The science base of a strategic research agenda - Executive Summary
Bray, A.W. ; Kim, J.H. ; Schrumpf, M. ; Peacock, C. ; Banwart, S. ; Schipper, L. ; Angers, D. ; Chirinda, N. ; Lopes Zinn, Y. ; Albrecht, A. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Jouquet, P. ; Demenois, J. ; Farrell, M. ; Fontaine, S. ; Soussana, J.F. ; Kuhnert, M. ; Milne, E. ; Taghizadeh-Toosi, A. ; Cerri, C.E.P. ; Corbeels, M. ; Cardinael, R. ; Alcántara Cervantes, V. ; Olesen, J.E. ; Batjes, N.H. ; Heuvelink, G.B.M. ; Maia, S.M.F. ; Keesstra, S.D. ; Claessens, L.F.G. ; Madari, B.E. ; Verchot, L. ; Nie, W. - \ 2019
EU - 16 p.
A summary presenting the challenges for soil carbon sequestration research, hypotheis to be further tested and key research (and innvation) products.
Tropical deforestation drivers and associated carbon emission factors derived from remote sensing data
Sy, Veronique De; Herold, Martin ; Achard, Frederic ; Avitabile, Valerio ; Baccini, Alessandro ; Carter, Sarah ; Clevers, Jan G.P.W. ; Lindquist, Erik ; Pereira, Maria ; Verchot, Louis - \ 2019
Environmental Research Letters 14 (2019)9. - ISSN 1748-9318 - 29 p.
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+) is a crucial component of global climate change mitigation. Remote sensing can provide continuous and spatially explicit above-ground biomass (AGB) estimates, which can be valuable for the quantification of carbon stocks and emission factors (EFs). Unfortunately, there is little information on the fate of the land following tropical deforestation and of the associated carbon stock. This study quantified post-deforestation land use across the tropics for the period 1990 – 2000. This dataset was then combined with a pan-tropical AGB map at 30 m resolution to refine EFs from forest conversion by matching deforestation areas with their carbon stock before and after clearing and to assess spatial dynamics of EFs by follow-up land use. In Latin America, pasture was the most common follow-up land use (72%), with large-scale cropland (11%) a distant second. In Africa deforestation was often followed by small-scale cropping (61%) with a smaller role for pasture (15%). In Asia, small-scale cropland was the dominant agricultural follow-up land use (35%), closely followed by tree crops (28%). Deforestation often occurred in forests with lower than average carbon stocks. EFs showed high spatial variation within eco-zones and countries. While our EFs are only representative for the studied time period, our results show that EFs are mainly determined by the initial forest carbon stock. The estimates of the fraction of carbon lost were less dependent on initial forest biomass, which offers opportunities for REDD+ countries to use these fractions in combination with recent good quality national forest biomass maps or inventory data to quantify emissions from specific forest conversions. Our study highlights that the co-location of data on forest loss, biomass and fate of the land provides more insight into the spatial dynamics of land-use change and can help in attributing carbon emissions to human activities.
Land Restoration in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview of Recent, Ongoing and Planned Restoration Initiatives and Their Potential for Climate Change Mitigation
Romijn, Erika ; Coppus, Ruben ; Sy, Veronique De; Herold, Martin ; Roman-cuesta, Rosa Maria ; Verchot, Louis - \ 2019
Forests 10 (2019)6. - ISSN 1999-4907 - 17 p.
Land degradation is a globally recognized problem and restoration of degraded land is currently high on the international agenda. Forest landscape restoration and other restorative ecosystem management activities are important measures that contribute towards reaching the objectives of the Bonn Challenge, which aims to restore 350 million hectares by 2030. In this context, many restoration projects are being planned and implemented in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We present an overview of the location, goals and activities, and an estimated climate change mitigation potential of 154 recent, ongoing and planned restoration projects in LAC. Our analysis suggests that most projects are located in the humid tropics and less attention is paid to drylands. Increasing vegetation cover, biodiversity recovery and recovery of ecological processes are the most common goals. Restorative activities to fulfil these goals were diverse and were related to the type and source of funding that projects receive. For example, projects implemented through the Forest Investment Program (FIP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) generally rely on natural or assisted regeneration over large areas (>20,000 ha), whereas Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects establish forest plantations, often including exotic monocultures, in smaller project areas (<5000 ha). Projects that are specifically implemented within the scope of Initiative 20 × 20 and other local initiatives that target the local environmental problems, are more varied and rely on a wider portfolio of restorative activities, such as erosion control, exclusion of grazing and mixed plantations. These projects are usually implemented in smaller project areas (<5000 ha). All projects had the potential to contribute to climate change mitigation by storing additional forest aboveground biomass through natural regeneration, assisted regeneration or establishing a plantation. Further analysis of the implemented activities is an important next step to investigate their effectiveness in terms of goals achieved under Initiative 20 × 20 and the Bonn Challenge. This would provide information for future restoration projects and upscaling of restorative activities in a wider area. View Full-Text
Greenhouse gas emissions along a peat swamp forest degradation gradient in the Peruvian Amazon : soil moisture and palm roots effects
Lent, Jeffrey van; Hergoualc’h, Kristell ; Verchot, Louis ; Oenema, Oene ; Groenigen, Jan Willem van - \ 2019
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 24 (2019)4. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 625 - 643.
