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Biochemical composition and in vitro digestibility of Galdieria sulphuraria grown on spent cherry-brine liquid
Massa, Marina ; Buono, Silvia ; Langellotti, Antonio L. ; Martello, Anna ; Russo, Giovanni L. ; Troise, Dario A. ; Sacchi, Raffaele ; Vitaglione, Paola ; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2019
New Biotechnology 53 (2019). - ISSN 1871-6784 - p. 9 - 15.
Biochemical composition - Galdieria sulphuraria - In vitro digestibility - Spent cherry-brine liquid
The aim of this work was to valorise an industrial food by-product and to produce a microalgal biomass rich in phytochemicals at high added value for food and nutraceutical applications. The biochemical composition, in vitro digestibility and antioxidant activity of Galdieria sulphuraria biomass grown heterotrophically on standard medium (SM) and on spent Cherry-Brine Liquid (sCBL) were assessed and compared. The biomass produced in sCBL was characterized by a lower content of proteins and lipids, while showing an increase in carbohydrates and polyphenols (5.3 vs 1.6 mg g−1). The sCBL biomass lipid moiety had a lower palmitic and linoleic acid content and a higher oleic acid concentration than SM. The total protein digestibility of Galdieria grown in SM and sCBL was 79% and 63% respectively. The antioxidant activity (AA) of G. sulphuraria biomass grown in sCBL was significantly higher than that grown in SM. Studying the AA release for sCBL biomass during the digestion, the highest value was found in the intestinal phase. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria has a valuable nutritional profile and could become a valuable source of phytochemicals, depending on the cultivation media. Cultivation on sCBL would allow an environmentally and economically sustainable process, valorising the food by-product and producing a microalgal biomass rich in cherry anthocyanins with high AA released at the intestinal level.
A mediterranean diet mix has chemopreventive effects in a murine model of colorectal cancer modulating apoptosis and the gut microbiota
Piazzi, Giulia ; Prossomariti, Anna ; Baldassarre, Maurizio ; Montagna, Claudio ; Vitaglione, Paola ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Biagi, Elena ; Candela, Marco ; Brigidi, Patrizia ; Balbi, Tiziana ; Munarini, Alessandra ; Belluzzi, Andrea ; Pariali, Milena ; Bazzoli, Franco ; Ricciardiello, Luigi - \ 2019
Frontiers in Oncology 9 (2019)MAR. - ISSN 2234-943X
Chemoprevention - Colorectal cancer - Mediterranean diet - Microbiota - Omega-3
Objectives: Unhealthy dietary patterns have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) onset while Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been proposed for CRC prevention. This study evaluated the effect of a Mediterranean Diet Mix (MD-MIX) on colonic tumors development in A/J mice fed a low-fat (LFD) or a high-fat western diet (HFWD), and injected with the procarcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). Materials and Methods: Forty A/J male mice were randomly assigned into four feeding arms (10 mice/arm; LFD, LFD-MD-MIX, HFWD, HFWD-MD-MIX) to be treated with AOM. Ten mice were exposed to the diets alone (Healthy LFD and Healthy HFWD) to be used as control. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were evaluated at sacrifice. Mucosal fatty acid content and urinary phenolic compounds were assayed by mass spectrometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay and gene expression markers. Cell proliferation was evaluated by Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Microbiota composition was assessed at different time points by 16S RNA sequencing. Results: A tumor incidence of 100% was obtained in AOM-treated mice. The MD-MIX supplementation was able to reduce the number of colonic lesions in both LFD and HFWD-fed mice and to induce apoptosis, in particular in the LFD-MD-MIX arm. Moreover, a preventive effect on low-grade dysplasia and macroscopical lesions (>1 mm) development was found in HFWD-fed mice together with a regulation of the AOM-driven intestinal dysbiosis. Conclusions: MD-MIX was able to counteract CRC development in mice under different dietary backgrounds through the regulation of apoptosis and gut microbiota.
Values and value conflicts in snack providing of Dutch, Polish, Indonesian and Italian mothers
Damen, Femke W.M. ; Hofstede, Gert Jan ; Steenbekkers, Bea L.P.A. ; Vitaglione, Paola ; Pellegrini, Nicoletta ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2019
Food Research International 115 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 554 - 561.
