Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Microalgae as renewable raw material for bioproducts : identification and biochemical composition of microalgae from a raceway pond in The Netherlands
    Broek, L.A.M. van den; Wagemakers, M.J.M. ; Verschoor, A.M. ; Frissen, A.E. ; Haveren, J. van; Blaauw, R. ; Mooibroek, H. - \ 2018
    In: Biomass as Renewable Raw Material for Bioproducts of High Tech-Value / Popa, Valentin, Volf, Irina, Elsevier - ISBN 9780444637741 - p. 39 - 68.
    Microalgae contain valuable lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates that can be used for food and nonfood applications. Here we describe the general aspects of the production, identification, and biorefinery of microalgae. In addition, as an illustrative example we present data obtained over the course of one year from two neighboring seminatural open raceway ponds located in Borculo in the eastern part of the Netherlands. A stable community developed in these ponds and the green microalgae species dynamics and lipid, protein, and carbohydrate profiles of the biomass were investigated. Throughout the year, Desmodesmus species were the most abundant green microalgae present. The biomass harvested from the raceway ponds showed a rather similar lipid, protein, and carbohydrate content over the year. Glucose and mannose were the dominant neutral sugars, and linolenic acid (C18:3) was the major fatty acid in the oil fraction.
    Going for the dough : Engaging governmental funds in the Ciénega de Zacapu, Mexico
    Servin Juárez, Fidencio - \ 2018
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L.E. Visser, co-promotor(en): G.M. Verschoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438292 - 167

    This study follows a planned development intervention involving greenhouse production systems for tomatoes. The intervention played out in Mexico, where the Planning Sub- Committee for Regional Development (SUPLADER) promoted a strategy for the "development" of the Zacapu region in Michoacán, from 2002 to 2005. The intervention is illustrated through a detailed, in-depth ethnographic case study of the way in which the Unión de Invernaderos Ruta de la Libertad (a USPR or Union of Rural Producers Association) sought to materialize a greenhouse project.

    Using an actor-oriented perspective (Long, 2001; Nuijten, 2001; Diego, 1997) and the concepts of actor’s agency, networks, associations, collectives and organizing processes, the study aims to understand the character of intervention, and shows how programs and development projects serve different purposes – purposes which symbiotically relate to the prevailing social conditions. As a general conclusion, I argue that what is called “the dough” (la lana) is what drives the dynamics of development intervention. While important, it is central to understand the different roles “the dough” plays in these intervention settings: for planners, it is the means to accomplish development, whereas for project beneficiaries it is a goal in itself.

    Chapter 1 elaborates on the general context of planned intervention in Michoacán’s Zacapu region, delineates the theoretical framework, presents the main research question (How do stakeholders organize themselves around the greenhouse project, and how do they redefine the view of planned development by the local government?) and elaborates on the methodology employed.

    Chapter 2 describes the organizing processes underlying implementation of the greenhouse project in the Zacapu - Ciénega region. It explains how, in order to acquire resources for the project, stakeholders organized into groups, forming Rural Production Associations (SPRs) and Unions of Rural Producers’ Associations (USPRs). As a result, a total of 28 SPRs were formed. For the most part, members of these SPRs had extensive, prior experience in organizing and participating in programs similar to those promoted by SUPLADER.

    Chapter 3 describes the practices of the eight groups (SPR) who got no resources from SUPLADER and seek to compensate for an initial investment from the Alliance for the Countryside (Alianza). To complete the project file, the groups were linked to government agencies, municipalities and communities as well as with external agents (firms) to use the register as a professional services provider (PSP) and enter the file to the Alianza program. In addition, power differences and conflict relationships were evident (Lukes, 1974); conditions that led to negotiation (Diego, 1997).

    Advisor firms were considered necessary for the negotiations since their capabilities were required and considered essential for the expected benefit of the Asociación, although they appeared to be a very powerful party. Despite the regulations established by the State to exercise governmental programs, the parties responsible for exercising them applied ambiguous criteria.

    Chapter 4 describes the development of an ideal configuration of greenhouses that included technological, social and cultural elements associated with safety practices, automation and demanding consumers located in an international market. This perception was far from the project conditions of greenhouses in La Ciénega; however, it did not prevent generating expectations among the SPRs. For these actors, the greenhouse became an alternative livelihood, income, and development opportunity.

