakeholder research through harmonisation and integration of data on food behaviour.

    A nutritional comparison and production perspective : Reducing the environmental footprint of the future
    Rohmer, S.U.K. ; Gerdessen, J.C. ; Claassen, G.D.H. ; Bloemhof, J.M. ; ’t Veer, P. van - \ 2018
    Journal of Cleaner Production 196 (2018). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 1407 - 1417.
    Dietary alternatives - Environmentally sustainable consumption - Nutrient comparison - Sustainable food system

    The current food system, with its consumption and production activities, threatens our environment and depletes the resources of future generations. Changing the food system, by consuming foods with lower environmental footprint and choosing more environmental friendly production and distribution alternatives, holds potential to reduce the environmental impact. The aim of this research is to propose healthy and sustainable alternatives to the current consumption of cow's meat and dairy products in the Netherlands, under consideration of the underlying production system. Thus, the study applies linear programming techniques to construct consumption alternatives, taking into account the underlying production and sourcing of products. In this context, different environmental objectives are investigated and compared, namely climate change, land use, water use and fossil fuel depletion. Comparisons are made between the different alternatives with respect to their effect on the overall dietary intake. Four consumption alternatives are proposed, varying with respect to their environmental footprint, food composition and underlying food system. The results show that shifting towards a more plant-based consumption holds both an improvement potential in terms of the environmental impact as well as benefits from a health perspective. Moreover, trade-offs exist between the different environmental indicators, and the choice of environmental objective impacts the solution with respect to the consumption and production of foods. The research demonstrates the importance of taking production relationships into account and shows, that it is possible to propose healthy and environmental friendly alternatives for the future.

    User-documented food consumption data from publicly available apps : An analysis of opportunities and challenges for nutrition research
    Maringer, Marcus ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Klepacz, Naomi ; Verain, Muriel C.D. ; Normann, Anne ; Ekman, Suzanne ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Raats, Monique M. ; Geelen, Anouk - \ 2018
    Nutrition Journal 17 (2018). - ISSN 1475-2891
    Contextual data - Data management - Diet apps - Dietary intake assessment - Food consumption data - Legal and ethical governance - Research infrastructure - Technological innovations - User-documented data

    Background: The need for a better understanding of food consumption behaviour within its behavioural context has sparked the interest of nutrition researchers for user-documented food consumption data collected outside the research context using publicly available nutrition apps. The study aims to characterize the scientific, technical, legal and ethical features of this data in order to identify the opportunities and challenges associated with using this data for nutrition research. Method: A search for apps collecting food consumption data was conducted in October 2016 against UK Google Play and iTunes storefronts. 176 apps were selected based on user ratings and English language support. Publicly available information from the app stores and app-related websites was investigated and relevant data extracted and summarized. Our focus was on characteristics related to scientific relevance, data management and legal and ethical governance of user-documented food consumption data. Results: Food diaries are the most common form of data collection, allowing for multiple inputs including generic food items, packaged products, or images. Standards and procedures for compiling food databases used for estimating energy and nutrient intakes remain largely undisclosed. Food consumption data is interlinked with various types of contextual data related to behavioural motivation, physical activity, health, and fitness. While exchange of data between apps is common practise, the majority of apps lack technical documentation regarding data export. There is a similar lack of documentation regarding the implemented terms of use and privacy policies. While users are usually the owners of their data, vendors are granted irrevocable and royalty free licenses to commercially exploit the data. Conclusion: Due to its magnitude, diversity, and interconnectedness, user-documented food consumption data offers promising opportunities for a better understanding of habitual food consumption behaviour and its determinants. Non-standardized or non-documented food data compilation procedures, data exchange protocols and formats, terms of use and privacy statements, however, limit possibilities to integrate, process and share user-documented food consumption data. An ongoing research effort is required, to keep pace with the technical advancements of food consumption apps, their evolving data networks and the legal and ethical regulations related to protecting app users and their personal data.

    Systematic Review of Observational Studies with Dose-Response Meta-Analysis between Folate Intake and Status Biomarkers in Adults and the Elderly
    Novaković, Romana ; Geelen, Anouk ; Ristić-Medić, Danijela ; Nikolić, Marina ; Souverein, Olga W. ; McNulty, Helene ; Duffy, Maresa ; Hoey, Leane ; Dullemeijer, Carla ; Renkema, Jacoba M.S. ; Gurinović, Mirjana ; Glibetić, Marija ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; ’t Veer, Pieter van - \ 2018
    Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 73 (2018)1. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 30 - 43.
    Adults-elderly - Dose-response - Folate - Intake-status

    Background: Dietary reference values for folate intake vary widely across Europe. Methods: MEDLINE and Embase through November 2016 were searched for data on the association between folate intake and biomarkers (serum/plasma folate, red blood cell [RBC] folate, plasma homocysteine) from observational studies in healthy adults and elderly. The regression coefficient of biomarkers on intake (β) was extracted from each study, and the overall and stratified pooled β and SE (β) were obtained by random effects meta-analysis on a double log scale. These dose-response estimates may be used to derive folate intake reference values. Results: For every doubling in folate intake, the changes in serum/plasma folate, RBC folate and plasma homocysteine were +22, +21, and –16% respectively. The overall pooled regression coefficients were β = 0.29 (95% CI 0.21–0.37) for serum/plasma folate (26 estimates from 17 studies), β = 0.28 (95% CI 0.21–0.36) for RBC (13 estimates from 11 studies), and β = –0.21 (95% CI –0.31 to –0.11) for plasma homocysteine (10 estimates from 6 studies). Conclusion: These estimates along with those from randomized controlled trials can be used for underpinning dietary recommendations for folate in adults and elderly.

    Validating fatty acid intake as estimated by an FFQ : how does the 24 h recall perform as reference method compared with the duplicate portion?
    Trijsburg, Laura ; Vries, Jeanne H.M. de; Hollman, Peter C.H. ; Hulshof, Paul J.M. ; ’t Veer, Pieter van; Boshuizen, Hendriek C. ; Geelen, Anouk - \ 2018
    Public Health Nutrition 21 (2018)14. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 2568 - 2574.
    Biomarker - Dietary assessment - Duplicate portion - Fatty acids - Measurement errors - Validity

    Objective: To compare the performance of the commonly used 24 h recall (24hR) with the more distinct duplicate portion (DP) as reference method for validation of fatty acid intake estimated with an FFQ. Design: Intakes of SFA, MUFA, n-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid (LA) were estimated by chemical analysis of two DP and by on average five 24hR and two FFQ. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and LA were used to objectively compare ranking of individuals based on DP and 24hR. Multivariate measurement error models were used to estimate validity coefficients and attenuation factors for the FFQ with the DP and 24hR as reference methods. Setting: Wageningen, the Netherlands. Subjects: Ninety-two men and 106 women (aged 20–70 years). Results: Validity coefficients for the fatty acid estimates by the FFQ tended to be lower when using the DP as reference method compared with the 24hR. Attenuation factors for the FFQ tended to be slightly higher based on the DP than those based on the 24hR as reference method. Furthermore, when using plasma fatty acids as reference, the DP showed comparable to slightly better ranking of participants according to their intake of n-3 fatty acids (0·33) and n-3:LA (0·34) than the 24hR (0·22 and 0·24, respectively). Conclusions: The 24hR gives only slightly different results compared with the distinctive but less feasible DP, therefore use of the 24hR seems appropriate as the reference method for FFQ validation of fatty acid intake.

