Predictive models in ecotoxicology: Bridging the gap between scientific progress and regulatory applicability—Remarks and research needs
Vighi, Marco ; Barsi, Alpar ; Focks, Andreas ; Grisoni, Francesca - \ 2019
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 15 (2019)3. - ISSN 1551-3793 - p. 345 - 351.
Bioaccumulation modelling - Effect modelling - QSAR - Regulation - TK–TD
This paper concludes a special series of 7 articles (4 on toxicokinetic–toxicodynamic [TK–TD] models and 3 on quantitative structure-activity relationship [QSAR] models) published in previous issues of Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management (IEAM). The present paper summarizes the special series articles and highlights their contribution to the topic of increasing the regulatory applicability of effect models. For both TK–TD and QSAR approaches, we then describe the main research needs. The use of TK–TD models for describing sublethal effects must be better developed, particularly through the improvement of the dynamic energy budget (DEBtox) approach. The potential of TK–TD models for moving from lower (molecular) to higher (population) hierarchical levels is highlighted as a promising research line. Some relevant issues to improve the acceptance of QSAR models at the regulatory level are also described, such as increased transparency of the performance assessment and of the modeling algorithms, model documentation, relevance of the chosen target for regulatory needs, and improved mechanistic interpretability. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;00:000–000.
Use of models for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines in European aquaculture: Current situation and future perspectives
Rico, Andreu ; Vighi, Marco ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Horst, Mechteld ter; Macken, Ailbhe ; Lillicrap, Adam ; Falconer, Lynne ; Telfer, Trevor C. - \ 2019
Reviews in Aquaculture 11 (2019)4. - ISSN 1753-5123 - p. 969 - 988.
Antimicrobials - Antiparasitics - Aquaculture - Environmental models - Environmental risk assessment
Veterinary Medicinal Products (VMPs) are used in intensive aquaculture production to treat a wide range of bacterial and parasitic infestations. Their release into the environment poses concerns regarding their potential ecotoxicological risks to aquatic ecosystems, which need to be evaluated making use of appropriate Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) schemes and models. This study presents an overview of the major aquaculture production systems in Europe, the VMPs most commonly used, and the environmental quality standards and regulatory procedures available for their ERA. Furthermore, it describes the state-of-the-art on the development of environmental models capable of assessing the fate, exposure, ecotoxicological effects and risks of VMPs in aquaculture production systems, and discusses their level of development and implementation within European aquaculture. This study shows that the use of environmental models in regulatory ERA is somewhat limited in many European countries. Major efforts have been dedicated to assess the fate and exposure of antiparasitic compounds in salmonid cage systems, particularly in Scotland, while models and scenarios for assessing dispersal of antimicrobials, in general, and antiparasitic compounds in the Mediterranean as well as in Scandinavian regions are less available. On the other hand, the use of ecological models for assessing the effects and risks of VMPs is almost absent. Recommendations are provided to improve the chemical exposure and effect assessments and the ecological realism of the modelling outcomes, paying special attention to the protection goals set for the regulatory ERA of VMPs in Europe.
Toward sustainable environmental quality : Priority research questions for Europe
Brink, Paul J. Van den; Boxall, Alistair B.A. ; Maltby, Lorraine ; Brooks, Bryan W. ; Rudd, Murray A. ; Backhaus, Thomas ; Spurgeon, David ; Verougstraete, Violaine ; Ajao, Charmaine ; Ankley, Gerald T. ; Apitz, Sabine E. ; Arnold, Kathryn ; Brodin, Tomas ; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel ; Chapman, Jennifer ; Corrales, Jone ; Coutellec, Marie Agnès ; Fernandes, Teresa F. ; Fick, Jerker ; Ford, Alex T. ; Giménez Papiol, Gemma ; Groh, Ksenia J. ; Hutchinson, Thomas H. ; Kruger, Hank ; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K. ; Loutseti, Stefania ; Marshall, Stuart ; Muir, Derek ; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E. ; Paul, Kai B. ; Rico, Andreu ; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael ; Römbke, Jörg ; Rydberg, Tomas ; Segner, Helmut ; Smit, Mathijs ; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Vighi, Marco ; Werner, Inge ; Zimmer, Elke I. ; Wensem, Joke van - \ 2018
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 37 (2018)9. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 2281 - 2295.
Chemical management - Environmental risk assessment - Global megatrends - Key questions exercise - Sustainability
The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals have been established to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all. Delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals will require a healthy and productive environment. An understanding of the impacts of chemicals which can negatively impact environmental health is therefore essential to the delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, current research on and regulation of chemicals in the environment tend to take a simplistic view and do not account for the complexity of the real world, which inhibits the way we manage chemicals. There is therefore an urgent need for a step change in the way we study and communicate the impacts and control of chemicals in the natural environment. To do this requires the major research questions to be identified so that resources are focused on questions that really matter. We present the findings of a horizon-scanning exercise to identify research priorities of the European environmental science community around chemicals in the environment. Using the key questions approach, we identified 22 questions of priority. These questions covered overarching questions about which chemicals we should be most concerned about and where, impacts of global megatrends, protection goals, and sustainability of chemicals; the development and parameterization of assessment and management frameworks; and mechanisms to maximize the impact of the research. The research questions identified provide a first-step in the path forward for the research, regulatory, and business communities to better assess and manage chemicals in the natural environment.