    To interpret the processes described I used Latour’s (2008) notion of a sociology of associations; this allowed me to interpret how actor-networks were incorporated in the greenhouse project.

    Chapter 5 describes a breakaway attempt from the Asociación spearheaded by 17 SPRs that chose to build their greenhouses with an alternative hardware supplier (ACEA). To obtain the necessary funds new negotiations were started with a range of agencies. The move eventually strengthened the Asociación and its institutional embeddedness.

    In Chapter 6, the Asociación is shown to be a heterogeneous collective with different agendas. This resulted in several conflicts, some of them, involving the advisory offices that intended to take the resources (“the dough”) from the project. Nonetheless, a regional bank authorized a cash disbursement for the initial stage of the greenhouse project.

    Chapter 7 presents the final stage of SUPLADER Zacapu’s greenhouse project. After complex negotiations and conflicts within the Asociación, complementary credit was obtained for the construction of the greenhouse. However, during a municipal election campaign key figures in charge of implementation changed position; this led to a change in project conditions, and the Asociación had to face interventions from external actors. The negotiation game restarted and triggered a new set of strategies (amongst others to obtain money directly through the new SEPLADE delegate). Eventually, some of the Asociación’s funds were reappropriated and assigned to USPR Agrícola Tsakapu and different factions (vying for of resources) resulted fom this.

    Chapter 8 provides the discussion and conclusion to this thesis, with insights that build on Mosse’s (2005) argument that policies to promote development are associated to organizational demands and needs to maintain existing relationships (rather than promoting a previously defined policy). However, in the case of La Ciénega, the agents of change (including the Michoacán Congress) supported and pushed through planners’ development initiatives. In line with Ferguson (1994), I conclude that development must be understood in relation to the political-economic-cultural interests of those behind its design and implementation. Rather than linear, hegemonic and rigid, however, actors’ practices and strategies mould and twist planned development intervention to suit their needs and desires.