    Unexpected dietary preferences of Eurasian Spoonbills in the Dutch Wadden Sea: spoonbills mainly feed on small fish not shrimp
    Jouta, Jeltje ; Goeij, Petra De; Lok, Tamar ; Velilla, Estefania ; Camphuysen, Cornelis J. ; Leopold, Mardik ; Veer, Henk W. Van Der; Olff, Han ; Overdijk, Otto ; Piersma, Theunis - \ 2018
    Journal of Ornithology 159 (2018)3. - ISSN 2193-7192 - p. 839 - 849.
    Platalea leucorodia leucorodia - Regurgitate analysis - Restoration - Stable isotope analysis in R - Intertidal - Bayesian mixing models
    After an historical absence, over the last decades Eurasian Spoonbills Platalea leucorodia leucorodia have returned to breed on the barrier islands of the Wadden Sea. The area offers an abundance of predator-free nesting habitat, low degrees of disturbance, and an extensive intertidal feeding area with increasing stocks of brown shrimp Crangon crangon, the assumed main prey of P. leucorodia leucorodia. Nevertheless, newly established and expanding colonies of spoonbills have surprisingly quickly reached plateau levels. Here we tested the often stated assertion that spoonbills mainly rely on brown shrimp as food, by quantifying the diet of chicks on the basis of regurgitates and by analysis of blood isotopes using stable isotope Bayesian mixing models. Both methods showed that, rather than brown shrimp being the staple food of spoonbill chicks,
    small flatfish (especially plaice Pleuronectes platessa) and gobies (Pomatoschistus spp.) were their main prey. Unlike shrimp, small flatfish have been reported to be rather scarce in the Wadden Sea in recent years, which may explain the rapid saturation of colony size due to food-related density-dependent recruitment declines of growing colonies. By way of their diet and colony growth characteristics, spoonbills may thus indicate the availability of small fish in the Wadden Sea. We predict that the recovery to former densities of young flatfish and other juvenile/small fish in the Wadden Sea will be tracked by changing diets (more fish) and an increase in the size of Eurasian Spoonbill colonies across the Wadden Sea.
    Advancing food, nutrition, and health research in Europe by connecting and building research infrastructures in a DISH-RI : Results of the EuroDISH project
    Snoek, Harriëtte M. ; Eijssen, Lars M.T. ; Geurts, Marjolein ; Vors, Cecile ; Brown, Kerry A. ; Bogaardt, Marc Jeroen ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A.M. ; Evelo, Chris T. ; Fezeu, Leopold K. ; Finglas, Paul M. ; Laville, Martine ; Ocké, Marga ; Perozzi, Giuditta ; Poppe, Krijn ; Slimani, Nadia ; Tetens, Inge ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Zimmermann, Karin ; ’t Veer, Pieter van - \ 2018
    Trends in Food Science and Technology 73 (2018). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 58 - 66.
    Governance - Nutrition - Policy - Public health - Research infrastructures - Roadmap
    Background: Research infrastructures (RIs) are essential to advance research on the relationship between food, nutrition, and health. RIs will facilitate innovation and allow insights at the systems level which are required to design (public health) strategies that will address societal challenges more effectively. Approach: In the EuroDISH project we mapped existing RIs in the food and health area in Europe, identified outstanding needs, and synthesised this into a conceptual design of a pan-European DISH-RI. The DISH model was used to describe and structure the research area: Determinants of food choice, Intake of foods and nutrients, Status and functional markers of nutritional health, and Health and disease risk. Key findings: The need to develop RIs in the food and health domain clearly emerged from the EuroDISH project. It showed the necessity for a unique interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder RI that overarches the research domains. A DISH-RI should bring services to the research community that facilitate network and community building and provide access to standardised, interoperable, and innovative data and tools. It should fulfil the scientific needs to connect within and between research domains and make use of current initiatives. Added value can also be created by providing services to policy makers and industry, unlocking data and enabling valorisation of research insights in practice through public-private partnerships. The governance of these services (e.g. ownership) and the centralised and distributed activities of the RI itself (e.g. flexibility, innovation) needs to be organised and aligned with the different interests of public and private partners.
    Towards predicting protein hydrolysis by bovine trypsin
    Deng, Yuxi ; Veer, Frank van der; Sforza, Stefano ; Gruppen, Harry ; Wierenga, Peter A. - \ 2018
    Process Biochemistry 65 (2018). - ISSN 1359-5113 - p. 81 - 92.
    LC-MS - Peptide quantification - Peptide release kinetics - Protein digestion - Secondary specificity - Trypsin hydrolysis
    The extent of protein enzymatic hydrolysis is considered to be mostly determined by protease specificity and the number of cleavage sites (CS) on the substrate. However, this theoretical maximum is typically not reached. The limited hydrolysis of certain CS may be due to the differences in enzyme preference resulting from neighbouring amino acids (AA) of the CS (secondary specificity). This study aims to find the link between enzyme secondary specificity and the relative hydrolysis rate constants (selectivity) of individual CS in a protein, to better predict the maximum experimental degree of hydrolysis. Bovine tryptic hydrolysis of α-lactalbumin and β-casein showed that ≥50% of the CS were inefficiently hydrolysed. The selectivity depended on the number of charged AA at P2 and P2' positions of a CS. Trypsin efficiently cleaves CS with neutral AA at these two positions. The selectivity towards 12 out of 18 (67%) CS in β-lactoglobulin was correctly predicted. The predicted maximum degree of hydrolysis is within ~13% error of the experimental value, which is ~5 times better than the prediction based only on enzyme specificity. This work helps to estimate the extent of hydrolysis and the peptide formation of bovine tryptic hydrolysis of other substrates.
    Metrics, models and foresight for European sustainable food and nutrition security: the vision of the SUSFANS project
    Rutten, M.M. ; Achterbosch, T.J. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Cuaresma, Jesus Crespo ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Havlik, P. ; Heckelei, T. ; Ingram, John ; Leip, Adrian ; Marette, Stephan ; Meijl, J.C.M. van; Soler, L.G. ; Swinnen, J. ; Veer, P. van 't; Vervoort, J.M. ; Zimmermann, A. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Zurek, M. - \ 2018
    Agricultural Systems 163 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 45 - 57.
    This paper defines the research agenda of the SUSFANS project, describes its history and its potential societal impacts. It contributes to balanced and encompassing views on how to strengthen food and nutrition security outcomes in the EU and how to improve the performance of the food system in the EU from the perspective of social, environmental and economic sustainability. The research is led by the notion that improvements in the diets of the European consumer must come from, and be supportive of, sustainable food systems. Its holistic, integrative approach builds a set of metrics, models and foresight tools, useable for navigation on sustainable food and nutrition security. This results in a coherent and supported vision on sustainable food and nutrition security in the EU and globally, and underpins a perspective on how EU policies on farming, fishing, food and nutrition could contribute to that vision with greater efficacy than today.
    Report on IC options : deliverable D8.2
    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg ; Ofei, Kwabena Titi ; Hondo, Haris ; Kaunisto, Erik ; Hieke, Sophie ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 3 p.
    Report on 4 cases stakeholder workshop : deliverable D8.3
    Ofei, Kwabena Titi ; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg ; Hondo, Haris ; Kaunisto, Erik ; Hieke, Sophie ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 4 p.
    Integrated report on four case studies and proposed data outputs for RI Consumer Data Platform : deliverable D9.1
    Roe, Mark ; Berry, Rachel ; Koroušić Seljak, Barbara ; Slimani, Nadia ; Nazare, Julie-Anne ; Laville, Martine ; Ginchev, Todor ; Costa-Requena, Jose ; Mutafungwa, Edward ; Hieke, Sophie ; Noh, Hwayoung ; Freisling, Heinz ; Finglas, Paul ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 3 p.
    User requirements’ specification : deliverable D11.1
    Koroušić Seljak, B. ; Eftimov, T. ; Korošec, P. ; Finglas, P. ; Astley, S. ; Egberg Mikkelsen, B. ; Roe, M. ; Berry, R. ; Costa Requena, J. ; Todor, G. ; Mendes, S. ; Carr, I. ; Timotijević, L. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 4 p.
    Preliminary assessment of business model concepts alternatives : Deliverable D12.2
    Heidemann Lassen, Astrid ; Meldgaard, Jens Peder ; Hossain, Mokter ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Finglas, Paul M. - \ 2017
    EU - 5 p.
    Correlates of irregular family meal patterns among 11-year-old children from the pro children study
    Totland, Torunn Holm ; Knudsen, Markus Dines ; Paulsen, Mari Mohn ; Bjelland, Mona ; Van’T Veer, Pieter ; Brug, Johannes ; Klepp, Knut Inge ; Andersen, Lene Frost - \ 2017
    Food and Nutrition Research 61 (2017). - ISSN 1654-6628
    Children - Fruit and vegetable intake - Irregular family meals - Screen time - Social differences

