The pebble in the shoe : Gods on the run, the public, and the politics of life on the Nayarit coast, Mexico
Regalado, Francisca López ; Verschoor, Gerard - \ 2020
Journal of Rural Studies 78 (2020). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 292 - 303.
Nayarit - Nayéeri - Ontologies - Politics of life - The public - Wixaritari
This article aims to describe and analyse the emergence and constitution of the public in the coastal town of San Blas, Nayarit, Mexico. Based on Rancière's notion of politics, Dewey's concept of the public, and relational approaches to ontology, we draw on ethnographic, archival and interview research to follow the tracks of human and non-human actors laying competing claims on a site considered to have different characteristics within different ontologies. We show how the worlds of progress that potentially link the site to real estate profits, tourism and fisheries development enter into conflict with those of Wixaritari and Nayéeri Indigenous peoples defending an alliance between nature and spirituality. Enacted in and through the same as their opponents' materiality, Indigenous renderings of the conflict work as a pebble in the shoe for traditional politics. In particular, we focus on the way in which the site -and its entities-becomes public and political as it gradually surrounds itself with an ontologically heterogeneous audience, and how this is dealt with in practice. We argue that, as an effect, the notion of ‘the political’ changes to encompass not only a politics of who, but also a politics of what –of life itself. We conclude that the public emerges from, and is constituted by, ontological difference.
Insects for peace
Barragán-Fonseca, Katherine Y. ; Barragán-Fonseca, Karol B. ; Verschoor, Gerard ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Dicke, Marcel - \ 2020
Current Opinion in Insect Science 40 (2020). - ISSN 2214-5745 - p. 85 - 93.
Insects such as the black soldier fly (BSF) are a nutritious feed component for livestock with high protein levels. BSF can be reared on a wide range of organic residual streams. This allows for local production within a circular agriculture, decoupling livestock production from import of expensive feed components, such as fishmeal or soymeal. Rearing of BSF can be done by smallholder farmers, thus contributing to their livelihood, economic sustainability and social status. Smallholder farmers contribute importantly to food security, which is a prerequisite for a stable society. In armed conflicts, smallholder farmers are usually the first to suffer. In countries recovering from conflict, agricultural development should focus on restoring food production by smallholder farmers, improving their socio-economic position, thereby contributing to sustainable development goals 2 (zero hunger) and 16 (peace and justice). Here, we focus on these SDGs with an example of reintegration of ex-combatants as smallholder insect producers in post-conflict Colombia.
Effects of Dutch livestock production on human health and the environment
Post, Pim M. ; Hogerwerf, Lenny ; Bokkers, Eddie A.M. ; Baumann, Bert ; Fischer, Paul ; Rutledge-Jonker, Susanna ; Hilderink, Henk ; Hollander, Anne ; Hoogsteen, Martine J.J. ; Liebman, Alex ; Mangen, Marie-Josée J. ; Manuel, Henk Jan ; Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Poll, Ric van; Posthuma, Leo ; Pul, Addo van; Rutgers, Michiel ; Schmitt, Heike ; Steenbergen, Jim van; Sterk, Hendrika A.M. ; Verschoor, Anja ; Vries, Wilco de; Wallace, Robert G. ; Wichink Kruit, Roy ; Lebret, Erik ; Boer, Imke J.M. de - \ 2020
Science of the Total Environment 737 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
Animal production - Climate impact - Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) - Environmental impact - Livestock farming
Observed multiple adverse effects of livestock production have led to increasing calls for more sustainable livestock production. Quantitative analysis of adverse effects, which can guide public debate and policy development in this area, is limited and generally scattered across environmental, human health, and other science domains. The aim of this study was to bring together and, where possible, quantify and aggregate the effects of national-scale livestock production on 17 impact categories, ranging from impacts of particulate matter, emerging infectious diseases and odor annoyance to airborne nitrogen deposition on terrestrial nature areas and greenhouse gas emissions. Effects were estimated and scaled to total Dutch livestock production, with system boundaries including feed production, manure management and transport, but excluding slaughtering, retail and consumption. Effects were expressed using eight indicators that directly express Impact in the sense of the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response framework, while the remaining 14 express Pressures or States. Results show that livestock production may contribute both positively and negatively to human health with a human disease burden (expressed in disability-adjusted life years) of up to 4% for three different health effects: those related to particulate matter, zoonoses, and occupational accidents. The contribution to environmental impact ranges from 2% for consumptive water use in the Netherlands to 95% for phosphorus transfer to soils, and extends beyond Dutch borders. While some aggregation across impact categories was possible, notably for burden of disease estimates, further aggregation of disparate indicators would require normative value judgement. Despite difficulty of aggregation, the assessment shows that impacts receive a different contribution of different animal sectors. While some of our results are country-specific, the overall approach is generic and can be adapted and tuned according to specific contexts and information needs in other regions, to allow informed decision making across a broad range of impact categories.
