Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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    Horizontal logistics collaboration: an exploratory study in Morocco’s agri-food supply chains
    Badraoui, Ismail ; Vorst, Jack G.A.J. Van der; Boulaksil, Youssef - \ 2020
    International Journal of Logistics research and applications 23 (2020)1. - ISSN 1367-5567 - p. 85 - 102.
    agri-food supply chains - collaboration enablers - conceptual model - Horizontal logistics collaboration - Morocco

    Horizontal logistics collaboration (HLC) practices have gained much attention in recent years as innovative ways for companies to improve their performance. However, literature does not reveal which factors influence the success or failure of HLC, especially in agri-food supply chains (AFSCs) in developing countries. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate HLC in the context of AFSCs in Morocco as a case of a developing country. First, a literature review is performed to develop a conceptual model for HLC considering AFSCs characteristics. Then, in-depth case studies are conducted in Morocco to refine the conceptual model based on insights from real collaboration experiences. The results show that collaboration outcomes are influenced by operational collaborative activities through the mediation of relational elements. The operational collaborative activities are impacted by AFSCs’ characteristics, such as products specific handling conditions. Furthermore, the research shows that local cultural factors influence the development of trust in the relationship.

    Bomen in blad, bloemen in bloei, vorst in de verwachting...
    Vliet, A.J.H. van; Bron, W.A. - \ 2019
    Nature Today
    En weer een zeer warme week. Steeds meer magnolia’s en sierkersen staan in volle bloei. Onder andere pinksterbloem, hondsdraf, peer, fluitenkruid en berk worden in bloei gemeld op Boerenzwaluw en zwartkop komen terug. Witte paardenkastanje, wilde lijsterbes, berk en vogelkers ontplooien hun bladeren. Hopelijk zakt de temperatuur niet te ver onder het vriespunt aankomende nacht.
    Cooperative food logistics: towards eco-efficiency
    Stellingwerf, Helena Margaretha - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard; J.G.A.J. van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): A. Kanellopoulos. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439145 - 119

    Road transportation generates significant costs for firms that deliver and collect products. Next to that, it results in emissions. Food supply chains cause additional emissions because of the extra energy needed to guarantee product quality. Moreover, current transportation systems are inefficient since the available capacity is not optimally used. Cooperation between food supply chain actors could provide opportunities to reduce costs and emissions and improve eco-efficiency, which is defined as solutions for which it is impossible to improve the environmental objective without worsening the economic objective. In food supply chains, it is also important to guarantee food quality. However, reducing costs, emissions, and quality decay do not always go hand in hand, and trade-offs need to be made. Moreover, despite the benefits, companies hesitate to implement cooperation because it might bring advantages to competitors and they find it difficult to agree on gain sharing. To find out how cooperation can improve eco-efficiency in food logistics, we need decision support models that can capture these complexities. Therefore, the main research question that this thesis aims to answer is: Which decision support models can be used to design eco-efficient logistics cooperation in food supply chains?

    All studies in this PhD thesis are based on a case study on a Dutch retail cooperative, where several smaller retail organisations cooperate by forming a buying organisation. By jointly purchasing their products, they can negotiate a lower unit price. The retailers currently hire different logistics service providers to pick up their orders from their shared distribution centre and bring them to their own distribution centre. From there, they distribute the products to their supermarket outlets. Currently, the retailers arrange their logistics individually, but they are considering to cooperate to reduce costs, emissions and quality decay.

    In this thesis, the effects of different forms of logistics cooperation between food supply chain actors are analysed using existing optimisation models, which we extended to account for temperature control and food quality. Using these extended models, routing and inventory are optimised to minimise costs, emissions, and quality loss. Moreover, trade-offs between the objectives are established. Also, we proposed a method to divide cooperative gains, not only based on costs but also on emissions. This way, eco-efficient forms of logistics cooperation are rewarded and stimulated.

    In Chapter 2, we extend the Load Dependent Vehicle Routing Model such that it accounts for the extra costs and emissions related to temperature control. We show that temperature control can significantly affect costs and emissions and thus the optimal routing. This extended model can be used to test the effect of new cooling technologies on the costs and emissions of routing.