CH - CO - GHG - Mauritia flexuosa - NO - Peat swamp forest - Pneumatophores - Tropical peatland - Water-filled pore space
Tropical peatlands in the Peruvian Amazon exhibit high densities of Mauritia flexuosa palms, which are often cut instead of being climbed for collecting their fruits. This is an important type of forest degradation in the region that could lead to changes in the structure and composition of the forest, quality and quantity of inputs to the peat, soil properties, and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. We studied peat and litterfall characteristics along a forest degradation gradient that included an intact site, a moderately degraded site, and a heavily degraded site. To understand underlying factors driving GHG emissions, we examined the response of in vitro soil microbial GHG emissions to soil moisture variation, and we tested the potential of pneumatophores to conduct GHGs in situ. The soil phosphorus and carbon content and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as well as the litterfall nitrogen content and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio were significantly affected by forest degradation. Soils from the degraded sites consistently produced more carbon dioxide (CO2) than soils from the intact site during in vitro incubations. The response of CO2 production to changes in water-filled pore space (WFPS) followed a cubic polynomial relationship with maxima at 60–70% at the three sites. Methane (CH4) was produced in limited amounts and exclusively under water-saturated conditions. There was no significant response of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to WFPS variation. Lastly, the density of pneumatophore decreased drastically as the result of forest degradation and was positively correlated to in situ CH4 emissions. We conclude that recurrent M. flexuosa harvesting could result in a significant increase of in situ CO2 fluxes and a simultaneous decrease in CH4 emissions via pneumatophores. These changes might alter long-term carbon and GHG balances of the peat, and the role of these ecosystems for climate change mitigation, which stresses the need for their protection.
Forest restoration : Getting serious about the ‘plus’ in REDD+
Verchot, Louis V. ; Sy, V. de; Romijn, J.E. ; Herold, M. ; Coppus, R. - \ 2018
In: Transforming REDD+ / Angelsen, A., Martius, C., De Sy, V., Duchelle, A.E., Larson, A.M., Pham, T.T., Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) - ISBN 9786023870790 - p. 189 - 202.
Climate-smart land use requires local solutions, transdisciplinary research, policy coherence and transparency
Carter, Sarah ; Arts, Bas ; E. Giller, Ken ; Soto Golcher, Cinthia ; Kok, Kasper ; Koning, Jessica De; Noordwijk, Meine Van; Reidsma, Pytrik ; Rufino, Mariana C. ; Salvini, Giulia ; Verchot, Louis ; Wollenberg, Eva ; Herold, Martin - \ 2018
Carbon Management 9 (2018)3. - ISSN 1758-3004 - p. 291 - 301.
Successfully meeting the mitigation and adaptation targets of the Paris Climate Agreement (PA) will depend on strengthening the ties between forests and agriculture. Climate-smart land use can be achieved by integrating climate-smart agriculture (CSA) and REDD+. The focus on agriculture for food security within a changing climate, and on forests for climate change mitigation and adaptation, can be achieved simultaneously with a transformational change in the land-use sector. Striving for both independently will lead to competition for land, inefficiencies in monitoring and conflicting agendas. Practical solutions exist for specific contexts that can lead to increased agricultural output and forest protection. Landscape-level emissions accounting can be used to identify these practices. Transdisciplinary research agendas can identify and prioritize solutions and targets for integrated mitigation and adaptation interventions. Policy coherence must be achieved at a number of levels, from international to local, to avoid conflicting incentives. Transparency must lastly be integrated, through collaborative design of projects, and open data and methods. Climate-smart land use requires all these elements, and will increase the likelihood of successful REDD+ and CSA interventions. This will support the PA as well as other initiatives as part of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Independent data for transparent monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions from the land use sector – What do stakeholders think and need?
Romijn, Erika ; Sy, Veronique De; Herold, Martin ; Böttcher, Hannes ; Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria ; Fritz, Steffen ; Schepaschenko, Dmitry ; Avitabile, Valerio ; Gaveau, David ; Verchot, Louis ; Martius, Christopher - \ 2018
Environmental Science & Policy 85 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 101 - 112.
The agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sectors contribute substantially to the net global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To reduce these emissions under the Paris Agreement, effective mitigation actions are needed that require engagement of multiple stakeholders. Emission reduction also requires that accurate, consistent and comparable datasets are available for transparent reference and progress monitoring. Availability of free and open datasets and portals (referred to as independent data) increases, offering opportunities for improving and reconciling estimates of GHG emissions and mitigation options. Through an online survey, we investigated stakeholders’ data needs for estimating forest area and change, forest biomass and emission factors, and AFOLU GHG emissions. The survey was completed by 359 respondents from governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, research institutes and universities, and public and private companies. These can be grouped into data users and data providers. Our results show that current open and freely available datasets and portals are only able to fulfil stakeholder needs to a certain degree. Users require a) detailed documentation regarding the scope and usability of the data, b) comparability between alternative data sources, c) uncertainty estimates for evaluating mitigation options, d) more region-specific and detailed data with higher accuracy for sub-national application, e) regular updates and continuity for establishing consistent time series. These requirements are found to be key elements for increasing overall transparency of data sources, definitions, methodologies and assumptions, which is required under the Paris
Agreement. Raising awareness and improving data availability through centralized platforms are important for increasing engagement of data users. In countries with low capacities, independent data can support countries’
mitigation planning and implementation, and related GHG reporting. However, there is a strong need for further guidance and capacity development (i.e.‘
readiness support’) on how to make proper use of independent datasets. Continued investments will be needed to sustain programmes and keep improving datasets to serve the objectives of the many stakeholders involved in climate change mitigation and should focus on increased accessibility and transparency of data to encourage stakeholder involvement.
Deforestation and agriculture in the tropics: carbon emissions and options for mitigation
Carter, Sarah - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. Herold; L. Kooistra, co-promotor(en): M.C. Rufino; L. Verchot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438322 - 164
Agriculture is the largest driver of deforestation globally, and this conversion of land from forests to agriculture, results in emissions which are contributing to climate change. This thesis focuses on exploring agriculture-driven deforestation at the country level, from the perspective of quantifying emissions, estimating the potential for mitigation, including identifying potential barriers to success, and highlighting enabling conditions for mitigation of these emissions. Efforts to reduce deforestation are being undertaken, for example through the mechanism REDD+; reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries. At the same time, efforts are underway to try to reduce hunger by increasing food security (for example through the sustainable development goals (SDGs)). Competition for land can result when both these goals are pursued at the same time, because forested land is protected for carbon storage, while agricultural land is expanded (often into forests) to provide sufficient land for growing food. There are several ways in which both goals, forest protection and food security might be achieved together, and we focus on assessing the potential of two approaches which can potentially spare forested land. These approaches are: increasing production on existing agricultural land, and expanding agriculture onto non-forested available land. Emerging phenomena such as Large Scale Land Acquisitions (LSLA, otherwise known as land grabs) add to the complexity of the challenge, and we discuss the potential threat which LSLA has on forested land, and how to avoid LSLA for agriculture in forested land. A transformational change of the land sector is proposed to ensure that both goals can be met. Several ingredients are required to achieve a transformational change, and linking REDD+ to Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) approaches is discussed. CSA interventions are those which are able to reduce emissions or store carbon while increasing the adaptive capacity of agriculture to climate change and increasing food production.
Chapter 2 provides new estimates of emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in 91 countries using a data-driven approach. Latin America was found to have the highest emissions, and these emissions peaked between 2000 and 2005 and then declined. Emissions in Africa has been rising since 1990, with the countries in the Congo Basin being particular contributors to this rise in emissions. Uncertainties of these country emission estimates are ±62.4% (average for 1990-2015), and emissions from Asia are the most uncertain. The uncertainty of the input datasets was used to estimate the uncertainty of the emissions estimate, and the area of deforestation, and fraction which agriculture is driving deforestation were found to be the largest contributors to uncertainty of the emissions estimates. Increasing the certainty of these two data types should be a priority, and will lead to an increased certainty for the emissions estimates.
Chapter 3 compares direct and indirect emissions from agriculture at the national level, where direct are emissions from existing agricultural land, and indirect emissions are those from agriculture-driven deforestation. A decision tree was produced which can be used to guide decision making by identifying priority countries for mitigation initiatives. The decision tree uses several indicators related to the potential for mitigation, enabling environment, and associated risks to livelihoods to identify countries which have the most potential for the mitigation of either direct or indirect agricultural emissions. Six priority countries are highlighted as having a good mitigation potential for agriculture-driven deforestation while having a good enabling environment (in this case engagement in REDD+) and which also have low risks to livelihoods from the implementation of interventions in the agriculture sector. They are: Panama, Paraguay, Ecuador, Mexico, Malaysia and Peru.
