Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Fertilizer Replacement Value : Linking Organic Residues to Mineral Fertilizers
    Schils, René ; Schröder, Jaap ; Velthof, Gerard - \ 2020
    In: Biorefinery of Inorganics / Meers, Erik, Velthof, Gerard, Michels, Evi, Rietra, René, John Wiley and Sons - ISBN 9781118921456 - p. 189 - 214.
    Organic residues of animal origin are an important nutrient source for crop production. Due to the presence of organic nutrients, manures are more difficult to manage than mineral fertilizers. The increasing diversification in available organic residues makes the need for a correct assessment of the fertilizing value. This chapter outlines the theoretical concept of the fertilizer replacement value (FRV) and explores how it is derived in science and applied in farming practices. It explains the nutrient pathways from land application of organic residues to crop uptake, identifying the different routes to nutrient losses. The chapter reviews the concept of FRVs and discusses methods of obtaining estimates, including potential pitfalls. It also describes some examples of how FRVs are applied in fertilizer plans, including mineral fertilizers and manures. Fertilizer plans or nutrient management plans aim to match nutrient supply from fertilizers, manures, and other sources to nutrient demand from crops
    Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw,1990-2018 : Berekeningen met het model NEMA
    Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 178) - 224
    In the Netherlands, agricultural activities are a major source of gaseous emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), CO2 from lime fertilisers and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions were calculated using the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA). In 2018, NH3 emissions from livestock manure, fertiliser and other sources on farms and hobby farms, from private use and from manure application in terrestrial ecosystems amounted to 118.0 million kg NH3, 2.2 million kg less than in 2017. This decrease was due mainly to the reduction in the size of the dairy herd. Emissions of N2O in 2018 were 20.5 million kg, 0.5 million kg less than in 2017. NO emissions in 2018 amounted to 22.3 million kg, 0.6 million kg less than in 2017. CH4 emissions decreased from 503 to 484 million kg due to the smaller dairy herd. Emissions of NMVOC amounted to 93 million kg in 2018, down from 98 million kg in 2017. Emissions of particulate matter PM10 decreased in 2018 from 6.2 to 5.9 million kg. PM2.5 emissions remained constant at 0.6 million kg. Based on new data for several factors which are described in this report, emission figures have been updated for a number of years in the time series since 1990. NH3 emissions from livestock manure have fallen by two thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretion rates of livestock and the introduction of low-emission manure application. Emissions of N2O and NO decreased over this period by 40% and 33% respectively, less markedly than the NH3 reduction because of higher emissions from manure injection (compared with surface spreading manure) and a shift from excretion on pasture to excretion in animal houses. CH4 emissions decreased by 18% between 1990 and 2018 due to a decrease in livestock numbers and increased feed use efficiency of dairy cattle. PM10 emissions increased by 19% in the same period due to laying poultry farms switching from housing systems with liquid manure to systems with solid manure.
    Nitrogen surplus-a unified indicator for water pollution in Europe?
    Klages, Susanne ; Heidecke, Claudia ; Osterburg, Bernhard ; Bailey, John ; Calciu, Irina ; Casey, Clare ; Dalgaard, Tommy ; Frick, Hanna ; Glavan, Matjaž ; Haene, Karoline D'; Hofman, Georges ; Leitão, Inês Amorim ; Surdyk, Nicolas ; Verloop, Koos ; Velthof, Gerard - \ 2020
    Water 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 2073-4441
    Agriculture - Drinking water - Nitrates - Nitrogen balance - Nitrogen budget - Water pollution