    In Chapter 3, we introduce the Quality Driven Vehicle Routing Problem. This problem is modelled and used to more realistically quantify how food degrades during distribution processes. We consider effects of outside temperature, door openings, and differences in optimal temperatures for different products. When transporting temperature-sensitive products, minimising quality loss results in multiple routes with less stops per route whereas minimising costs or emissions results in longer routes. The negative quality effects of multi-stop routes can be mitigated by adjusting driving speed, unloading rate, cooling rate, and by setting a quality threshold level.

    In Chapter 4, we compare the effect of different forms of cooperation in temperature-controlled transportation on cost and emissions. Joint route planning (JRP, in which daily transport decisions are optimised cooperatively) is compared to vendor-managed inventory (VMI, in which multi-day routing and inventory decisions are optimised cooperatively) and to a non-cooperative scenario using vehicle routing and inventory routing models. In JRP, there is one optimal solution for minimising costs and for minimising emissions. For VMI however, additional savings in both objectives are obtained but there is a set of alternative eco-efficient solutions and partners need to choose which of those solutions (i.e. cooperative routing and inventory plans) they prefer. Also, in VMI there exists a trade-off between product age and emissions: less frequent inventory replenishment leads to reduced emissions but it also to a higher average product age.

    In Chapter 5, we study how the monetary benefits of VMI can be allocated. We discuss that gain allocations should reflect both contributions to savings in costs and emissions. That way, gain allocation can be used to stimulate eco-efficient forms of cooperation. A green IRP model is used to quantify cooperative benefits and establish all possible eco-efficient cooperative solutions. For each solution, we allocate monetary benefits based on costs and emissions using the Shapley value. This approach results in cost savings for all partners that help reducing impacts.

    In this thesis, we adjusted VRP and IRP models to account for temperature control and perishability. Using these OR models, we found that food logistics cooperation can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. The findings of all studies can be summarised in three main concluding statements: (i) temperature control influences costs and emissions of cooperative routes, and cooperative routing influences food quality. Therefore, these food specific aspects should be considered in cooperative logistics; (ii) dependent on the intensity of the cooperation, it can result either in one optimal solution for both costs and emissions, or a set of eco-efficient solutions; and (iii) to stimulate forms of cooperation that both reduce costs and emissions, we should allocate cooperative gains based on partner’s contributions to both indicators.

    Horizontal logistics collaboration : cases from agri-food supply chains in Morocco
    Badraoui, Ismail - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Y. Boulaksil. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439053 - 212

    This thesis explores different aspects of Horizontal Logistics Collaboration (HLC) to increase our understanding of how to successfully implement it. The research draws on theories and concepts from different areas of operations management and makes use of different methodological approaches to capture the multidimensional aspect of HLC. The results show that HLC can take different forms, with each form resulting in specific operational requirements in terms of the types of assets to share and the kind of information to exchange. In addition, the research indicates that HLC outcomes, which are measured by the partners’ satisfaction, are affected by operational factors (e.g. information sharing, joint relationship efforts) through the mediation of relational factors (e.g. trust and commitment). The relationship between these factors is influenced by the characteristics of the industry and country in which the collaboration in undertaken. Finally, the conducted research reveals the existence of several barriers that limit the development of collaborative behaviour and decreases the collaboration chances to succeed.

    La connaissance en action : le Centre de l’Innovation pour le Développement de Wageningen
    Vorst, Jack van der; Bruggeman, Hedwig - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research - 36 p.
    Technische Briefing Kringlooplandbouw; Notitie opgesteld op verzoek van de Tweede Kamer Commissie LNV : Wat mogen we verwachten van een circulaire voedselproductie gebaseerd op een kringlooplandbouw, in het perspectief van klimaat- en biodiversiteitdoelen?
    Scholten, M.C.T. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Conijn, J.G. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Doorn, A.M. van; Ende, J.E. van den; Fresco, L.O. ; Jongschaap, R.E.E. ; Kernebeek, H.R.J. van; Lesschen, J.P. ; Olde, E.M. de; Schulte, Rogier ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der; Vos, J.A. de; Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2018
    Wageningen University and Research - 14 p.
    Understanding the influence of context characteristics, logistics control and quality control on postharvest losses : a case of Zimbabwean tomato supply chains
    Macheka, Lesley - \ 2018
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Vorst; P.A. Luning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432917 - 141

