Effectiveness of soil erosion barriers to reduce sediment connectivity at small basin scale in a fire-affected forest
López-Vicente, Manuel ; Kramer, Henk ; Keesstra, Saskia - \ 2021
Journal of Environmental Management 278 (2021). - ISSN 0301-4797
Drone images - Forest fire - Post-fire practices - Sediment connectivity - Small basin
Forest fires and post-fire management practices (PFMP) cause changes in the hydrological response of a hillslope. This study evaluates the effect of log erosion barriers (LB) and Easy-Barriers® (EB) on the spatial patterns and values of structural sediment connectivity (SC) in a Mediterranean mountainous pine forest affected by an arson fire in August 2017. A drone flight was done in July 2019 (23 months after the fire and 11 months after the PFMP) to obtain a high-resolution orthomosaic and DEM (at 0.05 m). Two contrasted areas, with and without PFMP, were selected along the same hillslope and 26 small basins were identified: 16 in the treated area (mean area, slope and vegetation recovery of 916 m2, 60% and 25%; with 94 LB and 39 EB) and 10 in the untreated area (1952 m2, 75% and 20%). The aggregated index of sediment connectivity (AIC) was chosen to compute SC in three temporal scenarios: Before and just after the fire and when all PFMP were implemented including the incipient vegetation recovery. Output normalization allowed the comparison of the non-nested basins among them. After accounting the intrinsic differences among the basins and areas, and the temporal changes of SC between the three scenarios, the contribution of the barriers was estimated in 27% from the total decrease of SC in the treated area (−8.5%). The remaining 73% was explained by the vegetation recovery. The effectiveness of the LB (11.3% on average) and EB (13.4%) did not diminish with increasing slope gradients. These percentages become relevant considering the small area affected by the LB (2.8%) and EB (1.3%). Independent metrics (convergence index, flow width, flat areas and LS factor) also reported clear differences between the two areas –higher soil erosive intensity in the untreated area– and in accordance with the AIC results.
Circulating bilirubin levels and risk of colorectal cancer: serological and Mendelian randomization analyses
Seyed Khoei, Nazlisadat ; Jenab, Mazda ; Murphy, Neil ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Carreras-Torres, Robert ; Viallon, Vivian ; Kühn, Tilman ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas ; Aleksandrova, Krasimira ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Weiderpass, Elisabete ; Stepien, Magdalena ; Bulmer, Andrew ; Tjønneland, Anne ; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine ; Severi, Gianluca ; Carbonnel, Franck ; Katzke, Verena ; Boeing, Heiner ; Bergmann, Manuela M. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Karakatsani, Anna ; Martimianaki, Georgia ; Palli, Domenico ; Tagliabue, Giovanna ; Panico, Salvatore ; Tumino, Rosario ; Sacerdote, Carlotta ; Skeie, Guri ; Merino, Susana ; Bonet, Catalina ; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel ; Gil, Leire ; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores ; Ardanaz, Eva ; Myte, Robin ; Hultdin, Johan ; Perez-Cornago, Aurora ; Aune, Dagfinn ; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Baron, John A. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Brenner, Hermann ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Casey, Graham ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chanock, Stephen J. ; Cotterchio, Michelle ; Gallinger, Steven ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Haile, Robert W. ; Hampe, Jochen ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Hopper, John L. ; Hsu, Li ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Joshi, Amit D. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Larsson, Susanna C. ; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Christopher I. ; Li, Li ; Lindblom, Annika ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Martín, Vicente ; Moreno, Victor ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Ogino, Shuji ; Parfrey, Patrick S. ; Pharoah, Paul D.P. ; Rennert, Gad ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Thibodeau, Stephen N. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Weigl, Korbinian ; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; White, Emily ; Wolk, Alicja ; Woods, Michael O. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Zhang, Xuehong ; Ferrari, Pietro ; Anton, Gabriele ; Peters, Annette ; Peters, Ulrike ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Wagner, Karl Heinz ; Freisling, Heinz - \ 2020
BMC Medicine 18 (2020)1. - ISSN 1741-7015 - 1 p.
Anti-oxidants - Bilirubin - Cancer - Colorectal cancer - Mendelian randomization analysis
BACKGROUND: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex. METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study. RESULTS: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (Pheterogeneity = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (Pheterogeneity ≥ 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.