Predictive models in ecotoxicology : Bridging the gap between scientific progress and regulatory applicability
Focks, Andreas ; Grisoni, Francesca ; Barsi, Alpar ; Vighi, Marco - \ 2018
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 14 (2018)5. - ISSN 1551-3793 - p. 601 - 603.
Ecotoxicology - Models - QSAR - Regulation - TD/TK
This special series is the outcome of the session "Predictive models in ecotoxicology: Bridging the gap between scientific progress and regulatory applicability," held at the 27th SETAC Europe annual meeting (Brussels, May 2017). In this foreword the rationale behind the special series, the reasons for proposing it, and its objectives are described briefly.
Mapping cumulative environmental risks: examples from the EU NoMiracle project
Pistocchi, A. ; Groenwold, J. ; Lahr, J. ; Loos, M. ; Mujica, M. ; Ragas, A.M.J. ; Rallo, R. ; Sala, S. ; Schlink, U. ; Strebel, K. ; Vighi, M. ; Vizcaino, P. - \ 2011
Environmental Modeling and Assessment 16 (2011)2. - ISSN 1420-2026 - p. 119 - 133.
self-organizing map - surface waters - pesticide mixtures - voc concentrations - independent action - exposure - indoor - contamination - validation - substances
We present examples of cumulative chemical risk mapping methods developed within the NoMiracle project. The different examples illustrate the application of the concentration addition (CA) approach to pesticides at different scale, the integration in space of cumulative risks to individual organisms under the CA assumption, and two techniques to (1) integrate risks using data-driven, parametric statistical methods, and (2) cluster together areas with similar occurrence of different risk factors, respectively. The examples are used to discuss some general issues, particularly on the conventional nature of cumulative risk maps, and may provide some suggestions for the practice of cumulative risk mapping.
Ecological vulnerability analysis: A river basin case study
Ippolito, A. ; Sala, S. ; Faber, J.H. ; Vighi, M. - \ 2010
Science of the Total Environment 408 (2010)18. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 3880 - 3890.
risk-assessment - pesticides - toxicity
Assessing and quantifying ecosystem vulnerability is a key issue in site-specific ecotoxicological risk assessment. In this paper, the concept of vulnerability, particularly referred to aquatic ecosystems is defined. Sensitivity to stressors, susceptibility for exposure and recovery capability are described as component of vulnerability of biological communities. The potential for habitat changes must also be considered in ecosystem vulnerability assessment. A procedure based on the application of an ecosystem vulnerability index is proposed. The method allows the assessment of vulnerability of riverine ecosystems to multiple stressors. The procedure is applied to two river systems in northern Italy: River Serio, subject to strong human pressure, and River Trebbia, in semi-natural conditions, as reference system. Macrozoobenthos is chosen as the indicator community. The actual quality of River Serio was evaluated as the result of the multiple stressor pressure on the reference system. Values and limitations of the approach are discussed.
Ecological vulnerability in risk assessment - a review and perspectives
Lange, H.J. de; Sala, S. ; Vighi, M. ; Faber, J.H. - \ 2010
Science of the Total Environment 408 (2010)18. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 3871 - 3879.
delphi method - resilience - ecotoxicology - contaminants - ecosystems - indicator - framework - responses - ranking - systems
This paper reviews the application of ecological vulnerability analysis in risk assessment and describes new developments in methodology. For generic non-site-specific assessments (e.g. for the requirements of most European directives on dangerous chemicals) risk is characterised just on the basis of the ratio between an effect indicator and an exposure indicator. However, when the actual risk for a specific ecosystem is desired, the concept of ecological vulnerability may be more appropriate. This calls for a change in thinking, from sensitivity at the organism level to vulnerability at higher organization levels, and thus forms the link from laboratory toxicology to field effects at population, community or ecosystem level. To do so, biological and ecological characteristics of the ecosystems under concern are needed to estimate the ecological vulnerability. In this review we describe different vulnerability analysis methods developed for populations (of a single species), communities (consisting of different populations of species) and ecosystems (community and habitat combined). We also give some examples of methods developed for socio-ecological systems. Aspects that all methods share are the use of expert judgment, the input of stakeholders, ranking and mapping of the results, and the qualitative nature of the results. A new general framework is presented to guide future ecological vulnerability analysis. This framework can be used as part of ecological risk assessment, but also in risk management. We conclude that the further quantification of ecological vulnerability is a valuable contribution to vulnerability assessment.