Doorstralen van verse tuinbouwproducten
Helsen, H.H.M. ; Hogeveen-van Echtelt, Esther ; Rozen, K. van; Verschoor, J.A. ; Vijn, M.P. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 4 p.
Phytotec - fytosanitair - doorstralen - tuinbouwproducten
Door toenemende wereldhandel nemen fytosanitaire risico’s toe. Ongewenste import van vreemde plaag organismen kan leiden tot grote directe en indirecte schade, en kan onomkeerbare gevolgen hebben.
Agroecological peasant territories: resistance and existence in the struggle for emancipation in Brazil
Berg, Leonardo van den; Goris, M.B. ; Behagel, J.H. ; Verschoor, G. ; Turnhout, E. ; Botelho, M.I.V. ; Silva Lopes, I. - \ 2019
The Journal of Peasant Studies (2019). - ISSN 0306-6150
Agri-food system transformation - food movements - peasant movements - upscaling agroecology
We explore peasant territories as an emancipatory alternative in the context of authoritarian populism and neo-liberalism by focusing on two agroecological peasant territories in Brazil. We argue that territories harbour socio-ecological, cultural-political and politico-institutional bases that engender different forms of resistance and existence. Peasant territories build and defend emancipatory alternatives by creating self-governed knowledge and production systems, by problematising and mobilising against exploitative relations, and by transforming parts of the state. We conclude that peasant territories provide a basis for emancipatory transformation. What is more, they can be considered as emancipatory alternatives in themselves.
Tussenevaluatie van de nota ‘Gezonde Groei, Duurzame Oogst’ : deelproject Milieu
Verschoor, A. ; Zwartkruis, J. ; Hoogsteen, M. ; Scheepmaker, J. ; Jong, F. de; Knaap, Y. van der; Leendertse, P. ; Boeke, S. ; Vijftigschild, R. ; Kruijne, R. ; Tamis, W. - \ 2019
Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (RIVM rapport 2019-0044) - 167
Resignification practices of youth in zona da mata, Brazil in the transition toward agroecology
Goris, Margriet ; Berg, Leonardo van den; Silva Lopes, Ivonete da; Behagel, Jelle ; Verschoor, Gerard ; Turnhout, Esther - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
Agroecology - Framing strategies - Gender - Repeasantization - Resignification - Social movement - Transition - Youth
Youth play an important role in the transition toward agroecology through practices of resignification. This article discusses how young people resignify agroecology by taking part in education initiatives that originate from social movements, and that aim to strengthen young peoples' abilities to reflect on their practices and realities. We used action research to create films with young agroecologists in the region of Zona da Mata Mineira, Brazil. Our analysis draws on films, interviews and participatory observations made during thirteen workshops to visualize the agroecological practices and visions of youth. We explore how social frames-e.g., the specific ways in which people understand reality-shape practices and how these frames are actively changed by youth. The findings show how frames are changed during (1) frame amplification by building on existing local values; (2) frame bridging by linking with other social movements; (3) frame extension by inclusion of new frames; and (4) frame transformation by altering the meaning of agroecology. We find that young people who engage with agroecology contribute to processes of repeasantization that rework local culture to be more inclusive of different populations, generations and genders, and that they foster an appreciation of the interconnectedness of humans and nature.
Aandachtspunten oogst en bewaring Conference en Elstar
Hogeveen-van Echtelt, Esther ; Geijn, F.G. van de; Verschoor, J.A. ; Wild, Hans de; Wenneker, M. ; Peeters, Jan - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research - 15 p.