Child - Childhood obesity - Children's dietary behavior - Cross-cultural differences - Culture - Food choice - Mother - National culture
This study investigates which values play a role in the decision of mothers about snacks to offer to their young children with a focus on the value conflicts that might occur. The study explores whether national culture is reflected in mothers' values in snack choice for their young children and the related value conflicts. Semi-structured interviews with 67 mothers of 2–7 years old children divided over 4 national cultures (Dutch, Polish, Indonesian and Italian) were conducted. Questions were asked about their values and value conflicts when providing a snack to their young children. Four key themes could be distinguished to cluster the mentioned values. The health-related key theme includes all values that are associated with the healthiness of the product, the child-related key theme all values that connects to the child, the time-related key theme includes the value convenience and the product-related key theme includes all values that are associated with the product itself. Dutch and Polish mothers mostly valued health of the snack, whereas Indonesian and Italian mothers mostly valued the preference of their child. Data also shows specific prevalence between values and nationalities: convenience was very important for Dutch mothers, valuing organic food was typical for Polish mothers, religion played a role for Indonesian mothers, while Italian mothers placed more value on brand compared to the mothers of other cultures. In all cultures, the value conflicts mentioned were mainly related to health.
Milk protein enriched beverage reduces post-exercise energy intakes in women with higher levels of cognitive dietary restraint
Virgilio, Nicolina ; Donno, Roberta De; Bandini, Enrica ; Napolitano, Aurora ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Vitaglione, Paola - \ 2019
Food Research International 118 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 58 - 64.
Appetite control - Eating behaviour - Energy intake - Functional food - Milk proteins
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the satiating efficacy of milk proteins compared to carbohydrates in twenty women during post-exercise period. Methods: A milk protein-enriched beverage (MPB), and an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched beverage (CB) containing respectively 9.3. g and 0.3. g of milk proteins per 100. mL beverage, were developed and tested in a satiety study with 20 free-living healthy and normal weight women. The participants drank 250. mL of the two beverages after an aerobic exercise session, filled daily food diaries and rated their appetite on visual analogue scale (VAS), in two days over three consecutive weeks. A psychometric evaluation of eating behaviour was obtained by three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ). Results: No differences in appetite feelings and energy intakes between MPB and CB were found in the study population. However, 9 participants were significantly less hungry (-9% vs + 15%, p 0.03) and ate later (208. min vs 127. min, p 0.03) and less (-10% vs + 8% daily energy intake, p 0.01) when they had MPB than CB. These women had a slightly higher BMI and were more restrained than the others. Conclusions: Data showed that MPB compared to CB could modify daily eating habits by enhancing satiety in women with a stronger cognitive control of eating behaviour.
Twenty-five years of total antioxidant capacity measurement of foods and biological fluids: merits and limitations
Pellegrini, Nicoletta ; Vitaglione, Paola ; Granato, Daniel ; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2018
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2018). - ISSN 0022-5142
epidemiological studies - food antioxidants - food, diet - in vitro total antioxidant capacity - phenolic compounds - plasma total antioxidant capacity
This review summarises 25 years of investigations on antioxidants research in foods and biological fluids and critically analyses the merits and limitations of using the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) measurement in the metabolomic era. An enormous bulk of knowledge was produced regarding the antioxidant capacity of foods and large TAC databases were developed. A direct link between a food TAC value and any health benefit is erroneous and has led to several cases of consumer deception. However, the striking epidemiological evidence associating a high dietary TAC with some disease prevention and the availability of well-constructed TAC databases deserve attention and must be taken into account to establish the usefulness of measuring TAC in both foods and biological samples. The in vivo TAC measurement, usually performed in plasma, is influenced by many external factors, such as dietary habits, as well as environmental and behavioural factors, which are integrated towards homeostatic control by fine physiological mechanisms with high inter-individual variability. Therefore, plasma TAC cannot be considered as a unique biomarker of individual antioxidant status. However, the combined evaluation of plasma TAC with known markers of disease, individual metabolism, inflammation and genetics, as well as with markers of gut microbiota composition and activity, may lead to the identification of populations that are more responsive to food/diet TAC. In this framework, the appropriate use of TAC measurement both in food and in vivo can still provide support for the interpretation of complex phenomena and be a tool for sample screening when making a quick decision toward in-depth research investigations.