2020 taxonomic update for phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales
Kuhn, Jens H. ; Adkins, Scott ; Alioto, Daniela ; Alkhovsky, Sergey V. ; Amarasinghe, Gaya K. ; Anthony, Simon J. ; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana ; Ayllón, María A. ; Bahl, Justin ; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne ; Ballinger, Matthew J. ; Bartonička, Tomáš ; Basler, Christopher ; Bavari, Sina ; Beer, Martin ; Bente, Dennis A. ; Bergeron, Éric ; Bird, Brian H. ; Blair, Carol ; Blasdell, Kim R. ; Bradfute, Steven B. ; Breyta, Rachel ; Briese, Thomas ; Brown, Paul A. ; Buchholz, Ursula J. ; Buchmeier, Michael J. ; Bukreyev, Alexander ; Burt, Felicity ; Buzkan, Nihal ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Cao, Mengji ; Casas, Inmaculada ; Chamberlain, John ; Chandran, Kartik ; Charrel, Rémi N. ; Chen, Biao ; Chiumenti, Michela ; Choi, Ryong ; Clegg, J.C.S. ; Crozier, Ian ; Graça, John V. da; Bó, Elena Dal; Dávila, Alberto M.R. ; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Lamballerie, Xavier de; Swart, Rik L. de; Bello, Patrick L. Di; Paola, Nicholas Di; Serio, Francesco Di; Dietzgen, Ralf G. ; Digiaro, Michele ; Dolja, Valerian V. ; Dolnik, Olga ; Drebot, Michael A. ; Drexler, Jan Felix ; Dürrwald, Ralf ; Dufkova, Lucie ; Dundon, William G. ; Duprex, W.P. ; Dye, John M. ; Easton, Andrew J. ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Elbeaino, Toufic ; Ergünay, Koray ; Fernandes, Jorlan ; Fooks, Anthony R. ; Formenty, Pierre B.H. ; Forth, Leonie F. ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana ; Gago-Zachert, Selma ; Gāo, George Fú ; García, María Laura ; García-Sastre, Adolfo ; Garrison, Aura R. ; Gbakima, Aiah ; Goldstein, Tracey ; Gonzalez, Jean Paul J. ; Griffiths, Anthony ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Günther, Stephan ; Guterres, Alexandro ; Hall, Roy A. ; Hammond, John ; Hassan, Mohamed ; Hepojoki, Jussi ; Hepojoki, Satu ; Hetzel, Udo ; Hewson, Roger ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Hongo, Seiji ; Höper, Dirk ; Horie, Masayuki ; Hughes, Holly R. ; Hyndman, Timothy H. ; Jambai, Amara ; Jardim, Rodrigo ; Jiāng, Dàohóng ; Jin, Qi ; Jonson, Gilda B. ; Junglen, Sandra ; Karadağ, Serpil ; Keller, Karen E. ; Klempa, Boris ; Klingström, Jonas ; Kobinger, Gary ; Kondō, Hideki ; Koonin, Eugene V. ; Krupovic, Mart ; Kurath, Gael ; Kuzmin, Ivan V. ; Laenen, Lies ; Lamb, Robert A. ; Lambert, Amy J. ; Langevin, Stanley L. ; Lee, Benhur ; Lemos, Elba R.S. ; Leroy, Eric M. ; Li, Dexin ; Lǐ, Jiànróng ; Liang, Mifang ; Liú, Wénwén ; Liú, Yàn ; Lukashevich, Igor S. ; Maes, Piet ; Marciel de Souza, William ; Marklewitz, Marco ; Marshall, Sergio H. ; Martelli, Giovanni P. ; Martin, Robert R. ; Marzano, Shin Yi L. ; Massart, Sébastien ; McCauley, John W. ; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole ; Minafra, Angelantonio ; Minutolo, Maria ; Mirazimi, Ali ; Mühlbach, Hans Peter ; Mühlberger, Elke ; Naidu, Rayapati ; Natsuaki, Tomohide ; Navarro, Beatriz ; Navarro, José A. ; Netesov, Sergey V. ; Neumann, Gabriele ; Nowotny, Norbert ; Nunes, Márcio R.T. ; Nylund, Are ; Økland, Arnfinn L. ; Oliveira, Renata C. ; Palacios, Gustavo ; Pallas, Vicente ; Pályi, Bernadett ; Papa, Anna ; Parrish, Colin R. ; Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex ; Pawęska, Janusz T. ; Payne, Susan ; Pérez, Daniel R. ; Pfaff, Florian ; Radoshitzky, Sheli R. ; ul Rahman, Aziz ; Ramos-González, Pedro L. ; Resende, Renato O. ; Reyes, Carina A. ; Rima, Bertus K. ; Romanowski, Víctor ; Robles Luna, Gabriel ; Rota, Paul ; Rubbenstroth, Dennis ; Runstadler, Jonathan A. ; Ruzek, Daniel ; Sabanadzovic, Sead ; Salát, Jiří ; Sall, Amadou Alpha ; Salvato, Maria S. ; Sarpkaya, Kamil ; Sasaya, Takahide ; Schwemmle, Martin ; Shabbir, Muhammad Z. ; Shí, Xiǎohóng ; Shí, Zhènglì ; Shirako, Yukio ; Simmonds, Peter ; Širmarová, Jana ; Sironi, Manuela ; Smither, Sophie ; Smura, Teemu ; Song, Jin Won ; Spann, Kirsten M. ; Spengler, Jessica R. ; Stenglein, Mark D. ; Stone, David M. ; Straková, Petra ; Takada, Ayato ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Thornburg, Natalie J. ; Tomonaga, Keizō ; Tordo, Noël ; Towner, Jonathan S. ; Turina, Massimo ; Tzanetakis, Ioannis ; Ulrich, Rainer G. ; Vaira, Anna Maria ; Hoogen, Bernadette van den; Varsani, Arvind ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Verbeek, Martin ; Wahl, Victoria ; Walker, Peter J. ; Wang, Hui ; Wang, Jianwei ; Wang, Xifeng ; Wang, Lin Fa ; Wèi, Tàiyún ; Wells, Heather ; Whitfield, Anna E. ; Williams, John V. ; Wolf, Yuri I. ; Wú, Zhìqiáng ; Yang, Xin ; Yáng, Xīnglóu ; Yu, Xuejie ; Yutin, Natalya ; Zerbini, Murilo ; Zhang, Tong ; Zhang, Yong Zhen ; Zhou, Guohui ; Zhou, Xueping - \ 2020
Archives of Virology 165 (2020). - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 3023 - 3072.
In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted, ten were moved and renamed, and 30 species were renamed. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.
Genome-wide Modeling of Polygenic Risk Score in Colorectal Cancer Risk
Thomas, Minta ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A. ; Lee, Jeffrey K. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Dampier, Christopher H. ; Chapelle, Albert de la; Wolk, Alicja ; Joshi, Amit D. ; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea ; Gsur, Andrea ; Lindblom, Annika ; Castells, Antoni ; Win, Aung Ko ; Namjou, Bahram ; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Tangen, Catherine M. ; He, Qianchuan ; Li, Christopher I. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Joshu, Corinne E. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Bishop, D.T. ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Schaid, Daniel ; Drew, David A. ; Muller, David C. ; Duggan, David ; Crosslin, David R. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Giovannucci, Edward L. ; Larson, Eric ; Qu, Flora ; Mentch, Frank ; Giles, Graham G. ; Hakonarson, Hakon ; Hampel, Heather ; Stanaway, Ian B. ; Figueiredo, Jane C. ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Minnier, Jessica ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Hampe, Jochen ; Harley, John B. ; Visvanathan, Kala ; Curtis, Keith R. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Li, Li ; Marchand, Loic Le; Vodickova, Ludmila ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Lemire, Mathieu ; Woods, Michael O. ; Song, Mingyang ; Murphy, Neil ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Dikilitas, Ozan ; Pharoah, Paul D.P. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Milne, Roger L. ; MacInnis, Robert J. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Ogino, Shuji ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Thibodeau, Stephen N. ; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Zaidi, Syed H. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Vymetalkova, Veronika ; Moreno, Victor ; Martín, Vicente ; Arndt, Volker ; Wei, Wei Qi ; Chung, Wendy ; Su, Yu Ru ; Hayes, Richard B. ; White, Emily ; Vodicka, Pavel ; Casey, Graham ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Potter, John D. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Jarvik, Gail P. ; Corley, Douglas A. ; Peters, Ulrike ; Hsu, Li - \ 2020
American Journal of Human Genetics 107 (2020)3. - ISSN 0002-9297 - p. 432 - 444.
cancer risk prediction - colorectal cancer - machine learning - polygenic risk score
Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.
