Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Biocultural diversity (BCD) in European cities – Interactions between motivations, experiences and environment in public parks
    Vierikko, Kati ; Gonçalves, Paula ; Haase, Dagmar ; Elands, Birgit ; Ioja, Cristian ; Jaatsi, Mia ; Pieniniemi, Mari ; Lindgren, Jasmina ; Grilo, Filipa ; Santos-Reis, Margarida ; Niemelä, Jari ; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa - \ 2020
    Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 48 (2020). - ISSN 1618-8667
    Biocultural diversity - Place-based research - Public parks - Relationship - Urban

    Urban green spaces (UGS) provide multiple benefits, and public parks in particular have a key role in supporting ecological and social sustainability in cities, contributing to human-nature interactions. We studied the interrelationships between uses, experiences and the environment by adopting a novel concept of urban biocultural diversity (BCD). The concept identifies three interlinked spheres of urban BCD: materialised, lived and stewardship. We conducted place-based research in 33 parks located in four European capitals: Helsinki, Berlin, Bucharest and Lisbon. A total of 1474 visitors were interviewed concerning their motivations to use the park and their experiences during the visit. Using an open-ended survey, we revealed more than 50 motivations for park use and over 100 features people enjoyed during their visits. On the other hand, visitors mentioned far fewer things that disturbed them (60). We revealed that despite the fact motivations to use parks were strongly human-oriented, visitors widely enjoyed the environmental characteristics of parks, and especially nature. We found that parks located in neighbourhoods with low socio-economic status and outside the central area of the city were structurally less diverse than parks located in the city core. The structurally diverse parks enhanced motivations to use them, and increased overall enjoyments of the environment. We revealed clear differences in motivations and enjoyments between cities, implying that the day-to-day practices of people using and experiencing nature varies between cities.

    Participation through place-based e-tools: A valuable resource for urban green infrastructure governance?
    Steen Møller, Maja ; Olafsson, Anton ; Vierikko, Kati ; Sehested, Karina ; Elands, Birgit ; Buijs, Arjen ; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil - \ 2019
    Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 245 - 253.
    Digital tools - E-tools - Participatory governance - Place - Urban Green space

    Digital communication tools for information sharing are being increasingly used in governance, including green space governance and natural resource management and planning. Citizens’ resources in the form of knowledge, skills, as well as their collaboration with authorities have been identified in the governance literature as crucial elements in sustainable development. Technical advancement in internet communication technology (ICT) presents novel opportunities for engaging and leveraging civic knowledge and skills into different levels of governance. These options are still largely unexplored in governance research on urban green infrastructure (UGI). In this paper, we analyse three different digital tools (e-tools) from the perspective of a Scandinavian planning context. We explore how e-tools can support UGI governance and the perceived barriers. The e-tools explored are three digital platforms with a focus on public participation related to UGI. The three e-tools are map-based, i.e., users share information on digital maps: so-called Volunteered Geographic Information. Here, we call them place-based e-tools. We explore and analyse their adoption into UGI governance, the institutional contexts that affect them and also discuss potential of e-tools in place-based governance. Our findings indicate that the analysed tools all facilitate UGI governance in terms of engaging citizens in use, management, and planning of UGI. However, there are challenges to be aware of, such as the digital divide and the importance of clear participatory frameworks. We conclude that place-based e-tools have potential for UGI governance and that there is potential to strengthen links to ‘place’, while continuously testing and challenging new opportunities as technology rapidly develops.