The quantification of free Amadori compounds and amino acids allows to model the bound Maillard reaction products formation in soybean products
Troise, Antonio Dario ; Wiltafsky, Markus ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Vitaglione, Paola - \ 2018
Food Chemistry 247 (2018). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 29 - 38.
Amadori products - Chemometrics - Maillard reaction - Mass spectrometry
The quantification of protein bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) is still a challenge in food chemistry. Protein hydrolysis is the bottleneck step: it is time consuming and the protein degradation is not always complete. In this study, the quantitation of free amino acids and Amadori products (APs) was compared to the percentage of blocked lysine by using chemometric tools. Eighty thermally treated soybean samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry to measure the concentration of free amino acids, free APs and the protein-bound markers of the Maillard reaction (furosine, Nε-(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine, Nε-(carboxyethyl)-L-lysine, total lysine). Results demonstrated that Discriminant Analysis (DA) and Correlated Component Regression (CCR) correctly estimated the percent of blocked lysine in a validation and prediction set. These findings indicate that the measure of free markers reflects the extent of protein damage in soybean samples and it suggests the possibility to obtain rapid information on the quality of the industrial processes.
Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans
Mennella, Ilario ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Ferracane, Rosalia ; Arlorio, Marco ; Pattarino, Franco ; Vitaglione, Paola - \ 2016
The British journal of nutrition 116 (2016)10. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1841 - 1850.
Bitter taste receptors - Microencapsulation - Nutrient sensing - Satiety
Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter ingredient (EBI) with a core of bitter Gentiana lutea root extract and a coating of ethylcellulose–stearate was developed and included in a vanilla microencapsulated bitter ingredient-enriched pudding (EBIP). The coating masked bitterness in the mouth, allowing the release of bitter secoiridoids in the gastrointestinal tract. A cross-over randomised study was performed: twenty healthy subjects consumed at breakfast EBIP (providing 100 mg of secoiridoids) or the control pudding (CP) on two different occasions. Blood samples, glycaemia and appetite ratings were collected at baseline and 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after breakfast. Gastrointestinal peptides, endocannabinoids (EC) and N-acylethanolamines (NAE) were measured in plasma samples. Energy intakes were measured at an ad libitum lunch 3 h after breakfast and over the rest of the day (post lunch) through food diaries. No significant difference in postprandial plasma responses of gastrointestinal hormones, glucose, EC and NAE and of appetite between EBIP and CP was found. However, a trend for a higher response of glucagon-like peptide-1 after EBIP than after CP was observed. EBIP determined a significant 30 % lower energy intake over the post-lunch period compared with CP. These findings were consistent with the tailored release of bitter-tasting compounds from EBIP along the gastrointestinal tract. This study demonstrated that microencapsulated bitter secoiridoids were effective in reducing daily energy intake in humans.
Inflammation increases NOTCH1 activity via MMP9 and is counteracted by Eicosapentaenoic Acid-free fatty acid in colon cancer cells
Fazio, Chiara ; Piazzi, Giulia ; Vitaglione, Paola ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Munarini, Alessandra ; Prossomariti, Anna ; Milazzo, Maddalena ; Angelo, Leonarda D'; Napolitano, Manuela ; Chieco, Pasquale ; Belluzzi, Andrea ; Bazzoli, Franco ; Ricciardiello, Luigi - \ 2016
Scientific Reports 6 (2016). - ISSN 2045-2322
Aberrant NOTCH1 signalling is critically involved in multiple models of colorectal cancer (CRC) and a prominent role of NOTCH1 activity during inflammation has emerged. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a crucial event promoting malignant transformation, is regulated by inflammation and Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) plays an important role in this process. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, was shown to prevent colonic tumors in different settings. We recently found that an extra-pure formulation of EPA as Free Fatty Acid (EPA-FFA) protects from colon cancer development in a mouse model of Colitis-Associated Cancer (CAC) through modulation of NOTCH1 signalling. In this study, we exposed colon cancer cells to an inflammatory stimulus represented by a cytokine-enriched Conditioned Medium (CM), obtained from THP1-differentiated macrophages. We found, for the first time, that CM strongly up-regulated NOTCH1 signalling and EMT markers, leading to increased invasiveness. Importantly, NOTCH1 signalling was dependent on MMP9 activity, upon CM exposure. We show that a non-cytotoxic pre-treatment with EPA-FFA antagonizes the effect of inflammation on NOTCH1 signalling, with reduction of MMP9 activity and invasiveness. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in CRC cells, inflammation induces NOTCH1 activity through MMP9 up-regulation and that this mechanism can be counteracted by EPA-FFA.