    Background: The importance of family meals to the consumption of healthful food choices has been stated in recent reviews. However, little information is available on barriers that interfere with regular family meal patterns during childhood. Objective: Describe family meal patterns among 11-year-old children across Europe and identify correlates of irregular family breakfast and dinner consumption. Design: Cross-sectional survey involving samples of 13,305 children from nine European countries in 2003. Results: The proportions of children who regularly ate family breakfast and dinner were 62% and 90%, respectively. Correlates of irregular family breakfasts and dinners were less vegetable consumption, and irregular family breakfasts were associated with more television viewing. Social differences in the consumption of family breakfasts were observed. Discussion: Strengths of this study are the large sample size and validated research method. Limitations are the cross-sectional design and self-reported data. Conclusion: The majority of 11-year-old children regularly ate breakfast and dinner with their families. More television viewing and less vegetable consumption were associated with irregular family breakfasts and dinners, respectively. Social differences were observed in the regularity of family breakfasts. Promoting family meals across social class may lead to healthier eating and activity habits, sustainable at the population level.

    Alternatives of business model concepts for the RI Consumer Data Platform : deliverable D12.1
    Pourabdollahian, Golboo ; Copani, Giacomo ; Poppe, K.J. ; Koroušić Seljak, Barbara ; Lienemann, Kerstin ; Hieke, Sophie ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 60 p.
    Report on gaps and needs : deliverable D7.5
    Maringer, Marcus ; Ekman, Susanne ; Normann, Anne ; Klepacz, Naomi ; Raats, Monique ; Geelen, M.M.E.E. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU
    Report on case studies : deliverable D8.1
    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg ; Ofei, Kwabena Titi ; Hondo, Haris ; Kaunisto, Erik ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 32 p.
    Position document ‘Laboratories and research facilities in the field of food and health consumer behaviour and lifestyle’ : deliverable D10.1
    Hieke, Sophie ; Bucher, Tamara ; Mikkelsen, Bent E. ; Finglas, Paul ; Puttelaar, J. van den; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 33 p.
    Open Architecture Platform Design – initial concepts : deliverable D4.4
    Hodgkins, Charo ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Ge, L. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 36 p.
    Inventory of types of purchase data and data collection methodologies for consumer generated food purchase data : deliverable D5.1
    Ekman, Susanne ; Normann, Anne ; Baderstedt, Erik ; Klepacz, Naomi ; Maringer, Marcus ; Geelen, M.M.E.E. ; Verain, M.C.D. ; Raats, Monique ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 25 p.
    Paper on quality criteria and overview of criteria applied to available data/methods – WP5 (Report on the paper intended for publication, titled: “Food purchase data for mHealth research: A dynamic search inventory and analysis of applications”) : deliverable D5.4
    Kaunisto, Erik ; Hondo, Haris ; Normann, Anne ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg - \ 2017
    EU - 23 p.
    Report on gaps and needs : deliverable D5.5
    Normann, Anne ; Ekman, Susanne ; Maringer, Marcus ; Klepacz, Naomi ; Raats, Monique ; Geelen, M.M.E.E. ; Verain, M.C.D. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 25 p.
    Report from first Stakeholder workshop : deliverable D3.3
    Brown, Kerry A. ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Astley, Siân ; Finglas, Paul ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 94 p.
    Report from second Stakeholder workshop : deliverable D3.4
    Hodgkins, Charo ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Finglas, Paul ; Astley, Siân ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    EU - 87 p.
    Deliverable No. 7.1: The initial model to design SHARP diets, based on nutritional adequacy and preliminary sustainability metrics
    Mertens, E. ; Kuijsten, A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2017
    SUSFANS - 57 p.
    Benthic primary producers are key to sustain the Wadden Sea food web : stable carbon isotope analysis at landscape scale
    Christianen, M.J.A. ; Middelburg, J.J. ; Holthuijsen, S.J. ; Jouta, J. ; Compton, T.J. ; Heide, T. van der; Piersma, T. ; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. ; Veer, H.W. van der; Schouten, S. ; Olff, H. - \ 2017
    Ecology 98 (2017)6. - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 1498 - 1512.
    carbon subsidy - coastal food web - Dutch Wadden Sea - estuary - macrobenthos - stable carbon isotopes - tidal wetland ecosystem
    Coastal food webs can be supported by local benthic or pelagic primary producers and by the import of organic matter. Distinguishing between these energy sources is essential for our understanding of ecosystem functioning. However, the relative contribution of these components to the food web at the landscape scale is often unclear, as many studies lack good taxonomic and spatial resolution across large areas. Here, using stable carbon isotopes, we report on the primary carbon sources for consumers and their spatial variability across one of the world's largest intertidal ecosystems (Dutch Wadden Sea; 1460 km2 intertidal surface area), at an exceptionally high taxonomic (178 species) and spatial resolution (9,165 samples from 839 locations). The absence of overlap in δ13C values between consumers and terrestrial organic matter suggests that benthic and pelagic producers dominate carbon input into this food web. In combination with the consistent enrichment of benthic primary producers (δ13C −16.3‰) relative to pelagic primary producers (δ13C −18.8) across the landscape, this allowed the use of a two-food-source isotope-mixing model. This spatially resolved modelling revealed that benthic primary producers (microphytobenthos) are the most important energy source for the majority of consumers at higher trophic levels (worms, molluscs, crustaceans, fish, and birds), and thus to the whole food web. In addition, we found large spatial heterogeneity in the δ13C values of benthic primary producers (δ13C −19.2 to −11.5‰) and primary consumers (δ13C −25.5 to −9.9‰), emphasizing the need for spatially explicit sampling of benthic and pelagic primary producers in coastal ecosystems. Our findings have important implications for our understanding of the functioning of ecological networks and for the management of coastal ecosystems.
    Multi-objective decision-making for public health - dietary assessment and advice
    Lemmen-Gerdessen, J.C. van; Claassen, G.D.H. ; Veer, P. van 't; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2017
    - 4 p.
    Experiences from a wearable-mobile acquisition system for ambulatory assessment of diet and activity
    Laerhoven, Kristof Van; Wenzel, Mario ; Geelen, Anouk ; Hübel, Christopher ; Wolters, Maike ; Hebestreit, Antje ; Andersen, Lene Frost ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Kubiak, Thomas - \ 2017
    In: Proceedings of the 4th international Workshop on Sensor-Based Activity Recognition and Interaction. - Association for Computing Machinery - ISBN 9781450352239
    Activity recognition - Barcode scanning - Beverage consumption logging - Multi-modal data collection - Presentation