Ingestion and chronic effects of car tyre tread particles on freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates
Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E. ; Ruijter, V. de; Mintenig, Svenja ; Verschoor, A. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Technology 52 (2018)23. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 13986 - 13994.
Micronized particles released from car tires have been found to contribute substantially to microplastic pollution, triggering the need to evaluate their effects on biota. In the present study, four freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates were exposed for 28 days to tread particles (TP; 10-586 µm) made from used car tires at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 and 10% sediment dry weight. No adverse effects were found on the survival, growth and feeding rate of Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus, the survival and growth of Tubifex spp., and the number of worms and growth of Lumbriculus variegatus. A method to quantify TP numbers inside biota was developed and here applied to G. pulex. In bodies and faces of G. pulex exposed to 10% car tire TP, averages of 2.5 and 4 tread particles per organism were found, respectively. Chemical analysis showed that, although car tire TP had a high intrinsic zinc content, only small fractions of the heavy metals present were bioavailable. PAHs in the TP-sediment mixtures also remained below existing toxicity thresholds. This combination of results suggests that real in situ effects of TP and TP-associated contaminants when dispersed in sediments are probably lower than those reported after forced leaching of contaminants from car tire particles.
Editorial: Algal technologies for wastewater treatment and resource recovery :
Muñoz, Raul ; Temmink, Hardy ; Verschoor, Anthony M. ; Steen, Peter Van Der - \ 2018
Water Science and Technology 78 (2018)1. - ISSN 0273-1223 - 2 p.
Fytosanitaire na-oogst behandel- en detectietechnieken voor plaagorganismen in tuinbouw
Qiu, Y. ; Hogeveen-van Echtelt, Esther ; Verschoor, J.A. ; Rozen, K. van; Ruizendaal, J.L. ; Helsen, H.H.M. ; Booij, C.J.H. ; Dam, M.F.N. van; Sluis, A.A. van der; Pekkeriet, E.J. ; Vreeburg, P.J.M. ; Vijn, M.P. ; Spoorenberg, P.M. - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research (Rapport WPR 751) - 81 p.
|2018 Huamentong Fruit Losses
Verschoor, Jan - \ 2018
Microalgae as renewable raw material for bioproducts : identification and biochemical composition of microalgae from a raceway pond in The Netherlands
Broek, L.A.M. van den; Wagemakers, M.J.M. ; Verschoor, A.M. ; Frissen, A.E. ; Haveren, J. van; Blaauw, R. ; Mooibroek, H. - \ 2018
In: Biomass as Renewable Raw Material for Bioproducts of High Tech-Value / Popa, Valentin, Volf, Irina, Elsevier - ISBN 9780444637741 - p. 39 - 68.
Microalgae contain valuable lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates that can be used for food and nonfood applications. Here we describe the general aspects of the production, identification, and biorefinery of microalgae. In addition, as an illustrative example we present data obtained over the course of one year from two neighboring seminatural open raceway ponds located in Borculo in the eastern part of the Netherlands. A stable community developed in these ponds and the green microalgae species dynamics and lipid, protein, and carbohydrate profiles of the biomass were investigated. Throughout the year, Desmodesmus species were the most abundant green microalgae present. The biomass harvested from the raceway ponds showed a rather similar lipid, protein, and carbohydrate content over the year. Glucose and mannose were the dominant neutral sugars, and linolenic acid (C18:3) was the major fatty acid in the oil fraction.
Going for the dough : Engaging governmental funds in the Ciénega de Zacapu, Mexico
Servin Juárez, Fidencio - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L.E. Visser, co-promotor(en): G.M. Verschoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438292 - 167
This study follows a planned development intervention involving greenhouse production systems for tomatoes. The intervention played out in Mexico, where the Planning Sub- Committee for Regional Development (SUPLADER) promoted a strategy for the "development" of the Zacapu region in Michoacán, from 2002 to 2005. The intervention is illustrated through a detailed, in-depth ethnographic case study of the way in which the Unión de Invernaderos Ruta de la Libertad (a USPR or Union of Rural Producers Association) sought to materialize a greenhouse project.