    Pollution of ground-and surface waters with nitrates from agricultural sources poses a risk to drinking water quality and has negative impacts on the environment. At the national scale, the gross nitrogen budget (GNB) is accepted as an indicator of pollution caused by nitrates. There is, however, little common EU-wide knowledge on the budget application and its comparability at the farm level for the detection of ground-and surface water pollution caused by nitrates and the monitoring of mitigation measures. Therefore, a survey was carried out among experts of various European countries in order to assess the practice and application of fertilization planning and nitrogen budgeting at the farm level and the differences between countries within Europe. While fertilization planning is practiced in all of the fourteen countries analyzed in this paper, according to current legislation, nitrogen budgets have to be calculated only in Switzerland, Germany and Romania. The survey revealed that methods of fertilization planning and nitrogen budgeting at the farm level are not unified throughout Europe. In most of the cases where budgets are used regularly (Germany, Romania, Switzerland), standard values for the chemical composition of feed, organic fertilizers, animal and plant products are used. The example of the Dutch Annual Nutrient Cycling Assessment (ANCA) tool (and partly of the Suisse Balance) shows that it is only by using farm-specific "real" data that budgeting can be successfully applied to optimize nutrient flows and increase N efficiencies at the farm level. However, this approach is more elaborate and requires centralized data processing under consideration of data protection concerns. This paper concludes that there is no unified indicator for nutrient management and water quality at the farm level. A comparison of regionally calculated nitrogen budgets across European countries needs to be interpreted carefully, as methods as well as data and emission factors vary across countries. For the implementation of EU nitrogen-related policies-notably, the Nitrates Directive-nutrient budgeting is currently ruled out as an entry point for legal requirements. In contrast, nutrient budgets are highlighted as an environment indicator by the OECD and EU institutions.

    Tackling the nitrogen problem in five stages
    Hermans, Tia ; Dijkstra, Jan ; Smits, Nina ; Groenestein, Karin ; Ogink, Nico ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Velthof, Gerard ; Jongschaap, Raymond ; Geerdink, Peter ; Munniks, Sandra ; Jongeneel, Roel ; Ravesloot, Marc - \ 2020

    interview met Tia Hermans en Jan Dijstra en Nina Smits

    Biorefinery of Inorganics : Recovering Mineral Nutrients from Biomass and Organic Waste
    Meers, Erik ; Velthof, G.L. ; Michels, E. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. - \ 2020
    Wiley - ISBN 9781118921456 - 472 p.
    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the potential for mineral recovery from wastes, addressing technological issues as well as economic, ecological, and agronomic full-scale field assessments. It serves as a complete reference work for experts in the field and provides teaching material for future experts specializing in environmental technology sectors.
    Biorefinery of Inorganics: Recovering Mineral Nutrients from Biomass and Organic Waste starts by explaining the concept of using anaerobic digestion as a biorefinery for production of an energy carrier in addition to mineral secondary resources. It then discusses the current state of mineral fertilizer use throughout the world, offering readers a complete look at the resource availability and energy intensity. Technical aspects of mineral recovery organic (waste-)streams is discussed next, followed by an examination of the economics of biobased products and their mineral counterparts. The book also covers the environmental impact assessment of the production and use of bio-based fertilizers; modelling and optimization of nutrient recovery from wastes; and more.
    How can decision support tools help reduce nitrate and pesticide pollution from agriculture? A literature review and practical insights from the EU FAIRWAY project
    Nicholson, Fiona ; Laursen, Rikke Krogshave ; Cassidy, Rachel ; Farrow, Luke ; Tendler, Linda ; Williams, John ; Surdyk, Nicolas ; Velthof, Gerard - \ 2020
    Water 12 (2020)3. - ISSN 2073-4441
    Catchment management - Diffuse pollution - Drinking water - DST - Farm advisors - Farm management - Model - Software

    The FAIRWAY project reviewed approaches for protecting drinking water from nitrate and pesticide pollution. A comprehensive assessment of decision support tools (DSTs) used by farmers, advisors, water managers and policy makers across the European Union as an aid to meeting CAP objectives and targets was undertaken, encompassing paper-based guidelines, farm-level and catchment level software, and complex research models. More than 150 DSTs were identified, with 36 ranked for further investigation based on how widely they were used and/or their potential relevance to the FAIRWAY case studies. Of those, most were farm management tools promoting smart nutrient/pesticide use, with only three explicitly considering the impact of mitigation methods on water quality. Following demonstration and evaluation, 12 DSTs were selected for practical testing at nine diverse case study sites, based on their pertinence to local challenges and scales of interest. Barriers to DST exchange between member states were identified and information was collected about user requirements and attitudes. Key obstacles to exchange include differences in legislation, advisory frameworks, country-specific data and calibration requirements, geo-climate and issues around language. Notably, DSTs from different countries using the same input data sometimes delivered very different results. Whilst many countries have developed DSTs to address similar problems, all case study participants were able to draw inspiration from elsewhere. The support and advice provided by skilled advisors was highly valued, empowering end users to most effectively use DST outputs.