    Postharvest losses (PHL) in fresh produce chains are a substantial problem worldwide. The problem is most prevalent and persistent in developing countries, even though many intervention strategies have been proposed. The overall objective of this research was to understand the influence of logistics and quality control activities, as well as context factors, on the incidence of PHL in fresh produce chains. For this purpose, four studies (Chapter 2-5) were conducted, in which three of the studies included case studies in tomato supply chains in Zimbabwe.

    In Chapter 2, a hierarchical framework for logistics and quality control decisions influencing PHL in fresh produce chains was developed based on a literature review. The framework was used to categorise PHL reduction interventions (proposed in literature) as strategic, tactical or operational. In Chapter 3, a diagnostic tool to concurrently assess the status of logistics and quality control activities, in view of the context wherein the fresh supply chain actors operate was developed. The tool was applied in the case study of tomato supply chains in Zimbabwe with different farmer types i.e., small-scale subsistence farmers, small-scale commercial, and large-scale commercial farmers. Logistics and quality control activities, as well as, the context characteristics that are determinants of PHL in tomato supply chains in Zimbabwe were identified in Chapter 4. Furthermore, a framework for a step-wise implementation of interventions for PHL reduction in fresh produce chains at different stages was developed. In Chapter 4, the magnitude of all the three types of PHL (quantitative, qualitative, and economic losses) in tomato supply chains in Zimbabwe was investigated.

    The results revealed that subsistence farmers performed logistics and quality control activities at a low level, whereas they operate in a highly vulnerable context. The chains for subsistence farmers are characterised by absence of or basic storage and transportation facilities, and lack of financial resources, as compared to chains for commercial farmers, which are characterised by modern storage and transportation facilities, and access to financial resources, as compared to that for subsistence farmers. Furthermore, the results showed that multiple determinants for PHL were found that rooted in as well the logistics as quality control activities as in the context. These multiple causal roots should be considered when designing effective interventions for PHL reduction. The comprehensive investigation of the different types of PHL (as well quantitative as qualitative as economic) demonstrated that even though quantitative losses were relatively low compared to other literature findings, the financial consequences of economic PHL for particularly subsistence farmers are substantial. This underpins that estimating PHL based only on quantitative losses results in an underestimation of the actual PHL. Overall, the insights provided in this thesis could be used in designing and implementing tailored interventions for PHL reduction, thereby, contributing to improvement towards sustainable fresh produce chains.