    Public health trends are currently monitored and diagnosed based on large studies that often rely on pen-and-paper data methods that tend to require a large collection campaign. With the pervasiveness of smart-phones and -watches throughout the general population, we argue in this paper that such devices and their built-in sensors can be used to capture such data more accurately with less of an effort. We present a system that targets a pan-European and harmonised architecture, using smartphones and wrist-worn activity loggers to enable the collection of data to estimate sedentary behavior and physical activity, plus the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. We report on a unified pilot study across three countries and four cities (with different languages, locale formats, and data security and privacy laws) in which 83 volunteers were asked to log beverages consumption along with a series of surveys and longitudinal accelerometer data. Our system is evaluated in terms of compliance, obtained data, and first analyses.

    Multi-objective decision-making for dietary assessment and advice
    Lemmen - Gerdessen, J.C. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Vorst; P. van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): G.D.H. Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437073 - 136
    questionnaires - food - fractionation - modeling - diet - food intake - decision making - diet counseling - vragenlijsten - voedsel - fractionering - modelleren - dieet - voedselopname - besluitvorming - dieetadvisering

    Unhealthy diets contribute substantially to the worldwide burden of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes. Globally, non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death, and numbers are still rising, which makes healthy diets a global priority. In Nutrition Research, two fields are particularly relevant for formulating healthier diets: dietary assessment, which assesses food and nutrient intake in order to investigate the relation between diet and disease, and dietary advice, which translates food and nutrient recommendations into realistic food choices. Both fields face complex decision problems: which foods to include in dietary assessment or advice in order to pursue the multiple objectives of the researcher or fulfil the requirements of the consumer. This thesis connects the disciplines of Nutrition Research and Operations Research in order to contribute to formulating healthier diets.

    In the context of dietary assessment, the thesis proposes a MILP model for the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires (a crucial tool in dietary assessment) that speeds up the selection process and increases standardisation, transparency, and reproducibility. An extension of this model gives rise to a 0-1 fractional programming problem with more than 200 fractional terms, of which in every feasible solution only a subset is actually defined. The thesis shows how this problem can be reformulated in order to eliminate the undefined fractional terms. The resulting MILP model can solved with standard software.

    In the context of dietary advice, the thesis proposes a diet model in which food and nutrient requirements are formulated via fuzzy sets. With this model, the impact of various achievement functions is demonstrated. The preference structures modelled via these achievement functions represent various ways in which multiple nutritional characteristics of a diet can be aggregated into an overall indicator for diet quality. Furthermore, for Operations Research the thesis provides new insights into a novel preference structure from literature, that combines equity and utilitarianism in a single model.

    Finally, the thesis presents conclusions of the research and a general discussion, which discusses, amongst others, the main modelling choices encountered when using MODM methods for optimising diet quality.

    Summarising, this thesis explores the use of MODM approaches to improve decision-making for dietary assessment and advice. It provides opportunities for better decision-making in research on dietary assessment and advice, and it contributes to model building and solving in Operations Research. Considering the added value for Nutrition Research and the new models and solutions generated, we conclude that the combination of both fields has resulted in synergy between Nutrition Research and Operations Research.

    Food online : PhD thesis on food legal and civil law requirements for digital contracts regarding food purchases by consumers in the Netherlands
    Veer, Lomme C. van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.M.J. Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437127 - 125
    food - food consumption - food costs - food marketing - food merchandising - food prices - food legislation - consumers - product liability - regulations - law - internet - netherlands - food purchasing - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - kosten voor voedsel - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - reclamecampagne van voedsel - voedselprijzen - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - consumenten - productaansprakelijkheid - regelingen - recht - internet - nederland - voedselinkoop

    In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law requirements on food labelling. In four research Chapters (chapters 2-5) the relevant topics are addressed.

    In Chapter 1 the legal context to the research is presented leading up to the formulation of the central problem statement and the research questions. The Chapter also provides the theoretical framework and the in this research applied methodology.