    Acidification of manure reduces gaseous emissions and nutrient losses from subsequent composting process
    Cao, Yubo ; Wang, Xuan ; Liu, Ling ; Velthof, Gerard L. ; Misselbrook, Tom ; Bai, Zhaohai ; Ma, Lin - \ 2020
    Journal of Environmental Management 264 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4797
    Composting - GHG emissions - Manure acidification - N balance - NH emission - P balance

    Manure acidification is recommended to minimize ammonia (NH3) emission at storage. However, the potential for acidification to mitigate NH3 emission from storage and the impact of manure acidification (pH range 5–8) on composting have been poorly studied. The effects of manure acidification at storage on the subsequent composting process, nutrient balance, gaseous emissions and product quality were assessed through an analysis of literature data and an experiment under controlled conditions. Results of the data mining showed that mineral acids, acidic salts and organic acids significantly reduced NH3 emission, however, a weaker effect was observed for organic acids. A subsequent composting experiment showed that using manure acidified to pH5 or pH6 as feedstock delayed organic matter degradation for 7–10 days, although pH6 had no negative effect on compost maturity. Acidification significantly decreased NH3 emission from both storage and composting, however, excessive acidification (pH5) enhanced N2O emissions (18.6%) during composting. When manure was acidified to pH6, N2O (17.6%) and CH4 (20%) emissions, and total GHG emissions expressed as global warming potential (GWP) (9.6%) were reduced during composting. Acidification of manure before composting conserved more N as NH4 + and NOx in compost product. Compared to the control, the labile, plant-available phosphorus (P) content in the compost product, predominately as water-soluble inorganic P, increased with manure acidification to pH5 and pH6. Acidification of manure to pH6 before composting decreases nutrient losses and gaseous emissions without decreasing the quality of the compost product. The techno-economic advantages of acidification should be further ascertained.

    Can dietary manipulations improve the productivity of pigs with lower environmental and economic cost? A global meta-analysis
    Wang, Hongliang ; Long, Weitong ; Chadwick, Dave ; Velthof, Gerard L. ; Oenema, Oene ; Ma, Wenqi ; Wang, Junjun ; Qin, Wei ; Hou, Yong ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2020
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 289 (2020). - ISSN 0167-8809
    Ammonia emissions - Hydrogen sulfide - Livestock sustainability - Nitrogen - Phosphorus - Weight gain

    Inappropriate management of pig manure contributes considerably to pollution of waterbodies by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and to air pollution by ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions. Dietary manipulation is recognized as a possible pollution mitigation measure, but it may affect pig growth and thereby production costs. Here we present a global meta-analysis of the effects of dietary manipulation on nutrient (N and P) excretion, gaseous (NH3 and H2S) emissions from manure, and growth performance of pigs, using data from 245 published studies. Four groups of dietary manipulation were distinguished, namely i) lowering dietary crude protein (CP) content, (ii) supplementing exogenous enzymes, (iii) supplementing fermented feed ingredients, and (iv) supplementing other additives (e.g. fermentable carbohydrates, acidifying agent/salts and probiotics) in feed. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of dietary manipulations was evaluated, expressed as US $ per kg N excretion abated. Results show that lowering CP content significantly reduced both total N excretion (28.5%) and NH3 emissions (34.4%). Addition of protease reduced N excretion (18.2%) but did not affect NH3 emissions. Supplementing other additives simultaneously reduced NH3 emissions (21.5%) and H2S emissions (23.2%). Adding phytase to feed significantly decreased total P excretion by 31.4%. Diets with fermented feed ingredients tended to decrease N excretion and emissions, but this effect was not statistically significant. All dietary manipulations significantly improved the growth performance regarding the weight gain and feed efficiency, except for lowering CP content. But lowering dietary CP content within a moderate level in combination with adding additional amino acids did not impair pig growth. The cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that various diary manipulation measures were economically beneficial to farmers through improved feed-to-meat conversion efficiency. Our results can support to the design of proper dietary formulations so as to simultaneously reduce N and P excretion and associated emissions, meanwhile enhance the growth performance of pigs with lower economic cost.