    "Actionable" critical success factors for supply chain information system implementations : Exploratory findings from four German pork supply chains
    Denolf, Janne M. ; Trienekens, Jacques H. ; Nel Wognum, P.M. ; Schütz, Verena ; Vorst, Jack G.A.J. Van Der; Onno Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2018
    International Journal on Food System Dynamics 9 (2018)1. - ISSN 1869-6945 - p. 79 - 100.
    Actionable csfs (actions) - Critical success factors - Food sector - Pork supply chains - Supply chain information systems
    Implementing a supply chain information system (SCIS) incurs organizational and technical complexities. For managing these complexities, information system researchers have identified generic critical success factors. However, CSFs are abstract and, therefore, difficult to use in practice. To maximize the chances of successfully implementing a SCIS in the food industry, we aim to identify "actions" linked to CSFs. We, consequently, investigated four German pork supply chains that implemented a SCIS. Fourteen critical success factors were made "actionable"; most actions were identified for the CSFs "manage change and deliver training" and "select standards, vendor, and software package", indicating their relative importance.
    Identification of determinants of postharvest losses in Zimbabwean tomato supply chains as basis for dedicated interventions
    Macheka, L. ; Spelt, E.J.H. ; Bakker, E.J. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der; Luning, P.A. - \ 2018
    Food Control 87 (2018). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 135 - 144.
    Postharvest losses (PHL) are a major problem in tomato supply chains, especially in tropical climates, as up to 40% of harvested fruits are estimated to decay along the chain. The study aimed at identifying which farmers' context characteristics, logistics and quality control activities relate with the generation of PHL in tomato supply chains, particularly in Zimbabwe. Commercial and subsistence tomato farmers (n = 197) from five major tomato-growing areas were analysed using a diagnostic tool to assess the status of logistics and quality control activities, the vulnerability of farmers' context, and the actual PHL. Hierarchical cluster analysis resulted in three clusters of farmers grouped based on similarities on context vulnerability and status of logistics and quality control activities. Spearman's rank correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analyses revealed that more advanced logistics and control activities, and context characteristics with a lower vulnerability to PHL are associated with less postharvest losses. The context characteristics, features of storage facilities, features of cropping system, and market price stability were significant determinants (p < .05) and explained 29% (Adjusted R2 = 0.287) of the variation in the PHL. The logistics control activity, determining processing volumes was identified as a possible determinant (p < .05) and explained 21% (Adjusted R2 = 0.205) of the variation in the observed PHL. The quality control activities, deciding on maturity to harvest, deciding on moment to harvest, and storage practices were the identified determinants (p < .05), which explained 23% (Adjusted R2 = 0.230) of the variability in the observed postharvest losses. A framework of intervention strategies tailored to tomato farmers' development stage is proposed to support them in a step-wise improvement of logistics and quality control practices to reduce PHL and advance towards more advanced supply chains.
    Reducing CO2 emissions in temperature-controlled road transportation using the LDVRP model
    Stellingwerf, Helena M. ; Kanellopoulos, Argyris ; Vorst, Jack G.A.J. van der; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M. - \ 2018
    Transportation Research. Part D, Transport and Environment 58 (2018). - ISSN 1361-9209 - p. 80 - 93.
    Cold chain logistics - Emissions - Frozen food - Fuel consumption - Refrigerant leakage
    Temperature-controlled transport is needed to maintain the quality of products such as fresh and frozen foods and pharmaceuticals. Road transportation is responsible for a considerable part of global emissions. Temperature-controlled transportation exhausts even more emissions than ambient temperature transport because of the extra fuel requirements for cooling and because of leakage of refrigerant. The transportation sector is under pressure to improve both its environmental and economic performance. To explore opportunities to reach this goal, the Load-Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem (LDVRP) model has been developed to optimize routing decisions taking into account fuel consumption and emissions related to the load of the vehicle. However, this model does not take refrigeration related emissions into account. We therefore propose an extension of the LDVRP model to optimize routing decisions and to account for refrigeration emissions in temperature-controlled transportation systems. This extended LDVRP model is applied in a case study in the Dutch frozen food industry. We show that taking the emissions caused by refrigeration in road transportation can result in different optimal routes and speeds compared with the LDVRP model and the standard Vehicle Routing Problem model. Moreover, taking the emissions caused by refrigeration into account improves the estimation of emissions related to temperature-controlled transportation. This model can help to reduce emissions of temperature-controlled road transportation.
    Multi-criteria decision making approaches for green supply chains : a review
    Banasik, Aleksander ; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M. ; Kanellopoulos, Argyris ; Claassen, G.D.H. ; Vorst, Jack G.A.J. van der - \ 2018
    Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal 30 (2018)3. - ISSN 1936-6582 - p. 366 - 396.
    Eco-efficiency - Multi-criteria decision making - Quantitative methods - Resource efficiency - Supply chain management - Sustainable manufacturing

    Designing Green Supply Chains (GSCs) requires complex decision-support models that can deal with multiple dimensions of sustainability while taking into account specific characteristics of products and their supply chain. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approaches can be used to quantify trade-offs between economic, social, and environmental criteria i.e. to identify green production options. The aim of this paper is to review the use of MCDM approaches for designing efficient and effective GSCs. We develop a conceptual framework to find relevant publications and to categorise papers with respect to decision problems, indicators, and MCDM approaches. The analysis shows that (1) the use of MCDM approaches for designing GSCs is a rather new but emerging research field, (2) most of the publications focus on production and distribution problems, and there are only a few inventory models with environmental considerations, (3) the majority of papers assume all data to be deterministic, (4) little attention has been given to minimisation of waste, (5) numerous indicators are used to account for eco-efficiency, indicating the lack of standards. This study, therefore, identifies the need for more multi-criteria models for real-life GSCs, especially with inclusion of uncertainty in parameters that are associated with GSCs.