Chapter 4 focusses on LSLA, and their potential impacts on forests. A country level analysis was carried out, and the characteristics which are typically found in countries which have LSLA were described. Countries which have these characteristics and which do not yet have LSLA are for example considered to be at risk from LSLA. Countries which have LSLA or are at risk from LSLA were assessed for the risk of LSLA-driven deforestation. Other key targets for interventions to reduce deforestation are highlighted, such as those countries with large numbers of LSLA and which already have a lot of agriculture-driven deforestation. The potential conflicts between LSLA and REDD+ are discussed, and investor-side policies such as zero deforestation pledges from commodity producers, green procurement policies, and initiatives such as the Roundtable For Sustainable Palm Oil are highlighted as potential solutions to these conflicts. Lessons learned from implementing REDD+, which has a number of shared characteristics with LSLA, can be applied in order to reduce the negative impacts of LSLA.
Chapter 5 discusses the potential for forest-land sparing interventions to be implemented in the agriculture sector. A transformative change which incorporates multiple interventions and brings together the forest and agriculture sectors is proposed. Climate Smart Agriculture approaches should be considered, but only when they do not lead to expansion of agriculture into forests. The need for supporting policies to avoid this occurring is discussed. Policy coherence is a barrier to this change as policies favouring both conversion to agriculture (including those which enable LSLA), and forest protection can occur in the same place. The use of the landscape approach as a platform to address this challenge is discussed. Landscape-level emissions accounting, which takes into consideration both direct and indirect emissions from agriculture, can be used to evaluate the impact of mitigation interventions across sectors. The need for transparency in the land sector, in relation to emissions reporting in particular is introduced, and is a key requirement for access to carbon finance which can potentially support forest land-sparing interventions.
Chapter 6 concludes the thesis, and discusses the wider implications for this work. The link between the findings in this thesis and the SDGs is explored. The SDGs may lead to future competition for land due to goals which focus on reducing hunger, protecting forests and increasing the proportion of renewable energy unless action is taken. Future data needs are discussed, as although we provide (in chapter 2) new data on agriculture-driven deforestation, they are still uncertain and data on potential future trends in agriculture-driven deforestation are not available. The need for consideration of emissions related to the impact of agriculture on forest degradation and on carbon losses in soils is another data gap, and relates to recent efforts to restore degraded land – which could be one of the most promising mitigation efforts which can also support the production of more food for growing global populations. The urgent need to address climate change highlights the opportunities in the land sector, not only to mitigate emissions, but also to promote food security.
|Comparative assessment of first generation restoration activities in Latin America to support sub-national restoration efforts for generating emissions reductions
Romijn, J.E. ; Coppus, R. ; Herold, M. ; Verchot, Louis V. - \ 2017
In: 125th IUFRO Anniversary Congress - Book of Abstracts. - Freiburg : Forstliche Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt (FVA) - ISBN 9783902762887 - p. 420 - 420.
Land degradation is a serious global problem, with economic consequences as demands for food, feed, fuel, and ecosystem services increase. Restoration of degraded lands is an important component of climate change mitigation and adaptation schemes, poverty reduction efforts, and ensuring food security. The 20x20 initiative aims to bring 20 million hectares of land in Latin America and the Caribbean into restoration by 2020. The purpose of this research is to identify institutional and technical arrangements that lead to successful implementation of restoration activities and to improve understanding of what works and what does not in restoration. We start by mapping and producing a database of restoration activities from the 20x20 initiative and characterize these by populating the database with detailed information on the approaches taken by the different activities. Subsequently we overlay the location of the activities on maps of land degradation, deforestation, biomass, emission factors, and emissions hotspots to analyse the potential for environmental impact of the activities. The analysis will enable us to understand how projects are addressing the underlying drivers of land degradation and if they are likely to have longer-term impacts. We will give recommendations on how restoration can contribute to UNFCCC objectives and SDG goals.
An expert system model for mapping tropical wetlands and peatlands reveals South America as the largest contributor
Gumbricht, Thomas ; Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria ; Verchot, Louis ; Herold, Martin ; Wittmann, Florian ; Householder, Ethan ; Herold, Nadine ; Murdiyarso, Daniel - \ 2017
Global Change Biology 23 (2017)9. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 3581 - 3599.
Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands’ services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, interannual flood variability and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: (1) long-term water supply exceeding atmospheric water demand; (2) annually or seasonally water-logged soils; and (3) a geomorphological position where water is supplied and retained. Tropical and subtropical wetlands estimates reach 4.7 million km2 (Mkm2). In line with current understanding, the American continent is the major contributor (45%), and Brazil, with its Amazonian interfluvial region, contains the largest tropical wetland area (800,720 km2). Our model suggests, however, unprecedented extents and volumes of peatland in the tropics (1.7 Mkm2 and 7,268 (6,076–7,368) km3), which more than threefold current estimates. Unlike current understanding, our estimates suggest that South America and not Asia contributes the most to tropical peatland area and volume (ca. 44% for both) partly related to some yet unaccounted extended deep deposits but mainly to extended but shallow peat in the Amazon Basin. Brazil leads the peatland area and volume contribution. Asia hosts 38% of both tropical peat area and volume with Indonesia as the main regional contributor and still the holder of the deepest and most extended peat areas in the tropics. Africa hosts more peat than previously reported but climatic and topographic contexts leave it as the least peat-forming continent. Our results suggest large biases in our current understanding of the distribution, area and volumes of tropical peat and their continental contributions.
Spatial variability of soil N2O and CO2 fluxes in different topographic positions in a tropical montane forest in Kenya
Arias-navarro, C. ; Díaz-pinés, E. ; Klatt, S. ; Brandt, P. ; Rufino, M.C. ; Butterbach-bahl, K. ; Verchot, L.V. - \ 2017
Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 122 (2017)3. - ISSN 2169-8953 - p. 514 - 527.
Quantifying and understanding the small-scale variability of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission are essential for reporting accurate ecosystem greenhouse gas budgets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial pattern of soil CO2 and N2O emissions and their relation to topography in a tropical montane forest. We measured fluxes of N2O and CO2 from 810 sampling locations across valley bottom, midslope, and ridgetop positions under controlled laboratory conditions. We further calculated the minimum number of samples necessary to provide best estimates of soil N2O and CO2 fluxes at the plot level. Topography exhibited a major influence on N2O emissions, with soils at midslope position emitting significantly less than at ridgetops and valley bottoms, but no consistent effect of topography on soil CO2 emissions was found. The high spatial variation of N2O and CO2 fluxes was further increased by changes in vegetation and soil properties resulting from human disturbance associated with charcoal production. Soil N2O and CO2 fluxes showed no spatial pattern at the plot level, with “hot spots” strongly contributing to the total emissions (10% of the soil cores represented 73 and 50% of the total N2O and CO2 emissions, respectively). Thus, a large number of samples are needed to obtain robust estimates of N2O and CO2 fluxes. Our results highlight the complex biogeochemical cycling in tropical montane forests, and the need to carefully address it in research experiments to robustly estimate soil CO2 and N2O fluxes at the ecosystem scale.
Large scale land acquisitions and REDD+: a synthesis of conflicts and opportunities
Carter, Sarah ; Manceur, Ameur M. ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Hermans, Kathleen ; Herold, Martin ; Verchot, Louis V. - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)3. - ISSN 1748-9326 - 12 p.
Large scale land acquisitions (LSLA), and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) are both land based phenomena which when occurring in the same area, can compete with each other for land. A quantitative analysis of country characteristics revealed that land available for agriculture, accessibility, and political stability are key explanatory factors for a country being targeted for LSLA. Surprisingly LSLA occur in countries with lower accessibility. Countries with good land availability, poor accessibility and political stability may become future targets if they do not already have LSLA. Countries which high levels of agriculture-driven deforestation and LSLA, should develop interventions which reduce forest loss driven either directly or indirectly by LSLA as part of their REDD+ strategies. Both host country and investor-side policies have been identified which could be used more widely to reduce conflicts between LSLA and REDD+. Findings from this research highlight the need for and can inform the development of national and international policies on land acquisitions including green acquisitions such as REDD+. Land management must be considered with all its objectives—including food security, biodiversity conservation, and climate change mitigation—in a coherent strategy which engages relevant stakeholders. This is not currently occurring and might be a key ingredient to achieve the targets under the Sustainable Development Goals 2 and 15 and 16 (related to food security and sustainable agriculture and the protection of forests) among others.