    Benefits and trade-offs of replacing synthetic fertilizers by animal manures in crop production in China: A meta-analysis
    Zhang, Xiaoying ; Fang, Qunchao ; Zhang, Tao ; Ma, Wenqi ; Velthof, Gerard L. ; Hou, Yong ; Oenema, Oene ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2020
    Global Change Biology 26 (2020)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 888 - 900.
    ammonia emissions - crop yield - fertilizers - greenhouse gases - livestock manure - meta-analysis - soil type - trade-offs

    Recycling of livestock manure to agricultural land may reduce the use of synthetic fertilizer and thereby enhance the sustainability of food production. However, the effects of substitution of fertilizer by manure on crop yield, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) as function of soil and manure properties, experimental duration and application strategies have not been quantified systematically and convincingly yet. Here, we present a meta-analysis of these effects using results of 143 published studies in China. Results indicate that the partial substitution of synthetic fertilizers by manure significantly increased the yield by 6.6% and 3.3% for upland crop and paddy rice, respectively, but full substitution significantly decreased yields (by 9.6% and 4.1%). The response of crop yields to manure substitution varied with soil pH and experimental durations, with relatively large positive responses in acidic soils and long-term experiments. NUE increased significantly at a moderate ratio (<40%) of substitution. NH3 emissions were significantly lower with full substitution (62%–77%), but not with partial substitution. Emissions of CH4 from paddy rice significantly increased with substitution ratio (SR), and varied by application rates and manure types, but N2O emissions decreased. The SR did not significantly influence N2O emissions from upland soils, and a relative scarcity of data on certain manure characteristic was found to hamper identification of the mechanisms. We derived overall mean N2O emission factors (EF) of 0.56% and 0.17%, as well as NH3 EFs of 11.1% and 6.5% for the manure N applied to upland and paddy soils, respectively. Our study shows that partial substitution of fertilizer by manure can increase crop yields, and decrease emissions of NH3 and N2O, but depending on site-specific conditions. Manure addition to paddy rice soils is recommended only if abatement strategies for CH4 emissions are also implemented.

    Referentieraming van emissies naar de lucht uit landbouw en landgebruik tot 2030 : Achtergronddocument bij de Klimaat-en Energieverkenning 2019, met ramingen van emissies van methaan, lachgas, ammoniak, stikstofoxide, fijnstof en NMVOS uit de landbouw en kooldioxide en lachgas door landgebruik
    Velthof, G.L. ; Bruggen, C. van; Arets, E. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Helming, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2970) - ISBN 9789463952156 - 113
    In het kader van de Klimaat- en Energieverkenning (KEV) zijn ramingen gemaakt voor 2020, 2025 en 2030 van i) niet aan energie gerelateerde emissies uit de landbouw naar de lucht, in de vorm van methaan (CH4), lachgas (N2O), ammoniak (NH3), stikstofoxide (NOx), fijnstof (PM10 en PM2,5) en NMVOS (niet-methaan vluchtige organische stoffen) en ii) emissies van kooldioxide (CO2) en N2O door landgebruik, landgebruiksveranderingen en bosbouw (LULUCF). Het jaar 2017 is het basisjaar in de ramingen. De ramingen gaan uit van vastgesteld beleid en van naleving van onderliggende wet- en regelgeving. De peildatum voor het vastgestelde beleid in de raming is 1 mei 2019. De onzekerheden zijn in beeld gebracht voor de factoren met een groot effect op de emissies in 2030. In de raming is de CH4-emissie in 2030 met ruim 32 miljoen kg CH4 afgenomen ten opzichte van 2017 (6,4%). Deze afname wordt veroorzaakt door een afname van het aantal melkkoeien en jongvee. De geraamde N2O-emissie in 2030 is bijna 1 miljoen kg lager (4,5%) dan die in 2017. De grootste afname in N2O- emissie is zichtbaar bij bemesting met kunstmest en bij beweiding. De ammoniakemissie uit de landbouw neemt af van 114 miljoen kg in 2017 naar 109 miljoen kg in 2020 en 101 miljoen kg in 2030. Deze daling hangt samen met meer emissiearme stallen en minder melkkoeien, jongvee en varkens. De NOx-emissie (uitgedrukt in NO) is in 2030 0,7 miljoen kg lager dan in 2017. De emissie van fijnstof (PM10) neemt af van 6,2 miljoen kg in 2017 naar 5,1 miljoen kg in 2030 en die van de fijnere fractie van fijnstof (PM2,5) neemt af van 0,60 miljoen kg in 2017 naar 0,52 miljoen kg in 2030. De totale geraamde emissies uit de LULUCF-sector liggen in de periode 2020-2030 tussen de 5339 miljoen kg en 5707 miljoen kg CO2-equivalenten. Toepassing van de regels uit de LULUCF-verordening van de EU, om de prestaties van lidstaten te beoordelen op de emissies en verwijderingen van CO2 voor de tijdreeks 2020-2030, resulteert in een nettotekort van 316 miljoen kg CO2-equivalenten in 2025 en 258 miljoen kg CO2-equivalenten in 2030. Als prestaties voor de vijfjarige periodes 2021-2025 en 2026-2030 in het kader van LULUCF afgerekend worden, komt dat op een nettotekort van 1500 miljoen kg CO2-equivalent in de eerste periode en van 1200 miljoen kg CO2 equivalent in de tweede periode.
    Mitigation options to reduce nitrogen losses to water from crop and livestock production in China
    Lu, Jie ; Bai, Zhaohai ; Chadwick, Dave ; Velthof, Gerard L. ; Zhao, Hao ; Li, Xiaoxin ; Hu, Chunsheng ; Ma, Lin - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 40 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 95 - 107.