Effectiveness of cover crops to reduce loss of soil organic matter in a rainfed vineyard
López-Vicente, Manuel ; Calvo-Seas, Elena ; Álvarez, Sara ; Cerdà, Artemi - \ 2020
Land 9 (2020)7. - ISSN 2073-445X
Cover crop - Enrichment ratio - Mediterranean climate - Sediment trap - Soil erosion - Soil organic matter - Vineyard
Cover crops (CCs) minimize the loss of soil in permanent cropping systems where the soil is usually bare due to intense tillage or overuse of herbicides. The topsoil, the richer layer in soil organic carbon and organic matter (OM), is affected by water erosion. Nature-based solutions appear as a suitable option for sustainable farming. In this study, the effectiveness of two years of CC management to reduce the OM loss is evaluated in a rainfed vineyard in a rolling landscape (Huesca, NE Spain). Two sediment traps collected runoff over 15 months. Topsoil OM contents (1.64% and 1.60%) and sediment/soil OM enrichment ratio (2.61 and 3.07) were similar. However, the average annual rate of OM loss was 3.6 times higher in the plot with lower vegetation cover than in the plot with CCs (1.29 vs. 0.35 kgOM ha-1 yr-1). The concentration of OMSed showed a negative relationship with the net soil loss; and significant differences appeared between the OMSed in the months with low and moderate-to-high ground cover. CCs are an excellent nature-based solution to control the unsustainable soil and OM losses measured in vineyards, which will contribute to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations.
Effectiveness of re-vegetated forest and grassland on soil erosion control in the semi-arid Loess Plateau
Liu, Yi Fan ; Liu, Yu ; Shi, Zhi Hua ; López-Vicente, Manuel ; Wu, Gao Lin - \ 2020
Catena 195 (2020). - ISSN 0341-8162 - 6 p.
Afforestation policy - Re-vegetation type - Runoff reduction benefit - Sediment reduction benefit - Understory grasses
Afforestation reduces soil loss and minimizes landslide risk worldwide, but little is known on the effectiveness of afforestation policies to control soil erosion with different vegetation types in semi-arid areas. Understanding the effectiveness of distinct re-vegetation types under different physiographic conditions (slope gradient, percentage of vegetation cover and rainfall depth) is essential for better policy formulation. This study examines the benefits of soil erosion control in forests and grasslands using published data. This analysis proves that the benefits of vegetation restoration increase with increasing the vegetation cover and tend to be stable when the coverage exceeds 60%. The benefits on sediment yield reduction are more sensitive (vs. runoff reduction benefit) to rainfall intensity. Regarding slopes and soil erosion control, the highest efficiencies appear in forests on 20–25° slopes and in grasslands on 15–20° slopes. Grasslands can effectively reduce soil erosion, as well as forests with understory grasses. For long-term restoration, a 60% vegetation cover maximizes the benefits of reducing soil erosion and maintaining enough soil water supply that prevents possible soil drought. We propose that future afforestation policies should evaluate in advance the appropriate re-vegetation type; meanwhile, suitable vegetation coverage and local physiographic conditions should be considered. Importantly, promotion of grassland and preservation of forest understory grasses must be enforced in land use policies when considering afforestation to minimize soil erosion. We suggest further research to quantify the efficiency of understory vegetation on soil erosion control, which might provide scientific and practical guidance for afforestation policy in semi-arid areas.
Trade-offs of dryland forage production and soil water consumption in a semi-arid area
Huang, Ze ; Dunkerley, David ; López-Vicente, Manuel ; Wu, Gao Lin - \ 2020
Agricultural Water Management 241 (2020). - ISSN 0378-3774
Dryland farming - Forage - Nutritional quality - Precipitation utilization efficiency - Soil water consumption - Yield
Drought-tolerant forage crops have huge development potential in drylands taking into account the current global challenges (climate change, natural resources overexploitation and increasing food demand). However, little is known about the trade-off among yield, nutritional quality, and soil water consumption for dryland forage farming production in semi-arid regions. This research compared the two-year yield and soil water consumption characteristics of sweet sorghum (Sorghum dochna), sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense) and forage maize (Zea mays) under natural rainfall condition. The soil water content up to 200 cm soil depth –at 10-cm intervals– and dry matter yield of the different forage crops were evaluated in a set of plots in 2017 and 2018, and the nutritional quality of these crops were measured in 2018. Three replicate plots were established for each forage crop. Results showed that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of sudangrass were significantly lower than those of sweet sorghum and forage maize (P < 0.05). Sudangrass presented the higher in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficient (IVDMD). The yield of sweet sorghum was significantly higher than that of sudangrass and forage maize. Different soil water consumption patterns were observed among the forage crops, happening mostly in the 0–150 cm soil layer in the forage maize plots, and in the 0–100 cm soil layer in the sweet sorghum and sudangrass plots. The average daily evapotranspiration (ETd) of forage maize was about 10 % and 15 % higher than that of sweet sorghum and sudangrass, respectively. Forage sorghum presented the highest yield, less soil water consumption, and similar nutritional quality to forage maize, and thus, it is an advisable option for forage production in the soil water-limited semi-arid regions.