Denial of long-term issues with agriculture on tropical peatlands will have devastating consequences
Wijedasa, Lahiru S. ; Jauhiainen, Jyrki ; Könönen, Mari ; Lampela, Maija ; Vasander, Harri ; Leblanc, Marie-Claire ; Evers, Stephanie ; Smith, Thomas E.L. ; Yule, Catherine M. ; Varkkey, Helena ; Lupascu, Massimo ; Parish, Faizal ; Singleton, Ian ; Clements, Gopalasamy R. ; Aziz, Sheema Abdul ; Harrison, Mark E. ; Cheyne, Susan ; Anshari, Gusti Z. ; Meijaard, Erik ; Goldstein, Jenny E. ; Waldron, Susan ; Hergoualc'h, Kristell ; Dommain, Rene ; Frolking, Steve ; Evans, Christopher D. ; Posa, Mary Rose C. ; Glaser, Paul H. ; Suryadiputra, Nyoman ; Lubis, Reza ; Santika, Truly ; Padfield, Rory ; Kurnianto, Sofyan ; Hadisiswoyo, Panut ; Lim, Teck Wyn ; Page, Susan E. ; Gauci, Vincent ; Meer, Peter J. Van Der; Buckland, Helen ; Garnier, Fabien ; Samuel, Marshall K. ; Choo, Liza Nuriati Lim Kim ; O'reilly, Patrick ; Warren, Matthew ; Suksuwan, Surin ; Sumarga, Elham ; Jain, Anuj ; Laurance, William F. ; Couwenberg, John ; Joosten, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Hooijer, Aljosja ; Malins, Chris ; Cochrane, Mark A. ; Perumal, Balu ; Siegert, Florian ; Peh, Kelvin S.H. ; Comeau, Louis-Pierre ; Verchot, Louis ; Harvey, Charles F. ; Cobb, Alex ; Jaafar, Zeehan ; Wösten, Henk ; Manuri, Solichin ; Müller, Moritz ; Giesen, Wim ; Phelps, Jacob ; Yong, Ding Li ; Silvius, Marcel ; Wedeux, Béatrice M.M. ; Hoyt, Alison ; Osaki, Mitsuru ; Hirano, Takashi ; Takahashi, Hidenori ; Kohyama, Takashi S. ; Haraguchi, Akira ; Nugroho, Nunung P. ; Coomes, David A. ; Quoi, Le Phat ; Dohong, Alue ; Gunawan, Haris ; Gaveau, David L.A. ; Langner, Andreas ; Lim, Felix K.S. ; Edwards, David P. ; Giam, Xingli ; Werf, Guido Van Der; Carmenta, Rachel ; Verwer, Caspar C. ; Gibson, Luke ; Gandois, Laure ; Graham, Laura Linda Bozena ; Regalino, Jhanson ; Wich, Serge A. ; Rieley, Jack ; Kettridge, Nicholas ; Brown, Chloe ; Pirard, Romain ; Moore, Sam ; Capilla, B.R. ; Ballhorn, Uwe ; Ho, Hua Chew ; Hoscilo, Agata ; Lohberger, Sandra ; Evans, Theodore A. ; Yulianti, Nina ; Blackham, Grace ; Onrizal, O. ; Husson, Simon ; Murdiyarso, Daniel ; Pangala, Sunita ; Cole, Lydia E.S. ; Tacconi, Luca ; Segah, Hendrik ; Tonoto, Prayoto ; Lee, Janice S.H. ; Schmilewski, Gerald ; Wulffraat, Stephan ; Putra, Erianto Indra ; Cattau, Megan E. ; Clymo, R.S. ; Morrison, Ross ; Mujahid, Aazani ; Miettinen, Jukka ; Liew, Soo Chin ; Valpola, Samu ; Wilson, David ; Arcy, Laura D'; Gerding, Michiel ; Sundari, Siti ; Thornton, Sara A. ; Kalisz, Barbara ; Chapman, Stephen J. ; Su, Ahmad Suhaizi Mat ; Basuki, Imam ; Itoh, Masayuki ; Traeholt, Carl ; Sloan, Sean ; Sayok, Alexander K. ; Andersen, Roxane - \ 2017
Global Change Biology 23 (2017)3. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 977 - 982.
The first International Peat Congress (IPC) held in the tropics – in Kuching (Malaysia) – brought together over 1000 international peatland scientists and industrial partners from across the world (“International Peat Congress with over 1000 participants!,” 2016). The congress covered all aspects of peatland ecosystems and their management, with a strong focus on the environmental, societal and economic challenges associated with contemporary large-scale agricultural conversion of tropical peat.
Reducing emissions from agriculture to meet the 2 °C target
Wollenberg, Eva ; Richards, Meryl ; Smith, Pete ; Havlík, Petr ; Obersteiner, Michael ; Tubiello, Francesco N. ; Herold, Martin ; Gerber, Pierre ; Carter, Sarah ; Reisinger, Andrew ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Dickie, Amy ; Neufeldt, Henry ; Sander, Björn O. ; Wassmann, Reiner ; Sommer, Rolf ; Amonette, James E. ; Falcucci, Alessandra ; Herrero, Mario ; Opio, Carolyn ; Roman-cuesta, Rosa Maria ; Stehfest, Elke ; Westhoek, Henk ; Ortiz-Monasterio, Ivan ; Sapkota, Tek ; Rufino, Mariana C. ; Thornton, Philip K. ; Verchot, Louis V. ; West, Paul C. ; Soussana, Jean-François ; Baedeker, Tobias ; Sadler, Marc ; Vermeulen, Sonja ; Campbell, Bruce M. - \ 2016
Global Change Biology 22 (2016)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 3859 - 3864.