    Radical ruralities in practice: Negotiating buen vivir in a Colombian network of sustainability
    Chaves, M.C. ; Macintyre, Thomas ; Verschoor, G.M. ; Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2018
    Journal of Rural Studies 59 (2018). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 153 - 162.
    This paper explores the emerging concept of buen vivir – interpreted as integrative and collective well-being – as it is being envisioned and practiced by a network of sustainability initiatives in Colombia. As an example of a transition narrative currently taking place in Latin America and beyond, buen vivir represents a turn towards a more biocentric, relational and collective means of understanding and being in the world. Yet despite the many discourses into buen vivir (many of which tout it as an alternative to neoliberal models of development), there is a general lack of research into its varied forms of application, especially in terms of lived experiences. Drawing on the new ruralities literature, this paper explores the extent to which buen vivir visions and practices represent radical new ruralities – so-called alternatives to development. Data were collected from individuals and ecological communities in predominantly rural areas who are members of the Council of Sustainable Settlements of the Americas (CASA), a network which promotes many of the principles of buen vivir. Through participatory methods, results demonstrate that CASA visions are based on constructing territorial relations through intercultural knowledge exchange and experimentation into alternative lifestyles. Despite the substantial challenges and contradictions of putting these visions into practice, we argue that lived experiences promote processes of self-reflection on what buen vivir really is or could be. We hold that the inclusive nature of buen vivir offers opportunities for diverse peoples to cohere around shared meanings of the 'good life,' while providing the freedom to live variations depending on social and ecological context.
    Regimes of justification : competing arguments and the construction of legitimacy in Dutch nature conservation practices
    Arts, Irma ; Buijs, A.E. ; Verschoor, G.M. - \ 2018
    Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 61 (2018)5-6. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 1070 - 1084.
    Legitimacy of environmental management and policies is an important topic in environmental research. Based on the notion of ‘regimes of justification’, we aim to analyse the dynamics in argumentations used to legitimize and de-legitimize Dutch nature conservation practices. Contrary to prior studies, we demonstrate how actors in two locations where environmental disputes arose showed little willingness to switch between arguments in order to reach a compromise. Instead, some actors constructed incompatibilities between arguments in order to delegitimize competing actors. Especially in the visioning phase, institutional actors emphasized technical efficiency, planning and global environmentalism, and arguments related to emotional accounts, inspiration and locality were de-legitimized. In the discussion, we argue that it is not the formal or informal inclusion of the actors in the process, but the construction of the legitimacy of their arguments that determines the inclusiveness and outcome of the process.
    Amphibious Encounters: Coral and People in Conservation Outreach in Indonesia
    Pauwelussen, A.P. ; Verschoor, Gerard - \ 2017
    Engaging Science, Technology, and Society 3 (2017). - ISSN 2413-8053 - p. 292 - 314.
    Drawing on long-term ethnographic research in Indonesia, this article describes a conservation outreach project that attempts to educate and convert local people into coral protectors. Both coral and the sea-dwelling Bajau people appear to be amphibious beings, moving between a changeable land-water interface, and between different, fluidly interwoven ontological constellations. We show that the failure of conservation organizations to recognize the ontologically ambiguous nature of “coral” and “people” translates to a breakdown of outreach goals. Mobilizing the concept of amphibiousness to engage this ambiguity and fluidity, we describe the moving land-water interface as the actual living environment for both coral and people. The notion of amphibiousness, we suggest, has practical and political value, in particular for reconsidering outreach and how it may be reframed as a process involving ontological dialogue. For conservation outreach to become seaworthy, it needs to cultivate an amphibious capacity, capable of moving in-between and relating partly overflowing ways of knowing and being. Providing room for ambiguity, thinking with amphibiousness furthermore encourages suspension of the (Western) tendency to explain the Other, to fix what does not add up. As such, it is of heuristic relevance for the on-going discussions of ontological multiplicity that have proliferated at the intersection between STS and anthropology.
    Evaluation of MACView® Portable Ethylene Postharvest Gas Analyser : Independent test of suitabilityand performance for use in horticultural settings
    Verschoor, Jan A. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1753) - 24
    Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2017
    Phytosanitary Measures Research Group Meeting 2017
    Verschoor, J.A. - \ 2017
    Phytosanitary Measures Research Group (a workgroup of the International Plant Protection Convention)
    Postharvest Technology Course
    Verschoor, Jan - \ 2017
    Haisheng Apple storage consultancy
    Verschoor, Jan - \ 2017
    2017 Huamentong Fruit Losses
    Verschoor, Jan - \ 2017
    Product Quality Measurements & Analysis - Quility of CA stored fruit
    Verschoor, Jan - \ 2017
    Postharvest Technology Course 2017
    Verschoor, J.A. - \ 2017
    Lisa Neven
    Verschoor, J.A. - \ 2017
    PlantgezondheidEvent 2017
    Verschoor, J.A. - \ 2017
    CATT in vaste planten ter bestrijding van aaltjes
    Dalfsen, P. van; Janssen, H. ; Verschoor, J.A. - \ 2017
    Randwijk : Wageningen University & Research, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit
    Risks of Plastic Debris : Unravelling Fact, Opinion, Perception, and Belief
    Koelmans, Albert A. ; Besseling, Ellen ; Foekema, Edwin ; Kooi, Merel ; Mintenig, Svenja ; Ossendorp, Bernadette C. ; Redondo-Hasselerharm, Paula E. ; Verschoor, Anja ; Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Scheffer, Marten - \ 2017
    Environmental Science and Technology 51 (2017)20. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 11513 - 11519.
    Researcher and media alarms have caused plastic debris to be perceived as a major threat to humans and animals. However, although the waste of plastic in the environment is clearly undesirable for aesthetic and economic reasons, the actual environmental risks of different plastics and their associated chemicals remain largely unknown. Here we show how a systematic assessment of adverse outcome pathways based on ecologically relevant metrics for exposure and effect can bring risk assessment within reach. Results of such an assessment will help to respond to the current public worry in a balanced way and allow policy makers to take measures for scientifically sound reasons.
    Creating common ground : The role of Indigenous Peoples’ sacred natural sites in conservation practice, management and policy
    Verschuuren, Bas - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L.E. Visser, co-promotor(en): G.M. Verschoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436496 - 219
    indigenous people - indigenous knowledge - historic sites - history - nature conservation - natural landscape - australia - ghana - guatemala - nature conservation policy - inheemse volkeren - inheemse kennis - historische plaatsen - geschiedenis - natuurbescherming - natuurlandschap - australië - ghana - guatemala - natuurbeleid