    Chapter 2 ‘'Real Food from Virtual Shops: the situation before 2014’ reports on research performed before the entry into force of the national implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive and of the Food Information Regulation. This chapter provides the historical baseline to this research. The research in this chapter shows that the instruments handed to the consumers to compensate their weakened position as online buyers, cannot function as intended in case the merchandise is food. It is argued that consumers derive more bite from general provisions of contract law than from the provisions specifically addressing distance contracts.

    In Chapter 3, ‘Food Online, Radical Changes to the Digital Shop Window after 2014’ the argument is continued by addressing in detail the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in the Netherlands and the entry into force of the Food Information Regulation. The differences become visible between civil law and public food legislation in the manner in which they envisage to protect the consumer. Civil law turns out to be rather scarce in requiring information provision to consumers. In his attempt to ensure that consumers are only bound to purchase contracts they actually want, the European legislator has chosen a far more draconic instrument. The consumer has been given the right to withdraw from the contract altogether after the etailer has already fulfilled his side of the agreement. The legislature has preferred this instrument over elaborate information requirements regarding the product to be purchased. The available data do not show that the legislature balanced these two instruments.

    Whatever these reasons have been, they seem to have been less compelling in the case of food products. The vast majority of foods is exempted from the consumers' right to withdraw. This leaves a considerable gap in the civil law protection of consumers of food online. This gap has recently been filled by the Food Information Regulation. This regulation does put in place a considerable obligation to supply the consumer online with information prior to the purchase decision. The etailer has to provide online all the information which the producer is required to provide on the food label. In one small provision the entire and complex burden the Food Information Regulation places on the food industry, is placed with the etailer as well.

    In Chapter 4 ‘Product Liability for Online Food Suppliers’ the increased risks for the etailer of foods to become product liable is addressed. Due to the wide scope of the definition of ‘producer’ in product liability law, the risk for the etailer to be considered the liable producer is rather high. Due to the Consumer Rights Directive and its implementation in national law, of all the players in the chain the etailer is easiest to identify for the consumer. Etailers have to push their claims further up the hill without any recourse to facilities regarding burden of proof or liability. Both the Consumer Rights Directive and the Food Information Regulation have been designed to reinforce the consumers’ position with a view to ensuring that consumers will no longer be the weakest link in the value chain.

    In Chapter 5 'The Lucky Bag for Meals' the emerging market for food-boxes is discussed. Food-boxes embody the dream of every etailer. Not the consumers decide what they buy, but the retailers decide what they supply. Business economic advantages of this model in terms of stock management, logistics and marketing are obviously enormous. Apparently an important marketing proposition in this modern day ‘lucky bag’ is the surprise. It appears that consumers want to be surprised. Despite all requirements regarding transparency and information provision imposed by legislators upon the etailer with a view to protecting consumers, a part of the market seems to prefer to be kept uninformed. The chapter shows that a relevant group of consumers is actually willing to pay a price premium to businesses for infringing upon their legal obligations and for being kept out of their rights.

    In Chapter 6 the findings of the research are presented. Besides the answers to the research questions a new series of questions emerge. These openings to further exploration show how the legal field of food online in legal development and legal scholarship is just as young as the technology that sparked its emergence.

    A National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD) for the Dutch Population: Rationale behind the Design
    Brouwer, E.M. ; Streppel, M.T. ; Lee, L. van; Geelen, M.M.E.E. ; Sluik, D. ; Wiel, A.M. van de; Vries, J.H.M. de; Veer, P. van 't; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2017
    Nutrients 9 (2017)10. - ISSN 2072-6643 - 13 p.
    The development of reliable Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) requires detailed information about the level and variation of dietary intake of the target population. However, these data are often limited. To facilitate the development of new high quality FFQs and validation of existing FFQs, we developed a comprehensive National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD) detailing information about the level and variation in dietary intake of people 20–70 years old in the general Dutch population. This paper describes the methods and characteristics of the population included in the NDARD database. A total of 1063 men and 985 women agreed to participate in this study. Dietary intake data were collected using different FFQs, web-based and telephone-based 24-h recalls, as well as blood and urine-based biomarkers. The baseline FFQ was completed by 1647 participants with a mean age of 51 ± 12 years, BMI of 26 ± 4 kg/m2, and energy intake of 2051 ± 605 kcal/day. The percentage of total energy intake from proteins, carbohydrates, and fats were 15 ± 2, 43 ± 6, and 36 ± 5 En%, respectively. A total of 1113 participants completed telephone-based recalls and 1783 participants completed web-based recalls. This database will enable researchers to validate existing national FFQs and to develop new high quality dietary assessment methods.
    Deliverable No. 1.4: A modelling strategy for quantifying the sustainability of food and nutrition security in the EU
    Kuiper, M.H. ; Zurek, Monika ; Havlik, Petr ; Deppermann, Andre ; Valin, Hugo ; Kuijsten, A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't; Heckelei, T. ; Götz, Christian ; Leip, Adrian ; Zimmermann, A. ; Soler, L.G. ; Irz, Xavier ; Cuaresma, Jesus Crespo ; Hlouskova, Jaroslava ; Obersteiner, Michael - \ 2017
    SUSFANS - 83
    Towards a European Food and Nutrition Policy
    Veer, Pieter van 't; Poppe, Krijn J. ; Fresco, Louise O. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 77
    Vascular effects of sodium and potassium intake
    Gijsbers, Lieke - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.M. Geleijnse; Pieter van 't Veer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436267 - 161
    sodium - potassium - vascular system - hypertension - blood pressure - mineral supplements - endothelium - blood vessels - heart rate - osmoregulation - human nutrition research - randomized controlled trials - cardiovascular diseases - natrium - kalium - vaatsysteem - hypertensie - bloeddruk - minerale supplementen - endotheel - bloedvaten - hartfrequentie - osmoregulatie - voedingsonderzoek bij de mens - gestuurd experiment met verloting - hart- en vaatziekten

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death worldwide. Annually, about 17.5 million people die from CVD, accounting for ~30% of deaths worldwide. Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for CVD and the largest single contributor to global mortality. BP is a modifiable risk factor that is largely determined by lifestyle factors, including diet. Dietary minerals, in particular sodium and potassium, play an important role in BP regulation. While adverse effects of sodium and beneficial effects of potassium on BP have repeatedly been shown in human intervention studies, evidence on other vascular effects of these dietary minerals is still scarce. Therefore, we investigated the BP effects of sodium and potassium intake in healthy humans in a broader (patho)physiological context, focusing also on endothelial function, arterial stiffness, fluid regulation and heart rate.

    In Chapter 2, the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on BP and arterial stiffness were examined by means of a randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial. Thirty-six untreated Dutch individuals with mildly elevated BP on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low in sodium (2-3 g/d) and potassium (2-3 g/d) received capsules with sodium (3 g/d), potassium (3 g/d) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. After each intervention, fasting office BP, 24-h ambulatory BP and measures of arterial stiffness were assessed. The results of this study showed that increased sodium intake strongly raised office and ambulatory systolic BP (7-8 mmHg) whereas increased potassium intake lowered systolic BP (3-4 mmHg). Potassium supplementation increased ambulatory HR, but office HR was not affected. Measures of arterial stiffness were not materially affected by increased sodium or potassium intake, possibly due to the relatively short intervention period.