More than 100 countries pledged to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Yet technical information about how much mitigation is needed in the sector vs. how much is feasible remains poor. We identify a preliminary global target for reducing emissions from agriculture of ~1 GtCO2e yr−1 by 2030 to limit warming in 2100 to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Yet plausible agricultural development pathways with mitigation cobenefits deliver only 21–40% of needed mitigation. The target indicates that more transformative technical and policy options will be needed, such as methane inhibitors and finance for new practices. A more comprehensive target for the 2 °C limit should be developed to include soil carbon and agriculture-related mitigation options. Excluding agricultural emissions from mitigation targets and plans will increase the cost of mitigation in other sectors or reduce the feasibility of meeting the 2 °C limit.
Multi-gas and multi-source comparisons of six land use emission datasets and AFOLU estimates in the Fifth Assessment Report, for the tropics for 2000–2005
Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria ; Herold, Martin ; Rufino, Mariana C. ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Rossi, Simone ; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus ; Ogle, Stephen ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Verchot, Louis ; Martius, Christopher ; Bruin, Sytze de - \ 2016
Biogeosciences 13 (2016)20. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 5799 - 5819.
The Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector contributes with ca. 20–25 % of global anthropogenic emissions (2010), making it a key component of any climate change mitigation strategy. AFOLU estimates, however, remain highly uncertain, jeopardizing the mitigation effectiveness of this sector. Comparisons of global AFOLU emissions have shown divergences of up to 25 %, urging for improved understanding of the reasons behind these differences. Here we compare a variety of AFOLU emission datasets and estimates given in the Fifth Assessment Report for the tropics (2000–2005) to identify plausible explanations for the differences in (i) aggregated gross AFOLU emissions, and (ii) disaggregated emissions by sources and gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). We also aim to (iii) identify countries with low agreement among AFOLU datasets to navigate research efforts. The datasets are FAOSTAT (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division), EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research), the newly developed AFOLU “Hotspots”, “Houghton”, “Baccini”, and EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) datasets. Aggregated gross emissions were similar for all databases for the AFOLU sector: 8.2 (5.5–12.2), 8.4, and 8.0 Pg CO2 eq. yr−1 (for Hotspots, FAOSTAT, and EDGAR respectively), forests reached 6.0 (3.8–10), 5.9, 5.9, and 5.4 Pg CO2 eq. yr−1 (Hotspots, FAOSTAT, EDGAR, and Houghton), and agricultural sectors were with 1.9 (1.5–2.5), 2.5, 2.1, and 2.0 Pg CO2 eq. yr−1 (Hotspots, FAOSTAT, EDGAR, and EPA). However, this agreement was lost when disaggregating the emissions by sources, continents, and gases, particularly for the forest sector, with fire leading the differences. Agricultural emissions were more homogeneous, especially from livestock, while those from croplands were the most diverse. CO2 showed the largest differences among the datasets. Cropland soils and enteric fermentation led to the smaller N2O and CH4 differences. Disagreements are explained by differences in conceptual frameworks (carbon-only vs. multi-gas assessments, definitions, land use vs. land cover, etc.), in methods (tiers, scales, compliance with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines, legacies, etc.) and in assumptions (carbon neutrality of certain emissions, instantaneous emissions release, etc.) which call for more complete and transparent documentation for all the available datasets. An enhanced dialogue between the carbon (CO2) and the AFOLU (multi-gas) communities is needed to reduce discrepancies of land use estimates.
Hotspots of gross emissions from the land use sector: patterns, uncertainties, and leading emission sources for the period 2000–2005 in the tropics
Roman-cuesta, Rosa Maria ; Rufino, Mariana C. ; Herold, Martin ; Butterbach-bahl, Klaus ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Herrero, Mario ; Ogle, Stephen ; Li, Changsheng ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Verchot, Louis ; Martius, Christopher ; Stuiver, John ; Bruin, Sytze De - \ 2016
Biogeosciences 13 (2016)14. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 4253 - 4269.