Food Liking Enhances the Plasma Response of 2-Arachidonoylglycerol and of Pancreatic Polypeptide upon Modified Sham Feeding in Humans
Mennella, I. ; Ferracane, R. ; Zucco, F. ; Fogliano, V. ; Vitaglione, P. - \ 2015
The Journal of Nutrition 145 (2015)9. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2169 - 2175.
Background: Food palatability increases food intake and may lead to overeating. The mechanisms behind this observation are still largely unknown. Objectives: The aims of this study were the following: 1) to elucidate the plasma responses of endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines, and gastrointestinal peptides to a palatable (sweet), unpalatable (bitter), and sensory-acceptable (tasteless control) food, and 2) to verify whether some of these bioactive compounds can serve as plasma biomarkers of food liking in humans. Methods: Three puddings providing 60 kcal (35% from proteins, 62% from carbohydrates, and 3% from fats) but with different taste were developed. Twenty healthy subjects (11 women and 9 men; mean age 28 y and BMI 22.7 kg/m2), selected because they liked the puddings in the order sweet > control > bitter, participated in a randomized crossover study based on a modified sham feeding (MSF) protocol. Blood samples at baseline and every 5 min up to 20 min after the MSF were analyzed for gastrointestinal peptides, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamines. Thirty minutes after the MSF, energy intake at an ad libitum breakfast was measured. Results: After the MSF, no response was observed in 7 of 9 gastrointestinal peptides measured. The plasma ghrelin concentration at 20 min after the sweet and bitter puddings was 25% lower than after the control pudding (P = 0.04), and the pancreatic polypeptide response after the sweet pudding was 23% greater than after the bitter pudding (P = 0.02). The plasma response of 2-arachidonoylglycerol after the sweet pudding was 37% and 15% higher than after the bitter (P < 0.001) and control (P = 0.03) puddings, respectively. Trends for greater responses of anandamide (P = 0.06), linoleoylethanolamide (P = 0.07), palmitoylethanolamide (P = 0.06), and oleoylethanolamide (P = 0.09) were found after the sweet pudding than after the bitter pudding. No differences in subsequent energy intake were recorded. Conclusions: The data demonstrated that food palatability influenced some plasma endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine concentrations during the cephalic phase response and indicated that 2-arachidonoylglycerol and pancreatic polypeptide can be used as biomarkers of food liking in humans.
New tools in modulating Maillard reaction from model systems to food
Troise, A.D. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Vincenzo Fogliano, co-promotor(en): Claire Berton-Carabin; P. Vitaglione. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575455 - 129
maillard-reactie - maillard-reactieproducten - modulatie - controle - inkapselen - olijfolie - melk - emulsies - modellen - voedsel - gereedschappen - maillard reaction - maillard reaction products - modulation - control - encapsulation - olive oil - milk - emulsions - models - food - tools
New tools in modulating Maillard reaction from model systems to food
The Maillard reaction (MR) supervises the final quality of foods and occupies a prominent place in food science. The first stable compounds, the Amadori rearrangement products (APs) and Heyns rearrangement products (HPs), represent the key molecules from which a myriad of reactions takes place and each of them contributes to the formation of Maillard reaction end-products (MRPs) or advanced glycation end products (AGEs).
Several papers have dealt with the control of the MR in foods ranging from the thermal loading reduction, to the use of alternative process technologies, reactants impact or enzymes, as well as to the monitoring of the end-products formation by multiresponse modeling. The strategies used up to now aim at common goals: the reduction of potentially toxic compounds and the promotion of desired molecules formation as well as flavor, aroma, color and texture attributes. In other words the ultimate target is the promotion of food quality by tuning the MR.
This thesis introduces four alternative strategies that are able to control the final extent of the MR in foods.
The possibility to segregate reactants by encapsulating some minor components and thus delaying the MR was highlighted in Chapter 2. The encapsulation of sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, PUFA and iron inside hydrophobic capsules was used as a possible example: the core material release over the time delayed the reaction rates.