    Nitrogen (N) loss from agriculture threatens water quality and affects human health, especially the nitrate leaching. In China, nitrate concentrations in ground-water frequently exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) quality standard for drinking water of 50 mg L−1. In this paper we explore mitigation measures for reducing N loss to water from agriculture. Firstly, we synthesis the current state of nitrate pollution through a review the published literatures. Then, we review measures to mitigate N loss to water. Finally, we present a comprehensive scenario analysis to evaluate the effect of N loss mitigation measures, following a Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) approach, similar to that used by EU countries. A combination of balanced N fertilization, precision fertilizer application and irrigation techniques, and a decrease of direct manure discharge into watercourses can decrease N loss from the area of potential designated NVZs by nearly 50% compared to the reference year - 2012. We argue that further research and policy instruments for controlling N loss to water are essential for managing N in crop and livestock production systems in order to protect water quality for human consumption.

    China’s pig relocation in balance
    Bai, Zhaohai ; Jin, Shuqin ; Wu, Yan ; Ermgassen, Erasmus zu; Oenema, Oene ; Chadwick, David ; Lassaletta, Luis ; Velthof, Gerard ; Zhao, Jun ; Ma, Lin - \ 2019
    Nature Sustainability 2 (2019)10. - ISSN 2398-9629 - 1 p.
    Factsheet 'stikstofbronnen'
    Oenema, O. ; Vries, W. de; Dobben, H.F. van; Kros, J. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Reinds, G.J. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 17 p.
    -Bangor University: Relocating China's pig industry could have unintended consequences
    Oenema, O. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2019
    Further Improvement of Air Quality in China Needs Clear Ammonia Mitigation Target
    Bai, Zhaohai ; Winiwarter, Wilfried ; Klimont, Zbigniew ; Velthof, Gerard ; Misselbrook, Tom ; Zhao, Zhanqing ; Jin, Xinpeng ; Oenema, Oene ; Hu, Chunsheng ; Ma, Lin - \ 2019
    Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)18. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 10542 - 10544.
    Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw in 2017 : Berekeningen met het model NEMA
    Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 147) - 131
    Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of gaseous emission as ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO),nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and particulate matter (PM10 andPM2.5). The emissions in 2017 were calculated using the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA). The method calculatesthe NH3 emission from livestock manure based on the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. In 2017 NH3 emissionsfrom livestock manure, fertilizer and other sources in agriculture, from hobby farms, private parties and manure application onnature areas amounted to 120.5 million kg NH3, 3.9 million kg more than in 2016. Nitrogen excretion increased due to a largerfeed requirement for dairy cows and higher nitrogen levels in roughage. N2O emissions in 2017 were 21.3 million kg, slightlyabove the level of 2016 (20.7 million kg). The NO emission in 2017 amounted to 23.1 million kg compared to 22.5 million kg in2016. The CH4 emission decreased due to the shrinking of the dairy herd from 508 to 503 million kg. NMVOC emissionsamounted to 98 million kg in 2017 compared to 99 million kg in 2016. Emissions of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5, 6.2 and0.6 million kg respectively, hardly changed compared to 2016. Some figures in the time series 1990-2016 were revised onbasis of new insights. NH3 emissions from livestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by two thirds since 1990, mainly as aresult of lower nitrogen excretion rates by livestock and low emission manure application. Emissions of N2O and NO alsodecreased over the same period, but less strongly (38% and 31% respectively), due to higher emissions from manure injectioninto the soil and the shift from poultry housing systems with slurry manure towards solid manure systems. CH4 emissions reducedby 14% between 1990 and 2017, caused by a decrease in livestock numbers and increased feed efficiency of dairy cattle.
    Correction to: Reducing external costs of nitrogen pollution by relocation of pig production between regions in the European Union
    Grinsven, Hans J.M. van; Dam, Jan D. van; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Timmers, Marloes H.G. ; Velthof, Gerard L. ; Lassaletta, Luis - \ 2019
    Regional Environmental Change 19 (2019)6. - ISSN 1436-3798