    Talk after theatrical play: ‘Tenzij Je een Beter Plan Hebt’
    Driessen, Clemens - \ 2017
    Multi-objective decision-making for public health - dietary assessment and advice
    Lemmen-Gerdessen, J.C. van; Claassen, G.D.H. ; Veer, P. van 't; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2017
    - 4 p.
    Knowledge in action : Accelerated by Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation
    Vorst, Jack van der; Bruggeman, Hedwig - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen University & Research - 36
    Multi-objective decision-making for dietary assessment and advice
    Lemmen - Gerdessen, J.C. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Vorst; P. van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): G.D.H. Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437073 - 136
    questionnaires - food - fractionation - modeling - diet - food intake - decision making - diet counseling - vragenlijsten - voedsel - fractionering - modelleren - dieet - voedselopname - besluitvorming - dieetadvisering

    Unhealthy diets contribute substantially to the worldwide burden of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes. Globally, non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death, and numbers are still rising, which makes healthy diets a global priority. In Nutrition Research, two fields are particularly relevant for formulating healthier diets: dietary assessment, which assesses food and nutrient intake in order to investigate the relation between diet and disease, and dietary advice, which translates food and nutrient recommendations into realistic food choices. Both fields face complex decision problems: which foods to include in dietary assessment or advice in order to pursue the multiple objectives of the researcher or fulfil the requirements of the consumer. This thesis connects the disciplines of Nutrition Research and Operations Research in order to contribute to formulating healthier diets.

    In the context of dietary assessment, the thesis proposes a MILP model for the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires (a crucial tool in dietary assessment) that speeds up the selection process and increases standardisation, transparency, and reproducibility. An extension of this model gives rise to a 0-1 fractional programming problem with more than 200 fractional terms, of which in every feasible solution only a subset is actually defined. The thesis shows how this problem can be reformulated in order to eliminate the undefined fractional terms. The resulting MILP model can solved with standard software.

    In the context of dietary advice, the thesis proposes a diet model in which food and nutrient requirements are formulated via fuzzy sets. With this model, the impact of various achievement functions is demonstrated. The preference structures modelled via these achievement functions represent various ways in which multiple nutritional characteristics of a diet can be aggregated into an overall indicator for diet quality. Furthermore, for Operations Research the thesis provides new insights into a novel preference structure from literature, that combines equity and utilitarianism in a single model.

    Finally, the thesis presents conclusions of the research and a general discussion, which discusses, amongst others, the main modelling choices encountered when using MODM methods for optimising diet quality.

    Summarising, this thesis explores the use of MODM approaches to improve decision-making for dietary assessment and advice. It provides opportunities for better decision-making in research on dietary assessment and advice, and it contributes to model building and solving in Operations Research. Considering the added value for Nutrition Research and the new models and solutions generated, we conclude that the combination of both fields has resulted in synergy between Nutrition Research and Operations Research.

    Social Innovation for Value Creation, State of affairs, highlights
    During, R. ; Brouwers, J.H.A.M. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2017
    Logistics network design for perishable products with heterogeneous quality decay
    Keizer, Marlies de; Akkerman, Renzo ; Grunow, Martin ; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline ; Haijema, Rene ; Vorst, Jack G.A.J. van der - \ 2017
    European Journal of Operational Research 262 (2017)2. - ISSN 0377-2217 - p. 535 - 549.
    Customer order decoupling point - Distribution - Location - OR in agriculture - Postponement