    In the same study we investigated the effects of increased sodium and potassium intake on the functional measure of endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), and on a comprehensive set of biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation (Chapter 3). Four weeks of supplemental sodium had no effect on brachial flow-mediated dilation, or on the blood biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation, except for an increase in serum endothelin-1 (a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction). Potassium supplementation improved flow-mediated dilation by 1.2% and tended to lower the low-grade inflammation marker interleukin-8. This suggests that potassium may beneficially influence vascular health by improving endothelial function.

    In a post-hoc analysis of the same study in 35 untreated individuals, the humoral effects of supplemental sodium and potassium were assessed using a panel of markers that are involved in osmoregulation and volume regulation (Chapter 4). Results showed that supplemental sodium increased plasma natriuretic peptides and plasma copeptin, and suppressed the renin-angiotensin system. Supplemental potassium decreased plasma MR-pro-ANP, increased plasma copeptin, and stimulated the renin-angiotensin system. These findings suggest that the mineral-induced changes in BP elicit several counter regulatory mechanisms to maintain volume homeostasis.

    In Chapter 5, the effect of potassium supplementation on heart rate was assessed in a meta-analysis of 22 randomized, placebo-controlled trials in healthy adults. Overall, increasing potassium intake by 2-3 g/d for at least two weeks did not affect resting heart rate. 24-h Ambulatory heart rate was not significantly affected in subgroup analysis of 4 RCTs, including ours. Other subgroup analyses for characteristics of the study and study population also showed no significant effects, and there was no evidence for a dose-response relationship. These results suggest that increasing potassium intake is not expected to adversely affect heart rate in apparently healthy adults.

    In Chapter 6, BP associations for sodium and potassium intake using different dietary assessment methods were examined. Data of 993 healthy Dutch adults not on antihypertensive medication were analyzed using a cross-sectional approach. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated from two non-consecutive 24-h urinary samples (considered as the gold standard), two non-consecutive web-based 24-h recalls, and a validated 180-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). This study showed no significant associations of sodium intake with BP, regardless of the dietary assessment method used. Potassium intake estimated from 24-h urine and FFQ was inversely associated with BP (~1.5 mmHg reduction per 1 g/d increment). This suggests that dietary assessment methods in cross-sectional studies may be inadequate for estimating the association of sodium intake with BP, but may yield reliable results for potassium intake.

    As discussed in Chapter 7, the studies presented in this thesis indicate that increasing sodium intake from a recommended level to a level that is common in Western societies for four weeks strongly raises BP in individuals with an untreated mildly elevated BP. The results for endothelial function and arterial stiffness are inconclusive, and hence more (longer-term) studies are warranted. Increasing the intake of potassium lowers BP and improves endothelial function, even in individuals on a relatively low-sodium diet. Both sodium and potassium intake affected fluid parameters, likely indicating that compensatory responses are stimulated to maintain body fluid balance. Although in our RCT ambulatory heart rate was increased after supplemental potassium, the meta-analysis showed that increasing potassium intake is unlikely to affect heart rate in apparently healthy adults. When evaluating the effectiveness of sodium and potassium intake on cardiovascular health, results obtained from observational studies should be interpreted with caution, particularly for sodium intake.

    Around the world people consume on average 9-12 g of salt and 2-4 g of potassium on a daily basis. A more optimal intake of sodium and potassium can be achieved through adherence to dietary guidelines and product reformulation by food industry. This could reduce BP by more than 10 mmHg and lower the number of cardiovascular deaths by at least one-quarter in Western populations.