    Biocultural diversity: A novel concept to assess human-nature interrelations, nature conservation and stewardship in cities
    Elands, B.H.M. ; Vierikko, K. ; Andersson, E. ; Fischer, L.K. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Haase, D. ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Luz, A.C. ; Niemelä,, J. ; Santos-Reis, M. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2019
    Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 29 - 34.
    Biocultural diversity is an evolving perspective for studying the interrelatedness between people and their natural environment, not only in ecoregional hotspots and cultural landscapes, but also in urban green spaces. Developed in the 1990s in order to denote the diversity of life in all its manifestations―biological, cultural and linguistic―co-evolving within complex socio-ecological systems such as cities, biocultural diversity was identified in the GREEN SURGE project as a response to recent challenges cities face. Most important challenges are
    the loss of nature and degradation of ecosystems in and around cities as well as an alienation of urban residents from and loss of interaction with nature. The notion of biocultural diversity is dynamic in nature and takes local values and practices of relating to biodiversity of different cultural groups as a starting point for sustainable living with biodiversity. The issue is not only how to preserve or restore biocultural practices and values, but also how to modify, adapt and create biocultural diversity in ways that resonate with urban transformations. As future societies will largely diverge from today’s societies, the cultural perspective on living with (urban) nature needs careful reconsideration. Biocultural diversity is not conceived as a definite concept providing prescriptions of what to see and study, but as a reflexive and sensitising concept that can be used to assess the different values and knowledge of people that reflect how they live with biodiversity. This short communication paper introduces a conceptual framework for studying the multi-dimensional features of biocultural diversity in cities along the three key dimensions of materialized, lived and stewardship, being departure points from which biocultural diversity can be studied.
    Biocultural diversity – a new approach to understand connections between people and nature in cities
    Elands, B.H.M. ; Haase, Dagmar ; Vierikko, Kati ; Andersson, E. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Fischer, L. ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Luz, A.C. ; Niemelä, Jari ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2018
    Biocultural diversity indicators as a support-decision tool for planning and managing urban green spaces
    Gonçalves, P. ; Vierikko, Kati ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Luz, A.C. ; Branquinho, C. ; Santos-Reis, M. - \ 2017
    In: Spaces of dialog for places of dignity. - - p. 489 - 489.
    Biocultural diversity in the urban context; how to asses it?
    Elands, B.H.M. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Vierikko, Kati ; Luz, A.C. ; Branquinho, C. ; Santos-Reis, M. - \ 2017
    Greensurge and Biocultural diversity
    Elands, B.H.M. ; Vierikko, K. ; Niemela, J. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2017
    Identifying, Quantifying and Qualifying Biocultural Diversity : Assessment of biocultural diversity
    Vierikko, K. ; Andersson, E. ; Branquinho, C. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Fischer, L. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Grilo, F. ; Haase, D. ; Ioja, C. ; Kowarik, Ingo - \ 2017
    Copenhagen : Green Surge - 63
    This report is the final deliverable (D2.3) of WP2 of the GREEN
    SURGE project (2013-2017) as a part of the EU FP7 (ENV.2013.6.2-
    5-603567)
    BCD: linkages between people and nature – database, typology and indicators
    Vierikko, K. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Luz, A.C. ; Andersson, E. ; Haase, D. ; Fischer, L. ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Niemelä,, J. - \ 2017
    Green Surge - 54
    Internal project report that outlines biocultural diversity (BCD)
    database, typology and indicators in urban context as a part of the EU FP7
    (ENV.2013.6.2-5-603567) GREEN SURGE project (2013-2017)
    Considering the ways biocultural diversity helps enforce the urban green infrastructure in times of urban transformation
    Vierikko, Kati ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Niemela, J. ; Andersson, Erik ; Buijs, A.E. ; Fischer, Leonie Katharina ; Haase, Dagmar ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kabisch, Nadja ; Luz, Ana Catarina ; Stahl, Anton Olafsson ; Száraz, Luca ; Jagt, Alexander van der; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil - \ 2017
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 22 (2017). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 7 - 12.
    Traditionally, biocultural diversity (BCD) has been researched in non-western and indigenous societies. Recently, it has also been applied in urbanized and industrialized societies, in particular for the planning and management of urban green infrastructure (UGI). Diversity in human and biological systems is considered to support cities’ adaptation capacity. However, diversity might also increase the risk of conflicts. In this paper, we discuss not only how the BCD approach could strengthen studies on human–nature interactions in an urban context, but also the potential pitfalls of applying BCD. By means of two examples of BCD research, that is people in-places and people-making UGI in cities, we argue that BCD as a reflexive concept can strengthen UGI planning and management.
    Advances urban green infrastructure planning and implementation : innovative approaches and strategies from European cities
    Hansen, R. ; Rolf, W. ; Rall, E. ; Pauleit, S. ; Erlwein, S. ; Fohlmeister, S. ; Santos, A. ; Luz, A.C. ; Branquinho, C. ; Santos-Reis, M. ; Gerőházi, E. ; Száraz, L. ; Tosics, I. ; Davies, C. ; DeBellis, Y. ; Lafortezza, R. ; Vierikko, K. ; Jagt, A. van der; Cvejić, R. ; Zeleznikar, S. ; Nastran, M. ; Pintar, M. ; Hjorth Caspersen, O. ; Olafsson, A.S. ; Gentin, S. ; Kronenberg, J. ; Delshammar, T. ; Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Otten, R. - \ 2016
    University of Copenhagen (Greensurge ) - 204
    Governing cities reflexively-The biocultural diversity concept as an alternative to ecosystem services
    Buizer, Marleen ; Elands, Birgit ; Vierikko, Kati - \ 2016
    Environmental Science & Policy 62 (2016). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 7 - 13.
    Biocultural diversity - Ecosystem services - Reflexive governance - Transdisciplinarity - Urban planning