Forest fire effects on sediment connectivity in headwater sub-catchments : Evaluation of indices performance
López-Vicente, M. ; González-Romero, J. ; Lucas-Borja, M.E. - \ 2020
Science of the Total Environment 732 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697 - 1 p.
Forest fire - Index performance - Post-fire management - Sediment connectivity
Forest fires and post-fire practices influence the hydrological response of the soil in terms of runoff and sediment connectivity (SC). In this study, the ability of four indices (IC-Borselli, IC-Cavalli, IC-Persichillo and aggregated index of connectivity (AIC)) to assess SC was evaluated in three Mediterranean headwater sub-catchments (66, 143 and 194 ha) affected by an arson fire in 2012. Three temporal scenarios (before the fire, one year after the fire and two years after the fire including post-fire practices (salvage logging, skid trails and check dams)) and two computation targets (streams: hillslope-channel SC; and check-dams: hillslope-outlet SC) were considered, obtaining 66 maps of SC at fine spatial resolution (2 m of cell size). Burn severity classes were estimated using Landsat-7 imagery and the dNBR index. The indices' output analysis included geomorphic (landscape units), mathematic (significance, percentiles and frequency distribution), fire (burn severity classes and unburnt areas) and sedimentological (measured specific sediment yield - SSY) criteria. The IC-Borselli and AIC were the most responsive approaches to the effects of fire on SC at catchment scale, whereas the IC-Persichillo was the most sensitive index to the increasing burn severities. The overlay between the fire severities and the geomorphic features appeared as a key aspect to understand the hydrological response at both the stream-system and outlet targets. We found a good and positive agreement between the measured SSY in the three check-dams and the changes in the estimated SCOUTLET due to the fire, especially with the IC-Borselli and AIC. For a better implementation of post-fire programs, we recommend SCOUTLET maps -from AIC- to assess sediment transport in streams, which is dominated by the deposition process, and SCSTREAM maps -from IC-Borselli and AIC- to place sediment control measures at hillslopes for intense rainfall events when effective sediment transport happens.
Belowground soil water response in the afforestation-cropland interface under semi-arid conditions
Huang, Ze ; Yang, Wen Jin ; Liu, Yu ; Shen, Weibo ; López-Vicente, Manuel ; Wu, Gao Lin - \ 2020
Catena 193 (2020). - ISSN 0341-8162
Agroforestry system interface - Semi-arid area - Soil water deficit degree - Soil water storage
Agroforestry is an effective measure to control soil erosion and maintain or increase productivity in semi-arid areas. However, the belowground soil water responses in the afforestation-cropland interface (ACI) is not well known. This study analyzed the variability of soil water storage (SWS) and deficit in three ACIs taking into account the distance between the forest and cropland. The variations of soil water content up to 4 m depth and at five distances from the interface (−5 m (in forest), 0 m (interface), 1 m, 3 m and 5 m (in cropland)) were estimated in three artificial forests (Salix matsudana, Sophora japonica, and Populus cathayana) and their adjacent croplands (maize). The results showed that soil water at the interfaces was significantly affected by forest. This effect was effective up to 160–170 cm of soil depth, and the ACI of S. matsudana had the greatest impact on the farmland soil water. There was no significant relative soil water deficit between 1 and 3 m length, and the ACI of P. cathayana showed the lowest changes in the lateral direction. The SWS of S. japonica in the ACI was clearly higher than the other two artificial forests (P < 0.05). Our findings indicated that S. japonica was the most suitable forest species for agriculture sustainability in the study area. The tree species and the distance between cropland and forest should be considered during the establishment of agroforestry systems. This study provided insights for water conservation and effective management of ACIs in semi-arid areas.
Litter cover promotes biocrust decomposition and surface soil functions in sandy ecosystem
Wu, Gao Lin ; Zhang, Meng Qi ; Liu, Yu ; López‐Vicente, Manuel - \ 2020
Geoderma 374 (2020). - ISSN 0016-7061
Ecological restoration - Sandy ecosystem - Soil crust - Soil nutrient - Soil organic matter - Soil particle size
Ecological restoration of sandy inland ecosystems is important for achieving global sustainability. In the world's semi-arid regions, soil crusts play crucial roles in maintaining ecosystem functioning. However, the true extent of soil quality improvement during the development of crusts is an issue not solved. In this study, four development stages of natural soil crusts, i.e., physical crusts (PC), biocrusts (BC), litter covered biocrusts (LBC) and litter crusts (LC) were selected in a semi-arid sandy ecosystem, along with a bare sandy land (BSL) as control area, to evaluate soil physicochemical properties at different soil depths. The coverage of litter (mainly leaves of Populus simonii) increased soil moisture and reduced soil bulk density. Compared with BC, the content of total soil organic matter (SOM) decreased in LBC by 13.83% and increased in LC by 36.57%. In contrast with BC, LC promoted a significant increase in soil nutrients, such as total nitrogen (30.30%), total phosphorus (46.89%) and available potassium (34.40%) in the topsoil layer (0–2 cm). Besides, LC contained higher clay and silt contents (10.47% and 29.81%) and lower sand content (−1.02%) than BC. In the 0–10 cm soil layer, the D (fractal dimension of the soil particle size distribution) of LC was the largest, with a value 5.71%, 6.1%, 2.44% and 0.93% higher than D in BSL, PC, BC and LBC, respectively. These findings reveal that litter covering facilitate the disintegration of BC, which further forms LC, and these processes clearly promote the enhancement of soil quality under sandy semi-arid conditions. Our findings are particularly important for predicting the transformation processes of sandy soil crusts and are of interest in ecological restoration programs.
Physiological and morphological characterisation of Limonium species in their natural habitats : Insights into their abiotic stress responses
González-Orenga, Sara ; Llinares, Josep V. ; Hassan, Mohamad Al; Fita, Ana ; Collado, Francisco ; Lisón, Purificación ; Vicente, Oscar ; Boscaiu, Monica - \ 2020
Plant and Soil 449 (2020)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 267 - 284.