    Capable and credible? Challenging nutrition science
    Penders, Bart ; Wolters, Anna ; Feskens, Edith F. ; Brouns, Fred ; Huber, Machteld ; Maeckelberghe, Els L.M. ; Navis, Gerjan ; Ockhuizen, Theo ; Plat, Jogchum ; Sikkema, Jan ; Stasse-Wolthuis, Marianne ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Verweij, Marcel ; Vries, Jan de - \ 2017
    European Journal of Nutrition 56 (2017)6. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 2009 - 2012.
    Capability - Credibility - Evidence - Inclusiveness - Nutrition science - Real-world experiments
    Nutrition science has enriched our understanding of how to stay healthy by producing valuable knowledge about the interaction of nutrients, food, and the human body. Nutrition science also has raised societal awareness about the links between food consumption and well-being, and provided the basis for food regulations and dietary guidelines. Its collaborative and interdisciplinary research has accomplished much, scientifically and socially. Despite this, nutrition science appears to be in crisis and is currently confronted with a public reluctance to trust nutritional insights. Though deflating trust is a general phenomenon surrounding the scientific community, its impact on nutrition science is particularly strong because of the crucial role of nutrition in everyone’s daily life. We, a Dutch collective of nutritionists, medical doctors, philosophers and sociologists of science (http://www.nutritionintransition.nl), have diagnosed that nutrition science is meeting inherent boundaries. This hampers conceptual and methodological progress and the translation of novel insights into societal benefit and trust. In other words, nutrition science is facing limitations to its capability and credibility, impeding its societal value. We take up the challenge to halt the threatening erosion of nutrition science’s capability and credibility, and explore a way forward. We analyse limitations to capability and credibility, then argue that nutrition science is caught in a vicious circle, and end by offering some suggestions to transcend the limitations and escape the current deadlock. We invite nutritional experts as well as scholars from adjacent disciplines to engage in the discussion.
    Deliverable No. 1.3: Sustainability metrics for the EU food system: a review across economic, environmental and social considerations
    Zurek, Monika ; Leip, Adrian ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Wijnands, Jo ; Terluin, Ida ; Shutes, Lindsay ; Hebinck, Aniek ; Zimmermann, Andrea ; Götz, Christian ; Hornborg, Sara ; Zanten, Hannah van; Ziegler, Friederike ; Havlik, Petr ; Garrone, Maria ; Geleijnse, Marianne ; Kuiper, Marijke ; Turrini, Aida ; Dofkova, Marcela ; Trolle, Ellen ; Mistura, Lorenza ; Dubuisson, Carine ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Achterbosch, Thom ; Ingram, John ; Brem-Wilson, Joshua ; Franklin, Alex ; Fried, Jana ; Guzman Rodriguez, Paola ; Owen, Luke ; Saxena, Lopa ; Trenchard, Liz ; Wright, Julia - \ 2017
    SUSFANS - 78
    One of the main objectives of the SUSFANS project is to develop a set of concepts and tools to help policy and decision makers across Europe make sense of the outcomes and trends of the EU food system. This paper proposes a set of metrics for assessing the performance of the EU food system in delivering sustainable food and nutrition security. The performance metrics have been built up through the aggregation of a wide range of variables, which together help to monitor the achievement of four overarching policy goals for the EU food system, namely a balanced diet for EU citizens, reduced environmental impacts, competitive agri-food businesses and equitable outcomes of the food system. The project decided to take a hierarchical approach to aggregating from Individual Variables to Derived Variables to Aggregate Indicators to Performance Metrics. This approach aims at marrying the notion that decision makers want only a small but powerful set of metrics to communicate the findings of the assessment, with the need to substantiate these metrics with the best available data from a large number of sources in a transparent way. In this deliverable the current set up of the performance metrics focus on each individual policy goal. In a related report, the team explores if and how the performance metrics presented here can be quantified using available data and modelling tools, and which of the models of the SUSFANS tool box can estimate which ones of the performance metrics and how (report D1.4). In a final step the SUSFANS team will bring all performance metrics together in an integrated set that will allow a view across all four policy goals and thus across all aspects of sustainable food and nutrition security (forthcoming report D1.5). Further work is the quantification of metrics using case studies and prospective scenario analysis. In addition to their use for monitoring, the proposed metrics are geared towards quantification using selected computational modelling tools. As such, SUSFANS aims to assist in foresight on and the evaluation of transformative changes in the food system with rigour and consistency.
    A short-term intervention with selenium affects expression of genes implicated in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the prostate
    Gils-Kok, Dieuwertje van; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M. ; Verhaegh, Gerald W. ; Schalken, Jack A. ; Lin, Emile N.J.T. van; Sedelaar, J.P.M. ; Witjes, J.A. ; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A. ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Kampman, Ellen ; Afman, Lydia - \ 2017
    Wageningen University
    GSE77959 - Homo sapiens - GSE77959 - Homo sapiens - PRJNA312203
    In parallel with the inconsistency in observational studies and chemoprevention trials, the molecular mechanisms by which selenium may affect prostate cancer risk have not been elucidated. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial to examine the effects of a short-term intervention with selenized yeast on whole-genome expression profiles in non-malignant prostate tissue. Twenty-three men receiving prostate biopsies were randomly assigned to take 300 µg selenized yeast per day (n=12) or placebo (non-selenized yeast, n=11) during a median intervention period of 35 (interquartile range: 31-35) days. Prostate specimens, collected from the transition zone before and after intervention, of 15 participants (n=8 selenium, n=7 placebo) were available for analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0 ST Arrays. Pathway and gene set enrichment analyses revealed that the intervention with selenium resulted in a down-regulated expression of genes involved in signaling pathways related to cellular adhesion, migration, invasion, remodeling and immune responses. Specifically, expression of the well-established epithelial marker E-cadherin was up-regulated, while mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin and fibronectin, were down-regulated after the intervention with selenium. This implies an effect of selenium on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, selenium affected expression of genes involved in wound healing and inflammation, processes which are both related to EMT. In conclusion, our data showed that selenium affected expression of genes implicated in EMT, mainly represented by a change in the direction of the epithelial rather than the mesenchymal phenotype.
    Variation that can be expected when using particle tracking models in connectivity studies
    Hufnagl, Marc ; Payne, Mark ; Lacroix, Geneviève ; Bolle, Loes J. ; Daewel, Ute ; Dickey-Collas, Mark ; Gerkema, Theo ; Huret, Martin ; Janssen, Frank ; Kreus, Markus ; Pätsch, Johannes ; Pohlmann, Thomas ; Ruardij, Piet ; Schrum, Corinna ; Skogen, Morten D. ; Tiessen, Meinard C.H. ; Petitgas, Pierre ; Beek, Jan K.L. van; Veer, Henk W. van der; Callies, Ulrich - \ 2017
    Journal of Sea Research 127 (2017). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 133 - 149.
    Ensemble - Lagrangian approach - Marine protected areas - Model intercomparison - Ocean circulation - Renewable energy - Variability - Wind park

    Hydrodynamic Ocean Circulation Models and Lagrangian particle tracking models are valuable tools e.g. in coastal ecology to identify the connectivity between offshore spawning and coastal nursery areas of commercially important fish, for risk assessment and more for defining or evaluating marine protected areas. Most studies are based on only one model and do not provide levels of uncertainty. Here this uncertainty was addressed by applying a suite of 11 North Sea models to test what variability can be expected concerning connectivity. Different notional test cases were calculated related to three important and well-studied North Sea fish species: herring (Clupea harengus), and the flatfishes sole (Solea solea) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). For sole and plaice we determined which fraction of particles released in the respective spawning areas would reach a coastal marine protected area. For herring we determined the fraction located in a wind park after a predefined time span. As temperature is more and more a focus especially in biological and global change studies, furthermore inter-model variability in temperatures experienced by the virtual particles was determined. The main focus was on the transport variability originating from the physical models and thus biological behavior was not included. Depending on the scenario, median experienced temperatures differed by 3. °C between years. The range between the different models in one year was comparable to this temperature range observed between modelled years. Connectivity between flatfish spawning areas and the coastal protected area was highly dependent on the release location and spawning time. No particles released in the English Channel in the sole scenario reached the protected area while up to 20% of the particles released in the plaice scenario did. Interannual trends in transport directions and connectivity rates were comparable between models but absolute values displayed high variations. Most models showed systematic biases during all years in comparison to the ensemble median, indicating that in general interannual variation was represented but absolute values varied. In conclusion: variability between models is generally high and management decisions or scientific analysis using absolute values from only one single model might be biased and results or conclusions drawn from such studies need to be treated with caution. We further concluded that more true validation data for particle modelling are required.