    The article Reducing external costs of nitrogen pollution by relocation of pig production between regions in the European Union, written by Hans J. M. van Grinsven, Jan D. van Dam, Jan Peter Lesschen, Marloes H. G. Timmers, Gerard L. Velthof, Luis Lassaletta, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 28 May 2018 without open access. With the author(s)’ decision to opt for Open Choice the copyright of the article changed on April 2019 to

    Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Gaseous Nitrogen Losses from the Concentrated Liquid Fraction of Pig Slurries
    Velthof, G.L. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Pindozzi, Stefania - \ 2019
    International Journal of Agronomy 2019 (2019). - ISSN 1687-8159 - 11 p.

    Processed manure can be an alternative source of nutrients for untreated manure and mineral fertilizers. Mineral concentrates (MCs) are derived from reversed osmosis of the liquid fraction of separated pig slurries. The emissions of ammonia (NH 3 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from different (processed) manures and fertilizers were tested in an incubation experiment and a greenhouse experiment with grass as a test crop. Dry matter yields and nitrogen (N) uptake were also determined in the greenhouse experiment. Incorporation into the soil decreased on NH 3 emission but increased N 2 O emission for all nitrogen products (mineral fertilizer, untreated slurry, MC, and solid fraction of separated slurry). Incorporation of both MC, slurries, and mineral fertilizers increased N 2 O emission in the incubation experiment. The lowest apparent N recovery (ANR) in the pot experiment with grass was obtained for incorporated pig slurry (30-39%) and surface-applied MC (33-38%), while the highest ANRs were obtained for liquid ammonium nitrate (45-53%) and acidified MC (43-55%). It is concluded that MCs have a similar N fertilizer value as mineral N fertilizers if NH 3 emission is reduced by incorporation or acidification.

    How to enhance the role of science in European Union policy making and implementation: The case of agricultural impacts on drinking water quality
    Glavan, Matjaž ; Železnikar, Špela ; Velthof, Gerard ; Boekhold, Sandra ; Langaas, Sindre ; Pintar, Marina - \ 2019
    Water 11 (2019)3. - ISSN 2073-4441
    Agriculture - Drinking water - EU policy - Governance - Integrated scientific support - Nitrates - Pesticides - Water quality

    Throughout the European Union (EU), high concentrations of nitrates and pesticides are among the major polluting components of drinking water and have potential long-term impacts on the environment and human health. Many research projects co-funded by the European Commission have been carried out, but the results often do not influence policy making and implementation to the extent that is duly justified. This paper assesses several issues and barriers that weaken the role of science in EU policy making and EU policy implementation in the case of agricultural impacts on drinking water quality. It then proposes improvements and solutions to strengthen the role of science in this process. The analysis is conceptual but supported empirically by a desk study, a workshop, and complementary individual interviews, mostly with representatives of organizations working at the EU level. The results indicate that perceived barriers are mostly observed on the national or regional level and are connected with a lack of political will, scarce instruction on the legislation implementation process, and a lack of funding opportunities for science to be included in policy making and further EU policy implementation. In response to that, we suggest translating scientific knowledge on technological, practical or environmental changes and using dissemination techniques for specific audiences and in local languages. Further, the relationship between data, information and decision making needs to change by implementing monitoring in real-time, which will allow for the quick adaptation of strategies. In addition, we suggest project clustering (science, policy, stakeholders, and citizens) to make science and research more connected to current policy challenges and stakeholder needs along with citizen involvement with an aim of establishing sustainable long-term relationships and communication flows.

    Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, NMVOC, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA), Update 2019
    Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt technical report 148) - 215
    The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N compounds (NOx and N2O) are calculated for animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing using a flow model for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). Emissions from the application of inorganic N fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated as well. The NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, as well as for carbon dioxide (CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with the criteria of international guidelines and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report provides an outline of and describes the background to the calculation of emissions according to the NEMA.
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