The results obtained through the treatment with the enzyme fructosamine oxidase (Faox) I and II which is able to deglycate free Amadori products and capitalize the local unfolding of lysine peptide bound residues were reported in Chapter 3. Data showed that Faox can reduce the formation ofNε-(Carboxymethyl)-L-lysine and bound hydroxymethylfurfural in model system and in low lactose milk.
The effects obtained with the addition of spray-dried olive oil mill wastewaters in milk was illustrated in Chapter 4. This ingredient acts as a source of phenylethanoids, which can trap a-hydroxycarbonyls and a-dicarbonyls and can form adducts with amino groups after the oxidation of phenolic rings into quinone. The use of this functional ingredient before milk thermal treatment resulted in a reduction of off-flavor, reactive carbonyls species and bound MRPs.
The possibilities offered by the location of MR reactants in microemulsion was investigated in Chapter 5. The oil/water partition coefficient of amino acids played a key role in the formation of Amadori compounds. The anchoring effect of tricaprylin and Tween 20 toward aliphatic amino acids in microemulsion systems was evaluated and compared to a control aqueous solution of amino acids and glucose. Results confirmed the hypothesis: the higher the partition coefficient the lower the formation of aliphatic amino acids Amadori compounds.
All of the four proposed strategies involved location and interaction of reagents, reactants, intermediates and final products. As a result each strategy depicted a specific route for the control of the final extent of the MR. Many steps are still necessary to scale up these methodologies into the food production chain, however new ways for obtaining foods of superior quality have been paved.
A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control : from identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients
Mennella, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Vincenzo Fogliano, co-promotor(en): P. Vitaglione. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575448 - 138
eetlustcontrole - perceptie - voedselvoorkeuren - speeksel - cannabinoïden - biomarkers - ingrediënten - ontwikkeling - gewichtscontrole - appetite control - perception - food preferences - saliva - cannabinoids - biomarkers - ingredients - development - weight control
A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control.
From identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients.
Human dietary behaviour is driven by homeostatic, hedonic and environmental factors. Foods can
influence these factors throughout extrinsic (marketing suggestions, portion sizes, form) and
intrinsic characteristics (taste, flavour, smell, texture). In turn biochemical response and
psychological traits influenced food taste, flavour, smell and texture perception determining the
hedonic value of a meal. This interplay between the food and the subjective psychophysiological
response determine the control of energy intake, therefore must be considered in developing food
for appetite control.
In the present thesis four human studies are described. Of these two were conducted to investigate
the role of the saliva and the endocannabinoids system in the food preference and liking during the
cephalic phase of digestion. We found out that salivary enzymes activity are influenced by
nutritional status, food preference and food habits. Moreover, food palatability influenced some
plasma endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine concentrations during the cephalic phase
response and indicated that 2-arachidonoylglycerol and pancreatic polypeptide can be used as
biomarkers of food liking in humans. These findings can have interesting implications in designing
foods for appetite control:
salivary enzymatic activity must be considered because it influence taste and texture
perception and consequently food choice;
the measure of 2-arachidonoylglycerol can offer the possibility to merge the sensory and
biochemical approach to compare the satiating and rewarding capacity of foods.
The other two studies investigated the potential satiating effect on the short term energy intake of
specific food ingredients. As previous in animal studies shown, we demonstrated (chapter 4) that
also in humans the circulating oleoylethanolamide levels can be modulated by the fatty acid
composition of a meal and this can influence the short-term energy intake. Therefore, we
highlighted the anorexigenic effect of the oleoylethanolamide that can be a target of specific food
ingredients. In the study described in the chapter 5, we aimed in assessing the appetite control
capability of bitter compounds. The ingredient was microencapsulated with the double aim to avoid
the (not palatable) taste perception in the mouth and to deliver the compounds directly in the
gastrointestinal tract and target the enteroendocrine bitter taste receptors. We showed that
microencapsulated bitter compounds are effective to reduce daily energy intakes in humans. This
study demonstrated that sense the taste receptors directly in the gastrointestinal tract may be a valid
way to trigger satiety and control appetite.
The general conclusions of the present thesis are that a fine design of ingredients for appetite
control is necessary to develop novel foods for appetite control that has to take in account from one
side the hedonic value from the other side the functionality.