Antioxidants - Climate change - Drought - Endemics - Osmolytes - Salt marshes - Soil analysis
Background and aims: Morphological and biochemical traits of four halophytes of the genus Limonium were analysed in plants sampled from salt marshes in SE Spain. This work aimed to explore the mechanism(s) behind the adaptation of these species to stressful habitats, with particular emphasis on responses to drought. Methods: Plants of each species together with soil samples were collected in summer, which is the most stressful season in the Mediterranean. Soil parameters and plant morphological traits were determined, and the levels of several biochemical stress markers in plants were measured using spectrophotometric assays. A multivariate analysis was performed to correlate soil and plant data. Results: Morphological characteristics regarding the underground system topology and several biochemical traits (higher foliar Ca2+, sucrose and glucose, and lower proline, glycine-betaine and fructose) clearly separate L. santapolense individuals from plants of the other three species. Conclusions: Drought tolerance of L. santapolense in the field is mostly dependent on morphological adaptations: when growing in an arid location, plants of this species develop long taproots that can extract water from the deep, moist layers of the soil.
Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer–Associated Genetic Variants Is More Strongly Associated With Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Cancer
Archambault, Alexi N. ; Su, Yu Ru ; Jeon, Jihyoun ; Thomas, Minta ; Lin, Yi ; Conti, David V. ; Win, Aung Ko ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris ; Peterse, Elisabeth F.P. ; Zauber, Ann G. ; Duggan, David ; Holowatyj, Andreana N. ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Cotterchio, Michelle ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Edlund, Christopher K. ; Southey, Melissa C. ; MacInnis, Robert J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Joshi, Amit D. ; Song, Mingyang ; Cao, Yin ; Woods, Michael O. ; White, Emily ; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Bien, Stephanie A. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Hampe, Jochen ; Li, Christopher I. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Offit, Kenneth ; Pharoah, Paul D. ; Moreno, Victor ; Lindblom, Annika ; Wolk, Alicja ; Wu, Anna H. ; Li, Li ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Gsur, Andrea ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Pearlman, Rachel ; Bishop, D.T. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Moreira, Leticia ; Vodicka, Pavel ; Kampman, Ellen ; Giles, Graham G. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Baron, John A. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Brezina, Stefanie ; Buch, Stephan ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Severi, Gianluca ; Chirlaque, María Dolores ; Sánchez, Maria José ; Palli, Domenico ; Kühn, Tilman ; Murphy, Neil ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N. ; Chanock, Stephen J. ; Chapelle, Albert de la; Easton, Douglas F. ; Elliott, Faye ; English, Dallas R. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; FitzGerald, Liesel M. ; Goodman, Phyllis J. ; Hopper, John L. ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Hunter, David J. ; Jacobs, Eric J. ; Joshu, Corinne E. ; Küry, Sébastien ; Markowitz, Sanford D. ; Milne, Roger L. ; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Rennert, Gad ; Rennert, Hedy S. ; Schumacher, Fredrick R. ; Sandler, Robert S. ; Seminara, Daniela ; Tangen, Catherine M. ; Thibodeau, Stephen N. ; Toland, Amanda E. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Visvanathan, Kala ; Vodickova, Ludmila ; Potter, John D. ; Männistö, Satu ; Weigl, Korbinian ; Figueiredo, Jane ; Martín, Vicente ; Larsson, Susanna C. ; Parfrey, Patrick S. ; Huang, Wen Yi ; Lenz, Heinz Josef ; Castelao, Jose E. ; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela ; Muñoz-Garzón, Victor ; Mancao, Christoph ; Haiman, Christopher A. ; Wilkens, Lynne R. ; Siegel, Erin ; Barry, Elizabeth ; Younghusband, Ban ; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Harlid, Sophia ; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne ; Liang, Peter S. ; Du, Mengmeng ; Casey, Graham ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Marchand, Loic Le; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Hampel, Heather ; Corley, Douglas A. ; Hsu, Li ; Peters, Ulrike ; Hayes, Richard B. - \ 2020
Gastroenterology 158 (2020)5. - ISSN 0016-5085 - p. 1274 - 1286.e12.
Colon Cancer - EOCRC - Penetrance - SNP
Background & Aims: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. Methods: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. Results: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28–4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80–3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10–5). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61–5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70–3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. Conclusions: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.
Circulating Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 Associate With Risk of Colorectal Cancer Based on Serologic and Mendelian Randomization Analyses
Murphy, Neil ; Carreras-Torres, Robert ; Song, Mingyang ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Martin, Richard M. ; Papadimitriou, Nikos ; Dimou, Niki ; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K. ; Banbury, Barbara ; Bradbury, Kathryn E. ; Besevic, Jelena ; Rinaldi, Sabina ; Riboli, Elio ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Travis, Ruth C. ; Agnoli, Claudia ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Bishop, D.T. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Onland-Moret, N.C. ; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Casey, Graham ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chirlaque, María Dolores ; Chapelle, Albert de la; English, Dallas ; Figueiredo, Jane C. ; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Giles, Graham G. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Gsur, Andrea ; Hampe, Jochen ; Hampel, Heather ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Hsu, Li ; Huang, Wen Yi ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Kühn, Tilman ; Kweon, Sun Seog ; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Christopher I. ; Li, Li ; Lindblom, Annika ; Martín, Vicente ; Milne, Roger L. ; Moreno, Victor ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Ogino, Shuji ; Ose, Jennifer ; Perduca, Vittorio ; Phipps, Amanda I. ; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Potter, John D. ; Qu, Conghui ; Rennert, Gad ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Tangen, Catherine M. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Visvanathan, Kala ; Vodicka, Pavel ; Vodickova, Ludmila ; Vymetalkova, Veronika ; Wang, Hansong ; White, Emily ; Wolk, Alicja ; Woods, Michael O. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Zheng, Wei ; Peters, Ulrike ; Gunter, Marc J. - \ 2020
Gastroenterology 158 (2020)5. - ISSN 0016-5085 - p. 1300 - 1312.e20.