    In this thesis, I hold a plea for the recognition and integration of Indigenous people’s realities in conservation practice, management and policy related to their sacred natural sites. Sacred natural sites can be mountains, rivers, forests, trees and rocks that have special spiritual significance to indigenous peoples. To Indigenous peoples these places are not just part of their environment, culture and spirituality but they also form their worldviews and ethnicities.

    Based on my research on sacred natural sites, I look at how Indigenous people’s realities can be integrated into conservation approaches and how they lead to the co-creation of new forms of nature conservation. In doing so I focus on how a common ground is being created by Indigenous peoples and development and conservation actors. I argue that this common ground has the capacity to transform conservation practice, management and policy if different worldviews, including those of Indigenous peoples, are equally considered.

    The structure of this thesis represents my personal learning curve. It starts off with my earlier work developed as a conservationist with a natural sciences background and with many years of working experience in the field of international nature conservation. The Chapters gradually take on a sociological and anthropological angle, applying ethnographic research to conservation issues. As a result, the thesis represents the experience of a social conservation scientist doing applied and socially engaged research.

    The first part of the thesis is built upon conservation literature and draws on a multitude of case studies and previously published work. It presents an overview of the overall importance that indigenous sacred natural sites have to the current field of nature conservation and the main challenges and opportunities that these sites pose to conservationists.

    The second part of the thesis builds on case studies and applied ethnographic field research undertaken on conservation projects in North East Arnhem Land in Australia, Santa Cruz del Quiché in Guatemala and the Upper North-West Region in Ghana. In these locations, I have built up working relationships with local indigenous groups and the organisations that support them; respectively these are Yolŋu (since 2007), Maya (since 2012) and Dagara (since 2011).

    The qualitative research methods used throughout my research are based on ethnography, participatory research, observational research, co-creation of research, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, freelisting but also the field of social policy analysis, discourse analysis and literature research. They are particularly useful in situations where the research process contributes to finding solutions for concrete conservation problems with all parties involved.

    The conceptual framework brings together empirical studies and critical analyses of Indigenous sacred natural sites in different geographical, ecological, cultural and spiritual contexts. As these contexts vary across different places I studied the development of different common grounds between indigenous and non-indigenous actors in the specific locations. Eventually, I brought these studies together in an effort to distil common elements for the construction of a generic common ground.

    In the conceptual framework, worldviews and spirituality meet with conceptual areas such as ontological pluralism, biocultural diversity and rights-based approaches across geographical scales and governance levels. I argue that were they meet a common ground is created. I provide further analysis of the process of creating a common ground on the basis of the conceptual areas mentioned above, and draw conclusions that are relevant to furthering scientific debate in these areas as well to the field of conservation.

    Chapter 2 concludes that sacred natural sites are important to the conservation of nature and biodiversity because they form an informal network managed and governed by local Indigenous people. This network goes largely unrecognized by the international conservation community and local protected area managers and planners. The chapter presents ten challenges that sacred natural sites pose to the field of conservation and restoration of biological and cultural diversity.

    Chapter 3 takes examples of Indigenous worldviews and conservation practices from around the world to demonstrate that these form part of approaches that integrate biocultural values in nature conservation. I argue that in order to be effective and sustainable, nature conservation requires to be based on both science and culture, and combine scientific data on the natural world with experiential knowledge about nature of the social-cultural groups involved. The chapter concludes that, for management to be truly adaptive, it needs to respond to societal and cultural changes which can be achieved by enabling Indigenous people and local communities to guide conservation efforts.

    Chapter 4 addresses how the modern conservation movement can use biocultural conservation approaches to overcome disparities between the management and governance of nature and culture. In this discourse about biocultural conservation approaches, the spiritual and the sacred are essential to the conservation of an interconnected network of biocultural hotspots – sacred natural sites.