Using an actor-oriented perspective (Long, 2001; Nuijten, 2001; Diego, 1997) and the concepts of actor’s agency, networks, associations, collectives and organizing processes, the study aims to understand the character of intervention, and shows how programs and development projects serve different purposes – purposes which symbiotically relate to the prevailing social conditions. As a general conclusion, I argue that what is called “the dough” (la lana) is what drives the dynamics of development intervention. While important, it is central to understand the different roles “the dough” plays in these intervention settings: for planners, it is the means to accomplish development, whereas for project beneficiaries it is a goal in itself.
Chapter 1 elaborates on the general context of planned intervention in Michoacán’s Zacapu region, delineates the theoretical framework, presents the main research question (How do stakeholders organize themselves around the greenhouse project, and how do they redefine the view of planned development by the local government?) and elaborates on the methodology employed.
Chapter 2 describes the organizing processes underlying implementation of the greenhouse project in the Zacapu - Ciénega region. It explains how, in order to acquire resources for the project, stakeholders organized into groups, forming Rural Production Associations (SPRs) and Unions of Rural Producers’ Associations (USPRs). As a result, a total of 28 SPRs were formed. For the most part, members of these SPRs had extensive, prior experience in organizing and participating in programs similar to those promoted by SUPLADER.
Chapter 3 describes the practices of the eight groups (SPR) who got no resources from SUPLADER and seek to compensate for an initial investment from the Alliance for the Countryside (Alianza). To complete the project file, the groups were linked to government agencies, municipalities and communities as well as with external agents (firms) to use the register as a professional services provider (PSP) and enter the file to the Alianza program. In addition, power differences and conflict relationships were evident (Lukes, 1974); conditions that led to negotiation (Diego, 1997).
Advisor firms were considered necessary for the negotiations since their capabilities were required and considered essential for the expected benefit of the Asociación, although they appeared to be a very powerful party. Despite the regulations established by the State to exercise governmental programs, the parties responsible for exercising them applied ambiguous criteria.
Chapter 4 describes the development of an ideal configuration of greenhouses that included technological, social and cultural elements associated with safety practices, automation and demanding consumers located in an international market. This perception was far from the project conditions of greenhouses in La Ciénega; however, it did not prevent generating expectations among the SPRs. For these actors, the greenhouse became an alternative livelihood, income, and development opportunity.
To interpret the processes described I used Latour’s (2008) notion of a sociology of associations; this allowed me to interpret how actor-networks were incorporated in the greenhouse project.
Chapter 5 describes a breakaway attempt from the Asociación spearheaded by 17 SPRs that chose to build their greenhouses with an alternative hardware supplier (ACEA). To obtain the necessary funds new negotiations were started with a range of agencies. The move eventually strengthened the Asociación and its institutional embeddedness.
In Chapter 6, the Asociación is shown to be a heterogeneous collective with different agendas. This resulted in several conflicts, some of them, involving the advisory offices that intended to take the resources (“the dough”) from the project. Nonetheless, a regional bank authorized a cash disbursement for the initial stage of the greenhouse project.
Chapter 7 presents the final stage of SUPLADER Zacapu’s greenhouse project. After complex negotiations and conflicts within the Asociación, complementary credit was obtained for the construction of the greenhouse. However, during a municipal election campaign key figures in charge of implementation changed position; this led to a change in project conditions, and the Asociación had to face interventions from external actors. The negotiation game restarted and triggered a new set of strategies (amongst others to obtain money directly through the new SEPLADE delegate). Eventually, some of the Asociación’s funds were reappropriated and assigned to USPR Agrícola Tsakapu and different factions (vying for of resources) resulted fom this.
Chapter 8 provides the discussion and conclusion to this thesis, with insights that build on Mosse’s (2005) argument that policies to promote development are associated to organizational demands and needs to maintain existing relationships (rather than promoting a previously defined policy). However, in the case of La Ciénega, the agents of change (including the Michoacán Congress) supported and pushed through planners’ development initiatives. In line with Ferguson (1994), I conclude that development must be understood in relation to the political-economic-cultural interests of those behind its design and implementation. Rather than linear, hegemonic and rigid, however, actors’ practices and strategies mould and twist planned development intervention to suit their needs and desires.