    With the aim to embed ecology more forcefully into decision-making, the concept of Ecosystems Services (ES) has gained significant ground among policy-makers and researchers. The increasing recognition of the importance of urban green areas for the quality of life in growing cities has led proponents of ES approaches to argue for an uptake of the approach in urban environmental decision-making. However, the ES approach has been criticized for standing too much at a distance from local communities and their day-to-day practices and for insufficiently taking into account the potential trade-offs between different qualities or preferences. In this paper we argue that other concepts, doing other work, need to be added to the debate about futures of urban governance and research. Biocultural diversity is suggested as one such alternative concept. By its emphasis on diversity, biocultural diversity can account for the many ways in which people live with green areas in the urban landscape, acknowledges the different knowledges this involves, and can reveal conflicts and ambivalence that may be at stake. This sets up for a reflexive, transdisciplinary research process that questions and contextualizes knowledge and worldviews including those of researchers. A reflexive, transdisciplinary research, then, is a productive catalyst for forms of reflexive urban governance that recognise and respond to this diversity and provide platforms for contestation.

    Innovative Governance of Urban Green Spaces : Learning from 18 innovative examples across Europe
    Buijs, A.E. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Havik, Gilles ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Gerőházi, Eva ; Jagt, Alesander van der; Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Steen Møller, Maja ; Vierikko, Kati - \ 2016
    University of Copenhagen (Project Green Surge ENV.2013.6.2-5-603567; 2013-2017) - 177
    Assessment framework for urban green space governance arrangment milestone 40. : Innovative governance of urban green spaces and biocutural diversity
    Buijs, A.E. ; Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Jagt, Alesander van der; Delshammar, Tim ; Santos, Arthur ; Fors, Hanna ; Gerohazi, Eva ; Tosic, Ivan ; Vierikko, Kati ; Hansen, Rieke ; Nastran, Mojca - \ 2015
    EU (Project Green Surge MS40 EU FP7) - 38 p.
    Towards diverse and sustainable governance – Assessment of biocultural diversity (BCD) in European cities
    Vierikko, K. ; Buizer, I.M. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Konijnendijk Van-den Bosch, C. ; Niemelä,, J. - \ 2015
    New York : United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs - 4 p.
    Policy interpretations and manifestation of biocultural diversity in urbanized Europe: conservation of lived biodiversity
    Elands, B.H.M. ; Wiersum, K.F. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Vierikko, K. - \ 2015
    Biodiversity and Conservation 24 (2015)13. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 3347 - 3366.
    Biocultural diversity, which refers to the inextricable link between biodiversity and cultural diversity, has been predominantly associated with the traditional ways in which indigenous people in tropical countries interact with the natural environment. But it does not have to be restricted to these circumstances. Biocultural diversity may also be regarded as an interesting concept for understanding how people in industrialized and globalized societies deal with nature. This paper explores biocultural diversity in 20 European cities by considering (i) how biocultural diversity is interpreted in urban planning and governance, and (ii) what actual manifestations of biocultural diversity are present in these cities. Despite the fact that the concept of biocultural diversity was hardly recognized by city authorities, interviewees gave many examples of how biodiversity and cultural diversity are taken into account in (in) formal city policies. The research revealed two main manifestations of biocultural diversity within urban Europe: biocultural diversity grounded in ecological features, and cultural values as a basic foundation for biocultural diversity. Consequently, urban biocultural diversity was found to have two spatial levels: the city level and the site level. The former is the domain of governmental policy makers who discuss biocultural diversity in ‘green space networks’ in a rather static way. The latter is the domain where citizens participate in decisionmaking and the management of green spaces; it is here that cultural dynamics are most acknowledged.
    Biocultural diversity - concept and assessment in the urban context; published project report on BCD concept and explorative survey of BCD in 20 European cities
    Vierikko, K. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Száraz, L. ; Niemelä, J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University - 39 p.
    (external) research report extra toevoegen als serie informatie: D2.1 EU FP7 project GREEN SURGE
    Conceptual framework for biocultural diversity. Internal report on the conceptual BCD framework
    Vierikko, K. ; Niemelä, J. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Buizer, I.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University - 26 p.
    extra informatie: Milestone 20 EU FP7 project GREEN SURGE
    Green Infrastructure and Urban Biodiversity for Sustainable Urban Development and the Green Economy (GREEN SURGE) – Is there place for biocultural diversity in the cities?
    Vierikko, K. ; Niemela, J. ; Buizer, I.M. ; Elands, B.H.M. - \ 2014
    In: Proceedings of the 7th Annual ESP Conference 2014: Local action for the common good. - - p. 32 - 32.
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