    The duration of logistics operations, as well as the environmental conditions during these operations, significantly impact the performance of a logistics network for fresh agricultural products. When durations or temperatures increase, product quality decreases and more effort is required to deliver products in time and with the right quality. Different network designs lead to different durations and conditions of transport, storage, processing, etc. Therefore, when making network design decisions, consequences for lead time and product quality should be taken into account. As decay of perishable products, for instance food, is often not uniform, heterogeneity in product quality decay also has to be considered. The aim of this paper is to show how product quality decay as well as its heterogeneity can be integrated in a network design model. A new mixed integer linear programming formulation is presented, which positions stocks and allocates processes to maximise profit under quality constraints. It is applied to several test instances from the horticultural sector. Results show that different levels of decay lead to different network structures. Changing decay rates due to processing particularly affect the level of postponement. Heterogeneity in product quality causes a split in product flows with high and low product quality. All in all, it is shown that heterogeneous product quality decay should be taken into account in network design as it significantly influences network designs and their profitability, especially when the supply chain includes processes that change the level of decay, and product quality differences can be exploited in serving different markets.

    Multi-objective optimization for eco-efficient food supply chains
    Banasik, Aleksander - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard; Jack van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Frits Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430944 - 147
    food chains - supply chain management - food production - mushrooms - decision support systems - production planning - models - voedselketens - ketenmanagement - voedselproductie - paddestoelen - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - productieplanning - modellen

    Until recently, food production focused mainly on delivering high-quality products at low cost and little attention was paid to environmental impact and depletion of natural resources. As a result of the growing awareness of climate change, shrinking resources, and increasing world population, this trend is changing. A major concern in Food Supply Chains (FSCs) is food waste. To remain competitive, FSCs are challenged to adopt new technologies that reduce or valorize food waste. These technologies can contribute to maintaining or increasing economic output and concurrently reduce the environmental impact of current operations, i.e. achieving what has been defined as eco-efficiency. Designing eco-efficient supply chains requires complex decision support models that can deal with multiple dimensions of sustainability while taking into account the specific characteristics of products and their supply chain. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM), a research field within Operations Research, is particularly suitable to support decision making when multiple and (mostly) conflicting criteria are involved. In this research, multi-objective optimization was used to quantify trade-offs between conflicting objectives and derive eco-efficient solutions, i.e. solutions in which environmental performance can only be improved at higher cost. The overall objective of this thesis was to support decision making in FSCs by developing dedicated decision support models to optimize and re-design FSCs by balancing the economic and environmental criteria. The emphasis is directed towards valorization of product flows by means of closing loops and waste management at a chain level. In line with this overall objective, four research questions were defined, which are addressed in Chapters 2 to 5.

    In Chapter 2, the use of MCDM approaches for designing Green Supply Chains (GSCs) is reviewed; GSCs extend traditional supply chains to include activities that minimize the environmental impact of a product throughout its life cycle. A conceptual framework was developed to find relevant publications and categorize papers with respect to decision problems, indicators, and MCDM approaches. The analysis shows that the use of MCDM approaches for designing GSCs is a new but emerging research field. Most publications focus on production and distribution problems, and there are only a few inventory models with environmental considerations. Most papers assume all data to be deterministic. Moreover, little attention has been given to minimization of waste in studies on FSCs, and numerous indicators are used to account for eco-efficiency, indicating the lack of standards. Chapter 2, therefore, identifies the need for more multi-criteria models for real-life GSCs, especially with respect to supply chains dealing with food production, and with inclusion of uncertainty in parameters.

    Environmental concerns and scarcity of resources encourage decision makers in supply chains to consider alternative production options that include preventing the production of waste streams and simultaneously reusing and recycling waste materials. Until now, quantitative modelling approaches on closing loops in FSCs have been rare in the literature. The aim of Chapter 3 was to develop a mathematical model that can be used for quantitative assessment of alternative production options associated with different ways of dealing with waste in FSCs, i.e. prevention, recycling, and disposal of food waste. A multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model was developed to derive a set of eco-efficient solutions corresponding to production planning decisions. The environmental performance of the chain is expressed by an indicator based on exergy analysis, which has the potential to capture other commonly used indicators, such as energy consumption, fuel consumption, and waste generation, in a single value. This simplifies the calculation of the eco-efficient frontier and enables its intuitive graphical representation, which is much easier to communicate to the decision makers. The applicability of the model is demonstrated on a real-life industrial bread supply chain in the Netherlands. The results confirm the findings from the literature that prevention is the best waste management strategy from an environmental perspective. The advantages of using exergy as an indicator to capture the environmental performance is demonstrated by comparing the outcomes with other commonly used indicators of environmental performance. The potential of studying food production planning decision problems in a multi-objective context is illustrated and the applicability of the model in the assessment of alternative production options is demonstrated.