    Long-term patterns in fish phenology in the western Dutch Wadden Sea in relation to climate change
    Walraven, Lodewijk Van; Dapper, Rob ; Nauw, Janine J. ; Tulp, Ingrid ; Witte, Johannes IJ. ; Veer, Henk W. van der - \ 2017
    Journal of Sea Research 127 (2017). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 173 - 181.
    Long-term changes - Phenology - Fish fauna - Wadden Sea - Temperature
    Long-term patterns in fish phenology in the western Dutch Wadden Sea were studied using a 53 year (1960–2013) high resolution time series of daily kom-fyke catches in spring and autumn. Trends in first appearance, last occurrence and peak abundance were analysed for the most common species in relation to mode of life (pelagic, demersal, benthopelagic) and biogeographic guild (northern or southern distribution). Climate change in the western Wadden Sea involved an increase in water temperature from 1980 onwards. The main pattern in first day of occurrence, peak occurrence and last day of occurrence was similar: a positive trend over time and a correlation with spring and summer water temperature. This is counterintuitive; with increasing temperature, an advanced immigration of fish species would be expected. An explanation might be that water temperatures have increased offshore as well and hence fish remain longer there, delaying their immigration to the Wadden Sea. The main trend towards later date of peak occurrence and last day of occurrence was in line with our expectations: a forward shift in immigration into the Wadden Sea implies also that peak abundance is delayed. As a consequence of the increased water temperature, autumn water temperature remains favourable longer than before. For most of the species present, the Wadden Sea is not near the edge of their distributional range. The most striking phenological shifts occurred in those individual species for which the Wadden Sea is near the southern or northern edge of their distribution.
    Long-term trends in nutrient budgets of the western Dutch Wadden Sea (1976 - 2012)
    Jung, A.S. ; Brinkman, A.G. ; Folmer, E.O. ; Herman, Peter M.J. ; Veer, Henk W. van der; Philippart, C.J.M. - \ 2017
    NIOZ
    coastal sea - Dutch Wadden Sea - nutrient budging
    Long-term trends in nutrient budgets of the western Dutch Wadden Sea (1976–2012)
    Jung, A.S. ; Brinkman, A.G. ; Folmer, E.O. ; Herman, Peter M.J. ; Veer, Henk W. van der; Philippart, C.J.M. - \ 2017
    Journal of Sea Research 127 (2017). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 82 - 94.
    Wadden Sea - Coastal North Sea - Nutrient exchange - Nitrogen - Phosphorus - Eutrophication - Nutrient budgets
    Long-term field observations of nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P] concentrations were used to construct nutriënt budgets for the western Dutch Wadden Sea between 1976 and 2012. Nutrients come into the western Dutch Wadden Sea via river runoff, through exchange with the coastal zone of the North Sea, neighbouring tidal basins and through atmospheric deposition (for N). The highest concentrations in phosphorus and nitrogen were observed
    in themid-1980s. Improved phosphorus removal atwaste water treatment plants, management of fertilization in agriculture and removal of phosphates from detergents led to reduced riverine nutrient inputs and, consequently, reduced nutrient concentrations in theWadden Sea. The budgets suggest that the period of the initial net import of phosphorus and nitrogen switched to a net export in 1981 for nitrogen and in 1992 for phosphorus. Such different behaviour in nutrient budgets during the rise and fall of external nutriënt concentrations may be the result of different sediment-water exchange dynamics for P and N. It is hypothesized that during the period of increasing eutrophication (1976–1981) P, and to a lesser degree N, were stored in sediments as organic and inorganic nutrients. In the following period (1981–1992) external nutrient concentrations
    (especially in the North Sea) decreased, but P concentrations in the Wadden Sea remained high due to prolonged sediment release, whilst denitrification removed substantial amounts of N. From1992 onwards, P andN budgetswere closed by net loss,most probably because P stores were then depleted and denitrification continued. Under the present conditions (lower rates of sediment import and depleted P stores), nutrient concentrations in this area are expected to be more strongly influenced by wind-driven exchange with the North Sea and precipitation-driven discharge from Lake IJssel. This implies that the consequences of climate change will be more important, than during the 1970s and 1980s.
    Concepts and procedures for mapping food and health research infrastructure : New insights from the EuroDISH project
    Brown, Kerry A. ; Timotijević, Lada ; Geurts, Marjolein ; Arentoft, Johanne L. ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A.M. ; Fezeu, Léopold ; Finglas, Paul ; Laville, Martine ; Perozzi, Giuditta ; Ocké, Marga ; Poppe, Krijn ; Snoek, Harriette M. ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Zimmermann, Karin L. - \ 2017
    Trends in Food Science and Technology 63 (2017). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 113 - 131.
    Determinants of dietary intake - EuroDISH - Europe - Food and health - Research infrastructure

    Background: Recent initiatives in Europe have encouraged the formalisation of research infrastructure to unify fragmented facilities, resources and services; and to facilitate world-class research of complex public health challenges, such as those related to non-communicable disease. How this can be achieved in the area of food and health has, to date, been unclear. Scope and approach: This commentary paper presents examples of the types of food and health research facilities, resources and services available in Europe. Insights are provided on the challenge of identifying and classifying research infrastructure. In addition, suggestions are made for the future direction of food and health research infrastructure in Europe. These views are informed by the EuroDISH project, which mapped research infrastructure in four areas of food and health research: Determinants of dietary behaviour; Intake of foods/nutrients; Status and functional markers of nutritional health; Health and disease risk of foods/nutrients. Key findings and conclusion: There is no objective measure to identify or classify research infrastructure. It is therefore, difficult to operationalise this term. EuroDISH demonstrated specific challenges with identifying the degree an organisation, project, network or national infrastructure could be considered a research infrastructure; and establishing the boundary of a research infrastructure (integral hard or soft facilities/resources/services). Nevertheless, there are opportunities to create dedicated food and health research infrastructures in Europe. These would need to be flexible and adaptable to keep pace with an ever-changing research environment and bring together the multi-disciplinary needs of the food and health research community.

    Decreasing the overall environmental impact of the Dutch diet : how to find healthy and sustainable diets with limited changes
    Kramer, Gerard F.H. ; Tyszler, Marcelo ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Blonk, Hans - \ 2017
    Public Health Nutrition 20 (2017)9. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1699 - 1709.
    Fossil energy use - Greenhouse gas emissions - Land occupation - Linear programming - Minimal changes - Sustainable diets

    Objective: To find diets optimised on nutrition and environmental impact close to the current Dutch diet and to identify the most effective and acceptable options for mitigating environmental impact. Design: Linear programming was used to optimise diets of Dutch men and women aged 9–69 years, divided into ten age–gender groups. The analysis included nutrient composition, a metric for popularity and life cycle assessments of 207 food products. Greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy use and land occupation were used to calculate a weighted score for the overall environmental impact. Optimised diets were solutions that minimised changes to the current diet while satisfying all nutritional constraints, with stepwise reductions in environmental impact. Setting: The Netherlands. Subjects: Dutch children and adults aged 9–69 years. Results: Meat was always reduced. Vegetable, fruit and dairy contents remained similar, while bread, fatty fish and legumes increased. The extent of changes depended on age and gender. Beverages were not heavily reduced. Nutrients critical for the outcome were α-linoleic acid, retinol, Ca, Na, Se, dietary fibre, SFA, thiamin and Fe (women of childbearing age). Total protein, essential amino acids and carbohydrates were not critical. Conclusions: Reducing meat is the most effective option for lowering the environmental impact of diets in all age–gender groups. Reducing alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages is another option. Leaving out fish and dairy products are not. The differences in nutritional requirements related to age and gender have a significant effect on the composition of the optimised diets.

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