CRC - GWAS - Risk Factors - Signal Transduction
Background & Aims: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 are associated with colorectal cancer development. Methods: Serum levels of IGF1 were measured in blood samples collected from 397,380 participants from the UK Biobank, from 2006 through 2010. Incident cancer cases and cancer cases recorded first in death certificates were identified through linkage to national cancer and death registries. Complete follow-up was available through March 31, 2016. For the MR analyses, we identified genetic variants associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3. The association of these genetic variants with colorectal cancer was examined with 2-sample MR methods using genome-wide association study consortia data (52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 individuals without [controls]) Results: After a median follow-up period of 7.1 years, 2665 cases of colorectal cancer were recorded. In a multivariable-adjusted model, circulating level of IGF1 associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation increment of IGF1, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.17). Similar associations were found by sex, follow-up time, and tumor subsite. In the MR analyses, a 1 standard deviation increment in IGF1 level, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio 1.08; 95% CI 1.03–1.12; P = 3.3 × 10–4). Level of IGFBP3, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increment, 1.12; 95% CI 1.06–1.18; P = 4.2 × 10–5). Colorectal cancer risk was associated with only 1 variant in the IGFBP3 gene region (rs11977526), which also associated with anthropometric traits and circulating level of IGF2. Conclusions: In an analysis of blood samples from almost 400,000 participants in the UK Biobank, we found an association between circulating level of IGF1 and colorectal cancer. Using genetic data from 52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 controls, a higher level of IGF1, determined by genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to determine how this signaling pathway might contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.
Root morphological characteristics and soil water infiltration capacity in semi-arid artificial grassland soils
Liu, Yu ; Guo, Lei ; Huang, Ze ; López-Vicente, Manuel ; Wu, Gao Lin - \ 2020
Agricultural Water Management 235 (2020). - ISSN 0378-3774
Artificial grassland - Double-ring infiltrometer - Root morphological characteristics - Semi-arid area - Soil infiltration rate
Surface water infiltration is an important process to meet plant water needs and an important part of the hydrological cycle via groundwater recharge, with special relevance in semi-arid regions. This study evaluated the relationships between grassland plant root morphological characteristics and soil water infiltration rates (IR: initial, steady and average). For this purpose, five artificial homogeneous grasslands (Melilotus suaveolens, Medicago sativa, Panicum virgatum, Bromus inermis and Miscanthus sinensis) without irrigation or fertilization were studied in the Loess Plateau. The observed steady IR were significantly different between the 1-year grasslands: M. suaveolens > M. sativa > P. virgatum > B. inermis > M. sinensis. The root length density and root surface area were negatively correlated with the average, initial and steady IR at different soil depths (p < 0.05). However, the root volume did not significantly influence IR. The stepwise multiple regression determined that the main factors controlling IR were the root length density at the depth of 5−30 cm and root surface area at the depth of 10−20 cm. Our results provide insight into the influence of grassland root morphological characteristics on water infiltration in drylands and are of interest for soil water supply programs in forage production.
ATLANTIC EPIPHYTES: a data set of vascular and non-vascular epiphyte plants and lichens from the Atlantic Forest
Ramos, Flavio Nunes ; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro ; Monalisa-Francisco, Nathalia ; Elias, João Pedro Costa ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Freitas, Leandro ; Kersten, Rodrigo ; Amorim, André Márcio ; Matos, Fernando Bittencourt ; Nunes-Freitas, André Felippe ; Alcantara, Suzana ; Alexandre, Marcia Helena Nagahama ; Almeida-Scabbia, Renata Jimenez de; Almeida, Odair José Garcia de; Alves, Fernanda Eliane ; Oliveira Alves, Rogério Marcos de; Alvim, Francine Seehaber ; Andrade, Antônio Carlos Silva de; Andrade, Simone de; Aona, Lidyanne Yuriko Saleme ; Araujo, Andréa Cardoso ; Araújo, Kelianne Carolina Targino de; Ariati, Vanessa ; Assis, Julia Camara ; Azevedo, Cecília Oliveira de; Barbosa, Bruno Ferreira ; Barbosa, Daniel Elias Ferreira ; Reis Barbosa, Fernando dos; Barros, Fabio de; Basilio, Geicilaine Alves ; Bataghin, Fernando Antonio ; Bered, Fernanda ; Bianchi, Juliana Santos ; Blum, Christopher Thomas ; Boelter, Carlos Renato ; Bonnet, Annete ; Brancalion, Pedro Henrique Santin ; Breier, Tiago Bӧer ; Toledo Brion, Caio de; Buzatto, Cristiano Roberto ; Cabral, Andressa ; Cadorin, Tiago João ; Caglioni, Eder ; Canêz, Luciana ; Cardoso, Pedro Henrique ; Carvalho, Fábia Silva de; Carvalho, Renan Gonçalves ; Catharino, Eduardo Luis Martins ; Ceballos, Sergio Javier ; Cerezini, Monise Terra ; César, Ricardo Gomes ; Cestari, Cesar ; Chaves, Cleber Juliano Neves ; Citadini-Zanette, Vanilde ; Coelho, Luiz Francisco Mello ; Coffani-Nunes, João Vicente ; Colares, Renato ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Medeiros Corrêa, Nadjara de; Ferreira da Costa, Andrea ; Costa, Grênivel Mota da; Costa, Laís Mara Santana ; Costa, Natália Gabriela Souza ; Couto, Dayvid Rodrigues ; Cristofolini, Caroline ; Rodrigues da Cruz, Ana Carolina ; Neri, Leopoldo Angelo Del; Pasquo, Mercedes di; Santos Dias, Aline dos; Carmo Dutra Dias, Letícia do; Dislich, Ricardo ; Duarte, Marília Cristina ; Fabricante, Juliano Ricardo ; Farache, Fernando H.A. ; Gelli de Faria, Ana Paula ; Faxina, Claudenice ; Terrola Martins Ferreira, Mariana ; Fischer, Erich ; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto ; Fontoura, Talita ; Francisco, Talitha Mayumi ; Furtado, Samyra Gomes ; Galetti, Mauro ; Garbin, Mário Luís ; Gasper, André Luís de; Goetze, Márcia ; Gomes-da-Silva, Janaína ; Gonçalves, Mateus Felipe Araujo ; Gonzaga, Diego Rafael ; Granero e Silva, Ana Carolina ; Camargo Guaraldo, André de; Souza Gomes Guarino, Ernestino de; Votri Guislon, Aline ; Bitencourt Hudson, Luigy ; Jardim, Jomar Gomes ; Jungbluth, Patricia ; Santos Kaeser, Selma dos; Musauer Kessous, Igor ; Mossmann Koch, Natália ; Kuniyoshi, Yoshiko Saito ; Labiak, Paulo Henrique ; Lapate, Maria Esther ; Laurenti Santos, Ana Carolina ; Barbosa Leal, Roberta Luísa ; Leite, Felipe Silveira ; Leitman, Paula ; Liboni, Ana Paula ; Liebsch, Dieter ; Lingner, Débora Vanessa ; Lombardi, Julio Antonio ; Lucas, Eve ; Reis Luzzi, Jhonny dos; Mai, Patricia ; Mania, Luiz Felipe ; Mantovani, Waldir ; Maragni, Angelica Guidoni ; Marques, Marcia Cristina Mendes ; Marquez, Gonzalo ; Martins, Cristiane ; Nascimento Martins, Laura do; Luiz Sanglard Silva Martins, Pedro ; Fregolente Faracco Mazziero, Frederico ; Aguiar Melo, Camila de; Fiuza de Melo, Maria Margarida ; Mendes, Alex Fernando ; Mesacasa, Letícia ; Cerdeira Morellato, Leonor Patricia ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa de; Muller, Adelcio ; Silva Murakami, Mariana Moreira da; Cecconello, Edinete ; Nardy, Camila ; Nervo, Michelle Helena ; Neves, Beatriz ; Guimarães Cardoso Nogueira, Matheus ; Nonato, Fabiana Regina ; Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira de; Oliveira, César Pedro Lopes de; Overbeck, Gerhard Ernst ; Marcusso, Gabriel Mendes ; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas ; Padilha, Patricia ; Padilha, Peterson Teodoro ; Pereira, Ana Clara Alves ; Pereira, Luciana Carvalho ; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo ; Pincheira-Ulbrich, Jimmy ; Pires, José Salatiel Rodrigues ; Pizo, Marco Aurélio ; Pôrto, Kátia Cavalcanti ; Rattis, Ludmila ; Rodrigues de Mendonça Reis, Joice ; Gonçalves dos Reis, Simone ; Rocha-Pessôa, Thereza Christina da; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte ; Rocha, Fernando Souza ; Rodrigues, Alba Regina Pereira ; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro ; Rogalski, Juliana Marcia ; Rosanelli, Roberta Luiza ; Rossado, Andrés ; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo ; Rother, Débora Cristina ; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos Ramon ; Saiter, Felipe Zamborlini ; Sampaio, Mauricio Bonesso ; Santana, Lucas Deziderio ; Silveira dos Santos, Juliana ; Sartorello, Ricardo ; Sazima, Marlies ; Schmitt, Juliane Luzía ; Schneider, Geniane ; Schroeder, Bruna Grosch ; Sevegnani, Lucia ; Júnior, Vasconcelos Oliveira Silva ; Silva, Fernando Rodrigues da; Silva, Maria Juliana da; Silva, Mércia Patrícia Pereira ; Silva, Rafaela Guimarães ; Silva, Sandro Menezes ; Singer, Rodrigo Bustos ; Siqueira, Geovane ; Soares, Luis Eduardo ; Sousa, Hildeberto Caldas de; Spielmann, Adriano ; Tonetti, Vinicius Rodrigues ; Toniato, Maria Teresa Zugliani ; Ulguim, Paulo Sérgio Bordoni ; Berg, Cássio van den; Berg, Eduardo van den; Varassin, Isabela Galarda ; Silva, Izabela Bitencourt Veloso da; Vibrans, Alexander Christian ; Waechter, Jorge Luiz ; Weissenberg, Erick Willy ; Windisch, Paulo Günter ; Wolowski, Marina ; Yañez, Agustina ; Yoshikawa, Vania Nobuko ; Zandoná, Luciano Ramos ; Zanella, Camila Martini ; Zanin, Elisabete Maria ; Zappi, Daniela Cristina ; Zipparro, Valesca Bononi ; Zorzanelli, João Paulo Fernandes ; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar - \ 2019
Ecology 100 (2019)2. - ISSN 0012-9658
abundance - Atlantic Forest - biodiversity data set - biodiversity hotspot - epiphyte - phorophyte - presence/absence - tropical forest
Epiphytes are hyper-diverse and one of the frequently undervalued life forms in plant surveys and biodiversity inventories. Epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world, have high endemism and radiated recently in the Pliocene. We aimed to (1) compile an extensive Atlantic Forest data set on vascular, non-vascular plants (including hemiepiphytes), and lichen epiphyte species occurrence and abundance; (2) describe the epiphyte distribution in the Atlantic Forest, in order to indicate future sampling efforts. Our work presents the first epiphyte data set with information on abundance and occurrence of epiphyte phorophyte species. All data compiled here come from three main sources provided by the authors: published sources (comprising peer-reviewed articles, books, and theses), unpublished data, and herbarium data. We compiled a data set composed of 2,095 species, from 89,270 holo/hemiepiphyte records, in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, recorded from 1824 to early 2018. Most of the records were from qualitative data (occurrence only, 88%), well distributed throughout the Atlantic Forest. For quantitative records, the most common sampling method was individual trees (71%), followed by plot sampling (19%), and transect sampling (10%). Angiosperms (81%) were the most frequently registered group, and Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae were the families with the greatest number of records (27,272 and 21,945, respectively). Ferns and Lycophytes presented fewer records than Angiosperms, and Polypodiaceae were the most recorded family, and more concentrated in the Southern and Southeastern regions. Data on non-vascular plants and lichens were scarce, with a few disjunct records concentrated in the Northeastern region of the Atlantic Forest. For all non-vascular plant records, Lejeuneaceae, a family of liverworts, was the most recorded family. We hope that our effort to organize scattered epiphyte data help advance the knowledge of epiphyte ecology, as well as our understanding of macroecological and biogeographical patterns in the Atlantic Forest. No copyright restrictions are associated with the data set. Please cite this Ecology Data Paper if the data are used in publication and teaching events.