Use of Microencapsulated Ingredients in Bakery Products: Technological and Nutritional Aspects - Chapter 15
Vitaglione, P. ; Troise, A.D. ; Chiara De Prisco, A. ; Mauriello, G.L. ; Gokmen, V. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2015
In: Microencapsulation and Microspheres for Food Applications / Sagia, L.M.C., Amsterdam : Elsevier - ISBN 9780128003503 - p. 303 - 311.
he quality of bakery products is driven by technological issues influencing sensory, safety, and nutritional features such as food aroma pattern, texture, color, chemical composition, toxicant formation, and shelf life. The use of encapsulated ingredients in bakery product formulation is a smart approach to overcome the main drawbacks linked to processing and to increase the nutritional value of foods. In this chapter, the main goals of encapsulation applied to bakery products are reviewed: controlled delivery of bioactive molecules over time and protection of molecules and probiotic bacteria with healthy technological and chemical means. The complex network among food reactants, lipid oxidation, and Maillard reactions is described and the main advantages linked to the use of encapsulated omega-3 long chain fatty acids, sodium chloride, curcumin, and probiotics in bakery product formulation are shown
Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness
Vitaglione, P. ; Savarese, M. ; Paduano, A. ; Scalfi, L. ; Fogliano, V. ; Sacchi, R. - \ 2015
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 55 (2015)13. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 1808 - 1818.
regulated deficit irrigation - olea-europaea l. - phenolic-compounds - antioxidant activity - sensory properties - heart-disease - hydrophilic antioxidants - secoiridoid derivatives - malaxation temperature - biological-activities
Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols, may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavour to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper the chemist's and nutritionist's points of view have been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.
Whole-grain wheat consumption reduces inflammation in a randomized controlled trial on overweight and obese subjects with unhealthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors: role of polyphenols bound to cereal dietary fiber
Vitaglione, P. ; Mennella, I. ; Ferracane, R. ; Rivellese, A.A. ; Giacco, R. ; Ercolini, D. ; Gibbons, S.M. ; Storia, A. la; Gilbert, A.J. ; Jonnalagadda, S. ; Thielecke, F. ; Gallo, M.A. ; Scalfi, L. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2015
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 101 (2015)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 251 - 261.
Background: Epidemiology associates whole-grain (WG) consumption with several health benefits. Mounting evidence suggests that WG wheat polyphenols play a role in mechanisms underlying health benefits. Objective: The objective was to assess circulating concentration, excretion, and the physiologic role of WG wheat polyphenols in subjects with suboptimal dietary and lifestyle behaviors. Design: A placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized trial with 80 healthy overweight/obese subjects with low intake of fruits and vegetables and sedentary lifestyle was performed. Participants replaced precise portions of refined wheat (RW) with a fixed amount of selected WG wheat or RW products for 8 wk. At baseline and every 4 wk, blood, urine, feces, and anthropometric and body composition measures were collected. Profiles of phenolic acids in biological samples, plasma markers of metabolic disease and inflammation, and fecal microbiota composition were assessed. Results: WG consumption for 4–8 wk determined a 4-fold increase of serum dihydroferulic acid (DHFA) and a 2-fold increase of fecal ferulic acid (FA) compared with RW consumption (no changes). Similarly, urinary FA at 8 wk doubled the baseline concentration only in WG subjects. Concomitant reduction of plasma tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) after 8 wk and increased interleukin (IL)-10 only after 4 wk with WG compared with RW (P = 0.04) were observed. No significant change in plasma metabolic disease markers over the study period was observed, but a trend toward lower plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 with higher excretion of FA and DHFA in the WG group was found. Fecal FA was associated with baseline low Bifidobacteriales and Bacteroidetes abundances, whereas after WG consumption, it correlated with increased Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes but reduced Clostridium. TNF-a reduction correlated with increased Bacteroides and Lactobacillus. No effect of dietary interventions on anthropometry and body composition was found. Conclusions: WG wheat consumption significantly increased excreted FA and circulating DHFA. Bacterial communities influenced fecal FA and were modified by WG wheat consumption.