    In contrast to closed-loop studies in industry involving discrete parts, in FSCs the value of the final product usually cannot be regained. However, the components used for production, such as organic matter or a growing medium, can be recycled. The aim of Chapter 4 was to reveal the consequences of closing loops in a mushroom supply chain. A multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model was proposed to quantify trade-offs between economic and environmental indicators and to explore alternative recycling technologies quantitatively. The model was developed to re-design the logistical structure and close loops in the mushroom supply chain. It was found that adopting closing loop technologies in industrial mushroom production has the potential to increase the total profitability of the chain by almost 11% and improve the environmental performance by almost 28%. It is concluded that a comprehensive evaluation of recycling technologies and re-designing logistical structures requires quantitative tools that simultaneously optimize managerial decisions at strategic and tactical levels.

    Multi-objective optimization models are often developed under the assumption that all information required for model parameterization is known in advance. In practice, however, not all the required information is available in advance because of various sources of uncertainty in FSCs. In Chapter 5, a multi-objective two-stage stochastic programming model was proposed to analyse and evaluate the economic and environmental impacts to account for uncertainty in FSCs. A mushroom supply chain in the Netherlands is presented as an illustrative case study. Optimal production planning decisions calculated with a two-stage stochastic programming model are compared with the results of an equivalent deterministic model. It is demonstrated that taking uncertainty into account at the production planning phase in an FSC can bring substantial economic and environmental benefits.

    The research presented in this thesis contributes to the scientific literature on eco-efficient FSCs by providing decision support models for use by decision makers to assess alternative logistical structures and quantify the economic and environmental implications of closing loop technologies. This thesis shows that technological innovations, which allow for reuse and recycling of waste streams, have the potential to improve the economic and environmental performance of an FSC substantially. The case studies illustrate that it is worthwhile investing in research on technological innovations (and their development) for closing loops in FSCs. The greatest benefits are brought about by using materials to their full potential by valorizing waste streams as much as possible.

    Exploration of logistics and quality control activities in view of context characteristics and postharvest losses in fresh produce chains : A case study for tomatoes
    Macheka, Lesley ; Spelt, Elsbeth ; Vorst, Jack G.A.J. van der; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2017
    Food Control 77 (2017). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 221 - 234.
    Context characteristics - Diagnostic tool - Fresh produce - Logistics control - Postharvest losses - Quality control
    Postharvest losses in fresh produce chains are a major threat to food security, especially in transition countries. To develop effective intervention strategies for postharvest losses reduction, it is important to first understand the core logistics and quality control activities that could affect postharvest losses in these chains. In this study, a diagnostic tool was developed and used to assess the implementation level of core logistics and quality control activities, the vulnerability of the system due to the context in which it operates, and the actual postharvest losses. Based upon a literature review, the context characteristics are divided into product, process, organisation, and supply chain environment characteristics to assess the context vulnerability to postharvest losses. The identified core logistics activities are planning on the amount of fresh produce to harvest and process, selecting issuing policies, selecting mode of transportation and type of vehicle, and vehicle scheduling and routing. Maturity determination at harvest, deciding on harvest moment, harvesting, packing, and storage practices, use of grading standards, package material, temperature monitoring during storage and transportation, and equipment maintenance are the core quality control activities identified. The tool was applied to three groups of farmers operating in a tomato supply chain in Zimbabwe. The major findings are that commercial farmers recorded lower postharvest losses (1%) as compared to subsistence farmers (3%), the context for commercial farmers is less vulnerable to the generation of postharvest losses as compared to that for subsistence farmers, and logistics and quality control activities for commercial farmers are implemented at a more advanced level. The tool provides differentiated assessment that allows users to identify improvement opportunities to achieve higher performance for the activities and to reduce context vulnerability.
    Vorst nekt groenbemesters
    Rijk, Joost - \ 2017
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