|Soil quality: a confusing beacon for sustainability
Berge, H.F.M. ten; Schroder, J.J. ; Olesen, J.E. ; Giráldez Cervera, Juan Vicente - \ 2019
In: Proceedings International Fertiliser Society IFS - ISBN 9780853104780
Qualitative and quantitative differences in osmolytes accumulation and antioxidant activities in response to water deficit in four mediterranean limonium species
González-Orenga, Sara ; Hassan, Mohamad Al; Llinares, Josep V. ; Lisón, Purificación ; López-Gresa, Pilar M. ; Verdeguer, Mercedes ; Vicente, Oscar ; Boscaiu, Monica - \ 2019
Plants 8 (2019)11. - ISSN 2223-7747
Antioxidant enzymes - Drought - Ions - Limonium girardianum - Limonium narbonense - Limonium santapolense - Limonium virgatum - Osmolytes - Oxidative stress - Water deficit
Limonium is a genus represented in the Iberian Peninsula by numerous halophytic species that are affected in nature by salinity, and often by prolonged drought episodes. Responses to water deficit have been studied in four Mediterranean Limonium species, previously investigated regarding salt tolerance mechanisms. The levels of biochemical markers, associated with specific responses—photosynthetic pigments, mono-and divalent ions, osmolytes, antioxidant compounds and enzymes—were determined in the control and water-stressed plants, and correlated with their relative degree of stress-induced growth inhibition. All the tested Limonium taxa are relatively resistant to drought on the basis of both the constitutive presence of high leaf ion levels that contribute to osmotic adjustment, and the stress-induced accumulation of osmolytes and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, albeit with different qualitative and quantitative induction patterns. Limonium santapolense activated the strongest responses and clearly differed from Limonium virgatum, Limonium girardianum, and Limonium narbonense, as indicated by cluster and principal component analysis (PCA) analyses in agreement with its drier natural habitat, and compared to that of the other plants. Somewhat surprisingly, however, L. santapolense was the species most affected by water deficit in growth inhibition terms, which suggests the existence of additional mechanisms of defense operating in the field that cannot be mimicked in greenhouses.
Land-Management Options for Greenhouse Gas Removal and Their Impacts on Ecosystem Services and the Sustainable Development Goals
Smith, Pete ; Adams, Justin ; Beerling, David J. ; Beringer, Tim ; Calvin, Katherine V. ; Fuss, Sabine ; Griscom, Bronson ; Hagemann, Nikolas ; Kammann, Claudia ; Kraxner, Florian ; Minx, Jan C. ; Popp, Alexander ; Renforth, Phil ; Vicente Vicente, Jose Luis ; Keesstra, Saskia - \ 2019
Annual Review of Environment and Resources 44 (2019). - ISSN 1543-5938 - p. 255 - 286.
afforestation/reforestation - BECCS - biochar - bioenergy with carbon capture and storage - carbon dioxide removal - CDR - ecosystem services - greenhouse gas removal - Nature's Contributions to People - NCPs - negative emission technology - NET - SDG - soil carbon sequestration - terrestrial enhanced weathering - UN Sustainable Development Goals - wetland restoration
Land-management options for greenhouse gas removal (GGR) include afforestation or reforestation (AR), wetland restoration, soil carbon sequestration (SCS), biochar, terrestrial enhanced weathering (TEW), and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). We assess the opportunities and risks associated with these options through the lens of their potential impacts on ecosystem services (Nature's Contributions to People; NCPs) and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We find that all land-based GGR options contribute positively to at least some NCPs and SDGs. Wetland restoration and SCS almost exclusively deliver positive impacts. A few GGR options, such as afforestation, BECCS, and biochar potentially impact negatively some NCPs and SDGs, particularly when implemented at scale, largely through competition for land. For those that present risks or are least understood, more research is required, and demonstration projects need to proceed with caution. For options that present low risks and provide cobenefits, implementation can proceed more rapidly following no-regrets principles.
8th International Symposium on "Delivery of Functionality in Complex Food Systems"
Linden, E. van der; Marangoni, Alejandro ; Vicente, António ; Singh, Harjinder ; Ubbink, Job ; Mezzenga, Raffaele ; Livney, Yoav ; Axelos, Monique A.V. ; Boland, Mike ; Relkin, Perla - \ 2019
Correction to: Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer
Bien, Stephanie A. ; Su, Yu Ru ; Conti, David V. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Qu, Conghui ; Guo, Xingyi ; Lu, Yingchang ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Auer, Paul L. ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Brenner, Hermann ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Caan, Bette J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Carlson, Christopher S. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chen, Sai ; Connolly, Charles M. ; Easton, Douglas F. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Gallinger, Steven ; Giles, Graham G. ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Hampe, Jochen ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Jacobs, Eric J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Kang, Hyun Min ; Kühn, Tilman ; Küry, Sébastien ; Lejbkowicz, Flavio ; Marchand, Loic Le; Milne, Roger L. ; Li, Li ; Li, Christopher I. ; Lindblom, Annika ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Martín, Vicente ; McNeil, Caroline E. ; Melas, Marilena ; Moreno, Victor ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Pharaoh, Paul D.P. ; Potter, John D. ; Qu, Chenxu ; Riboli, Elio ; Rennert, Gad ; Sala, Núria ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Scacheri, Peter C. ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Severi, Gianluca ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Smith, Joshua D. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Tumino, Rosario ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; White, Emily ; Wolk, Alicja ; Woods, Michael O. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Abeçasis, Goncalo R. ; Casey, Graham ; Nickerson, Deborah A. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Hsu, Li ; Zheng, Wei ; Peters, Ulrike - \ 2019
Human Genetics 138 (2019)7. - ISSN 0340-6717 - p. 789 - 791.
Every author has erroneously been assigned to the affiliation “62”. The affiliation 62 belongs to the author Graham Casey.