Salivary lipase and a-amylase activities are higher in overweight than in normal weight subjects: Influences on dietary beharior
Mennella, I. ; Fogliano, V. ; Vitaglione, P. - \ 2014
Food Research International 66 (2014). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 463 - 468.
alpha-amylase - food-consumption - oral-sensitivity - lingual lipase - fat perception - taste - questionnaire - responses - humans - women
Mounting evidence shows that hedonic eating, leading to overeating just for pleasure, can be driven by oro-sensory factors through the activation of reward processing and learning in the brain. Foods rich in sugars and fats are potent rewards and saliva composition influences oral taste, texture and aroma perception. A role for salivary a-amylase and lipase in the gustatory system and a link between salivary a-amylase activity and dietary habits were recently hypothesized. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship among salivary lipase and a-amylase activities as well as zinc concentration with food preference and choice of people with different body mass indices. Forty-two (23 normal weight and 19 overweight) healthy subjects participated in the study. Data showed that a-amylase and lipase were 1.8 and 2.4 folds higher in overweight than in normal weight subjects, respectively. On the other hand, overweight subjects showed a 33% reduced salivary zinc concentration compared to normal weight subjects. Only lipase activity positively correlated with individual preference for high-fat foods and with fat content of the diets. All in all data suggested that high salivary lipase activity in overweight subjects could be an adaptive response to the low fat-taste perception related to the reduced zinc concentration. It cannot be ruled out that other factors but diet might influence salivary a-amylase activity in overweight subjects.
Release of Antioxidant Capacity from Five Plant Foods during a Multistep Enzymatic Digestion Protocol
Papillo, V.A. ; Vitaglione, P. ; Graziani, G. ; Gokmen, V. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)18. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4119 - 4126.
in-vitro digestion - dietary fiber - phaseolus-vulgaris - phenolic-compounds - whole grains - risk - health - polyphenols - phytochemicals - quality
This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red bean, and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both solubilized and insoluble materials was measured at each step. Results showed that the overall TAC obtained by enzyme treatments was usually higher than that obtained by chemical extraction-based methods. In apple most of the TAC was released upon water washing and after pepsin treatment, whereas in spinach, beans, and whole wheat the TAC released by treatments with bacterial enzymes was prominent. Walnut had the highest TAC value, which was mainly released after pancreatin treatment. Therefore, the enzyme treatment is fundamental to estimate the overall potential TAC of foods having a high amount of polyphenols bound to dietary fiber or entrapped in the food matrix.
Eicosapentaenoic acid free fatty acid prevents and suppresses colonic neoplasia in colitis-associated colorectal cancer acting on Notch signaling and gut microbiota
Piazzi, G. ; Argenio, G. D'; Prossomariti, A. ; Lembo, V. ; Mazzone, G. ; Candela, M. ; Biagi, E. ; Brigidi, P. ; Vitaglione, P. ; Fogliano, V. ; Angelo and others, L. D' - \ 2014
International Journal of Cancer 135 (2014)9. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 2004 - 2013.
inflammatory-bowel-disease - dietary fish-oil - intestinal microbiota - mouse model - docosahexaenoic acid - mice - sodium - cells - differentiation - chemoprevention
Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with increased risk of developing colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Epidemiological data show that the consumption of ¿-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (¿-3 PUFAs) decreases the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Importantly, recent data have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid (EPA-FFA) reduces polyp formation and growth in models of familial adenomatous polyposis. However, the effects of dietary EPA-FFA are unknown in CAC. We tested the effectiveness of substituting EPA-FFA, for other dietary fats, in preventing inflammation and cancer in the AOM-DSS model of CAC. The AOM-DSS protocols were designed to evaluate the effect of EPA-FFA on both initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. We found that EPA-FFA diet strongly decreased tumor multiplicity, incidence and maximum tumor size in the promotion and initiation arms. Moreover EPA–FFA, in particular in the initiation arm, led to reduced cell proliferation and nuclear ß-catenin expression, whilst it increased apoptosis. In both arms, EPA-FFA treatment led to increased membrane switch from ¿-6 to ¿-3 PUFAs and a concomitant reduction in PGE2 production. We observed no significant changes in intestinal inflammation between EPA-FFA treated arms and AOM-DSS controls. Importantly, we found that EPA-FFA treatment restored the loss of Notch signaling found in the AOM-DSS control and resulted in the enrichment of Lactobacillus species in the gut microbiota. Taken together, our data suggest that EPA-FFA is an excellent candidate for CRC chemoprevention in CAC.