According to the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), emissions must be cut by 41–72 % below 2010 levels by 2050 for a likely chance of containing the global mean temperature increase to 2 °C. The AFOLU sector (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use) contributes roughly a quarter ( ∼ 10–12 Pg CO2e yr−1) of the net anthropogenic GHG emissions mainly from deforestation, fire, wood harvesting, and agricultural emissions including croplands, paddy rice, and livestock. In spite of the importance of this sector, it is unclear where the regions with hotspots of AFOLU emissions are and how uncertain these emissions are. Here we present a novel, spatially comparable dataset containing annual mean estimates of gross AFOLU emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O), associated uncertainties, and leading emission sources, in a spatially disaggregated manner (0.5°) for the tropics for the period 2000–2005. Our data highlight the following: (i) the existence of AFOLU emissions hotspots on all continents, with particular importance of evergreen rainforest deforestation in Central and South America, fire in dry forests in Africa, and both peatland emissions and agriculture in Asia; (ii) a predominant contribution of forests and CO2 to the total AFOLU emissions (69 %) and to their uncertainties (98 %); (iii) higher gross fluxes from forests, which coincide with higher uncertainties, making agricultural hotspots appealing for effective mitigation action; and (iv) a lower contribution of non-CO2 agricultural emissions to the total gross emissions (ca. 25 %), with livestock (15.5 %) and rice (7 %) leading the emissions. Gross AFOLU tropical emissions of 8.0 (5.5–12.2) were in the range of other databases (8.4 and 8.0 Pg CO2e yr−1 in FAOSTAT and the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) respectively), but we offer a spatially detailed benchmark for monitoring progress in reducing emissions from the land sector in the tropics. The location of the AFOLU hotspots of emissions and data on their associated uncertainties will assist national policy makers, investors, and other decision-makers who seek to understand the mitigation potential of the AFOLU sector.
Remote sensing of land use and carbon losses following tropical deforestation
Sy, V. de - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Jan Clevers; L. Verchot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578036 - 142
remote sensing - tropical forests - land use - carbon - losses - environmental degradation - forest monitoring - remote sensing - tropische bossen - landgebruik - koolstof - verliezen - milieuafbraak - bosmonitoring
The new Paris Agreement, approved by 195 countries under the auspice of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), calls for limiting global warming to “well below" 2°Celsius. An important part of the climate agreement relates to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+) in non-Annex I (mostly developing) countries. Over the last decades the growing demand for food, fibre and fuel has accelerated the pace of forest loss. In consequence, tropical deforestation and forest degradation are responsible for a large portion of global carbon emissions to the atmosphere, and destroy an important global carbon sink that is critical in future climate change mitigation.
Within the REDD+ framework, participating countries are given incentives to develop national strategies and implementation plans that reduce emissions and enhance sinks from forests and to invest in low carbon development pathways. For REDD+ activities to be effective, accurate and robust methodologies to estimate emissions from deforestation and forest degradation are crucial. Remote sensing is an essential REDD+ observation tool, and in combination with ground measurements it provides an objective, practical and cost-effective solution for developing and maintaining REDD+ monitoring systems. The remote sensing monitoring objective for REDD+ is not only to map deforestation but also to support policy formulation and implementation. Identifying and addressing drivers and activities causing forest carbon change is crucial in this respect. Despite the importance of identifying and addressing drivers, quantitative information on these drivers, and the related carbon emissions, is scarce at the national level.
The main objective of this thesis is to explore the role of remote sensing for monitoring tropical forests for REDD+ in general, and for assessing land use and related carbon emissions linked to drivers of tropical deforestation in particular. To achieve this, this thesis investigates the following research questions:
What is the current role and potential of remote sensing technologies and methodologies for monitoring tropical forests for REDD+ and for assessing drivers of deforestation?
What is the current state of knowledge on drivers of deforestation and degradation in REDD+ countries?
What are land use patterns and related carbon emissions following deforestation, capitalising on available land use and biomass remote sensing data?
The research conducted in this PhD thesis contributes to the understanding of the role of remote sensing in forest monitoring for REDD+ and in the assessment of drivers of deforestation. In addition, this thesis contributes to the improvement of spatial and temporal quantification of land use and related carbon emissions linked to drivers of tropical deforestation. The results and insights described herein are valuable for ongoing REDD+ forest monitoring efforts and capacity development as REDD+ moves closer to becoming an operational mitigation mechanism.
Addressing emissions from agriculture and agriculture-driven deforestation: opportunities for land-sparing and climate-smart agriculture
Carter, S.L. ; Herold, M. ; Rufino, M.C. ; Neumann, K. ; Kooistra, L. ; Bruin, S. de; Avitabile, V. ; Sy, V. de; Verchot, Louis V. - \ 2015
In: Our common future under climate change. - - p. 296 - 297.
|Drivers of deforestation in REDD+ countries: Results from a pan-tropical remote sensing analysis
Sy, V. de; Herold, M. ; Achard, F. ; Beuchle, R. ; Besnard, S. ; Clevers, J.G.P.W. ; Lindquist, E. ; Verchot, Louis V. ; Wijaya, A. - \ 2015
|Drivers of deforestation in South America: first results from a pan-tropical remote sensing analysis
Sy, V. de; Herold, M. ; Beuchle, R. ; Besnard, S. ; Clevers, J.G.P.W. ; Lindquist, E. ; Verchot, Louis V. ; Wijaya, A. - \ 2015