Radical ruralities in practice: Negotiating buen vivir in a Colombian network of sustainability
Chaves, M.C. ; Macintyre, Thomas ; Verschoor, G.M. ; Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2018
Journal of Rural Studies 59 (2018). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 153 - 162.
This paper explores the emerging concept of buen vivir – interpreted as integrative and collective well-being – as it is being envisioned and practiced by a network of sustainability initiatives in Colombia. As an example of a transition narrative currently taking place in Latin America and beyond, buen vivir represents a turn towards a more biocentric, relational and collective means of understanding and being in the world. Yet despite the many discourses into buen vivir (many of which tout it as an alternative to neoliberal models of development), there is a general lack of research into its varied forms of application, especially in terms of lived experiences. Drawing on the new ruralities literature, this paper explores the extent to which buen vivir visions and practices represent radical new ruralities – so-called alternatives to development. Data were collected from individuals and ecological communities in predominantly rural areas who are members of the Council of Sustainable Settlements of the Americas (CASA), a network which promotes many of the principles of buen vivir. Through participatory methods, results demonstrate that CASA visions are based on constructing territorial relations through intercultural knowledge exchange and experimentation into alternative lifestyles. Despite the substantial challenges and contradictions of putting these visions into practice, we argue that lived experiences promote processes of self-reflection on what buen vivir really is or could be. We hold that the inclusive nature of buen vivir offers opportunities for diverse peoples to cohere around shared meanings of the 'good life,' while providing the freedom to live variations depending on social and ecological context.
Regimes of justification : competing arguments and the construction of legitimacy in Dutch nature conservation practices
Arts, Irma ; Buijs, A.E. ; Verschoor, G.M. - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 61 (2018)5-6. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 1070 - 1084.
Legitimacy of environmental management and policies is an important topic in environmental research. Based on the notion of ‘regimes of justification’, we aim to analyse the dynamics in argumentations used to legitimize and de-legitimize Dutch nature conservation practices. Contrary to prior studies, we demonstrate how actors in two locations where environmental disputes arose showed little willingness to switch between arguments in order to reach a compromise. Instead, some actors constructed incompatibilities between arguments in order to delegitimize competing actors. Especially in the visioning phase, institutional actors emphasized technical efficiency, planning and global environmentalism, and arguments related to emotional accounts, inspiration and locality were de-legitimized. In the discussion, we argue that it is not the formal or informal inclusion of the actors in the process, but the construction of the legitimacy of their arguments that determines the inclusiveness and outcome of the process.
Amphibious Encounters: Coral and People in Conservation Outreach in Indonesia
Pauwelussen, A.P. ; Verschoor, Gerard - \ 2017
Engaging Science, Technology, and Society 3 (2017). - ISSN 2413-8053 - p. 292 - 314.
Drawing on long-term ethnographic research in Indonesia, this article describes a conservation outreach project that attempts to educate and convert local people into coral protectors. Both coral and the sea-dwelling Bajau people appear to be amphibious beings, moving between a changeable land-water interface, and between different, fluidly interwoven ontological constellations. We show that the failure of conservation organizations to recognize the ontologically ambiguous nature of “coral” and “people” translates to a breakdown of outreach goals. Mobilizing the concept of amphibiousness to engage this ambiguity and fluidity, we describe the moving land-water interface as the actual living environment for both coral and people. The notion of amphibiousness, we suggest, has practical and political value, in particular for reconsidering outreach and how it may be reframed as a process involving ontological dialogue. For conservation outreach to become seaworthy, it needs to cultivate an amphibious capacity, capable of moving in-between and relating partly overflowing ways of knowing and being. Providing room for ambiguity, thinking with amphibiousness furthermore encourages suspension of the (Western) tendency to explain the Other, to fix what does not add up. As such, it is of heuristic relevance for the on-going discussions of ontological multiplicity that have proliferated at the intersection between STS and anthropology.
Evaluation of MACView® Portable Ethylene Postharvest Gas Analyser : Independent test of suitabilityand performance for use in horticultural settings
Verschoor, Jan A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1753) - 24
Hiemstra, Jelle - \ 2017
|Phytosanitary Measures Research Group Meeting 2017
Verschoor, J.A. - \ 2017
Phytosanitary Measures Research Group (a workgroup of the International Plant Protection Convention)