    Chapter 5 demonstrates the importance of Indigenous ontologies in cross-cultural coastal conservation management, particularly the development of locally relevant guidelines for fishers in North East Arnhem Land, Australia. I explore the ‘both ways’ approach adopted by the Dhimurru Aboriginal Corporation, and that guides collaboration between Yolŋu and non-Yolŋu. Disjunctures and synergies between the two ontologies are identified and I offer reflection on the role of the researcher in the cross-cultural co-production of guidelines for fishers and boaters.

    Chapter 6 analyses how spiritual leaders build common ground for community conservation of sacred natural sites in the face of neoliberalism in Ghana and Guatemala. The research demonstrates that, beyond rights-based approaches, a common ground is essential to developing feasible and acceptable solutions for the protection and conservation of sacred natural sites. I identify ‘ontological equity’ as an important principle for establishing this common ground. I then argue that neoliberal approaches to conservation and resource development are prejudiced because they ignore the principle of ontological equity and suppress lived realities of sacred natural sites and the existence of the wider spiritscape.

    Chapter 7 describes the emerging spaces in international policy and conservation practices as they manifest themselves in a series of conferences, the development of guidelines for protected area managers, and how these have worked to sensitize conservationists to sacred natural sites and their custodians. In connecting different conservation approaches from the local to the international level the chapter shows how a common ground is being created.

    The key findings of this thesis include several universal elements to the creation of a common ground: willingness to learn about other worldviews; application of participatory approaches and applied research; the use of cultural brokers; active processes of stakeholder engagement; agreement on governance arrangements and the adoption of ontological equity.

    I draw four conclusions derived from the main research results:

    1) Biocultural conservation approaches can enable the creation of a common ground, but they may also constrain Indigenous ontologies;

    2) Conservationists should learn from other worldviews and ontologies in order to improve the conservation of Indigenous sacred natural sites;

    3) Non-human agency and spiritual governance are under-recognised in the conservation of spiritscapes and sacred natural sites;

    4) Combining an ethnographic approach with an engaged and participatory research strategy is useful for considering multiple ontologies.

    The recommendations of this thesis could form part of a future research agenda for the development of a common ground between Indigenous people, conservationists, and development actors in relation to the conservation of Indigenous sacred natural sites. The main recommendation is that conservation and development actors should consider multiple ontologies when creating a common ground for the development of biocultural conservation approaches.

    Finding the food by hiding the gold : Andoque abundance, mining, and food in the Colombian Amazon
    Torres, Camilo ; Verschoor, Gerard - \ 2017
    In: Food, Agriculture and Social Change: The Everyday Vitality of Latin America / Sherwood, Stephen, Arce, Alberto, Paredes, Myriam, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group - ISBN 9781138214972 - p. 48 - 59.
    Food is important – but so is thinking about food through knowledge and experience. Food is an essential part of the “web of life,” but thinking about food has real consequences for the way it is grown, gathered, or procured. Scholarly and common ways of “thinking food” help shape systems of food production, distribution, and consumption, which have a bearing on the way societies are organized. As Carolan (2013: 413) notes, academic ways of thinking about food have undergone a number of “turns” over the years. Today we find ourselves in the midst of a new turn that stresses relationality and multiplicity while also emphasizing novel political and ontological practices.
    Challenging Current Knowledge on Amazonian Dark Earths : Indigenous Manioc Cultivation on Different Soils of the Colombian Amazon
    Peña-Venegas, Clara P. ; Verschoor, Gerard ; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan ; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2017
    Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment 39 (2017)2. - ISSN 2153-9553 - p. 127 - 137.
    Amazonian soils - Floodplain agriculture - Indigenous manioc cultivation - Swidden management - Terra Preta

    Amazonian indigenous people grow manioc in landscapes of different agricultural potential, yet studies on indigenous manioc production on fertile soils are scarce. Non-indigenous communities grow specific manioc landraces on fertile Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE), but it is unknown whether indigenous farmers also do so. During 2 years, we studied manioc cultivation by five indigenous groups on different Amazonian soils using quantitative and qualitative methods. We found that environmental conditions, including soil quality, are less important in determining manioc diversity and agricultural strategies than socioeconomic and socio-cultural factors such as labor availability, labor organization, and culinary preferences.

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