Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Modulation of the Tomato Fruit Metabolome by LED Light
    Ntagkas, N. ; Vos, C.H. de; Woltering, E.J. ; Nicole, Celine ; Labrie, C.W. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2020
    Metabolites 10 (2020)266. - ISSN 2218-1989 - 19 p.
    Metabolic profiles of tomatoes change during ripening and light can modulate the activity of relevant biochemical pathways. We investigated the effects of light directly supplied to the fruits on the metabolome of the fruit pericarp during ripening. Mature green tomatoes were exposed to well-controlled conditions with light as the only varying factor; control fruits were kept in darkness. In experiment 1 the fruits were exposed to either white light or darkness for 15 days.
    In experiment 2, fruits were exposed to different light spectra (blue, green, red, far-red, white) added to white background light for seven days. Changes in the global metabolome of the fruit pericarp were monitored using LCMS and GCMS (554 compounds in total). Health-beneficial compounds (carotenoids, flavonoids, tocopherols and phenolic acids) accumulated faster under white light compared to darkness, while alkaloids and chlorophylls decreased faster. Light also changed the levels of taste-related metabolites including glutamate and malate. The light spectrum treatments indicated that the addition of blue light was the most effective treatment in altering the fruit metabolome. We conclude that light during ripening of tomatoes can have various effects on the metabolome and may help with shaping the levels of key compounds involved in various fruit quality characteristics.
    MYB5-like and bHLH influence flavonoid composition in pomegranate
    Arlotta, Carmen ; Puglia, Giuseppe D. ; Genovese, Claudia ; Toscano, Valeria ; Karlova, R.B. ; Beekwilder, M.J. ; Vos, C.H. de; Raccuia, Salvatore A. - \ 2020
    Plant Science 298 (2020). - ISSN 0168-9452
    The fruit of the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important nutraceutical food rich in polyphenolic compounds, including hydrolysable tannins, anthocyanins and flavonols. Their composition varies according to cultivar, tissue and fruit development stage and is probably regulated by a combination of MYB and bHLH type
    transcription factors (TFs). In this study, metabolomics analysis during fruit developmental stages in the main pomegranate cultivars, Wonderful and Valenciana with contrasting colour of their ripe fruits, showed that flavonols were mostly present in flowers while catechins were highest in unripe fruits and anthocyanins in late fruit
    maturation stages. A novel MYB TF, PgMYB5-like, was identified, which differs from previously isolated pomegranate TFs by unique C-terminal protein motifs and lack of the amino-acid residues conserved among anthocyanins promoting MYBs. In both pomegranate cultivars the expression of PgMYB5-like was high at flowering stage, while it decreased during fruit ripening. A previously identified bHLH-type TF, PgbHLH, also showed high transcript levels at flowering stage in both cultivars, while it showed a decrease in expression during fruit ripening in cv. Valenciana, but not in cv. Wonderful. Functional analysis of both TFs was performed by agroinfiltration into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Plants infiltrated with the PgMYB5-like+PgbHLH combined construct showed a specific and significant accumulation of intermediates of the flavonoid pathway, especially dihydroflavonols, while anthocyanins were not produced. Thus, we propose a role for PgMYB5-like and PgbHLH in the first steps of flavonoid production in flowers and in unripe fruits. The expression patterns of these two TFs may be key in determining the differential flavonoid composition in both flowers and fruits of the pomegranate varieties Wonderful and Valenciana.
    Touching the High Complexity of Prebiotic Vivinal Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Porous Graphitic Carbon Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometry
    Logtenberg, Madelon J. ; Donners, Kristel M.H. ; Vink, Jolien C.M. ; Leeuwen, Sander S. van; Waard, Pieter de; Vos, Paul de; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2020
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 68 (2020)29. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 7800 - 7808.
    galacto-oligosaccharides - liquid chromatography - porous graphitic carbon - preparative chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are used in infant formula to replace the health effects of human milk oligosaccharides, which appear to be dependent upon the structure of the individual oligosaccharides present. However, a comprehensive overview of the structure-specific effects is still limited as a result of the high structural complexity of GOS. In this study, porous graphitic carbon (PGC) was used as the stationary phase during ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). This approach resulted in the recognition of more than 100 different GOS structures in one single run, including reducing and non-reducing GOS isomers. Using nuclear magnetic resonance-validated structures of GOS trisaccharides, we discovered MS fragmentation rules to distinguish reducing isomers with a mono- and disubstituted terminal glucose by UHPLC-PGC-MS. UHPLC-PGC-MS enabled effective recognition of structural features of individual GOS components in complex GOS preparations and during, e.g., biological conversion reactions. Hence, this study lays the groundwork for future research into structure-specific health effects of GOS.

    Does entry to center-based childcare affect gut microbial colonization in young infants?
    Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Eckermann, Henrik A. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Weerth, Carolina de - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Entry to center-based childcare (CC) at three months of life can be an important challenge for infants as it includes major stressors such as long maternal separations and frequently changing caregivers. Stress and the new environment may in turn alter the composition of the gut microbiota with possible implications for future health outcomes. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated whether CC, as compared to being cared for by the parents at home, alters the composition of the gut microbiota, while accounting for known covariates of the infant gut microbiota. Stool samples of infants who entered CC (n = 49) and control infants (n = 49) were obtained before and four weeks after CC entrance. Using Redundancy analysis, Random Forests and Bayesian linear models we found that infant gut microbiota was not affected in a uniform way by entry to CC. In line with the literature, breastfeeding, birth mode, age, and the presence of siblings were shown to significantly impact the microbial composition.

    Handboek leeftijdsbepalingen (versie 3.0)
    Bolle, L.J. ; Hoek, R. ; Pennock-Vos, M.G. ; Beier, Ulrika ; Dijkman Dulkes, H.J.A. ; Os-Koomen, E. van; Snaar, Beanne ; Vries, M. de; Pasterkamp, T.L. ; Koelemij, E.I. ; Beintema, J.J. ; Bakker, A.G. ; Huijer, T. ; Sneekes, A.C. ; Meeren-Pido, H. van der; Wiegerinck, J.A.M. - \ 2020
    Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek (Rapport / Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek CVO rapport 20.012) - 119 p.
    Endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase-treatment of oat β-glucan enhances fermentability by infant fecal microbiota, stimulates dectin-1 activation and attenuates inflammatory responses in immature dendritic cells
    Akkerman, Renate ; Logtenberg, Madelon J. ; An, Ran ; Berg, Marco A. Van Den; Haan, Bart J. de; Faas, Marijke M. ; Zoetendal, Erwin ; Vos, Paul de; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)6. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Cytokine production - Dendritic cells - In vitro fermentation - Infant formula - Microbiota - Oat β-Glucan

    Background: Non-digestible carbohydrates are added to infant formula to mimic the effects of human milk oligosaccharide by acting as prebiotics and stimulating the immune system. Although not yet used in infant formulas, β-glucans are known to have beneficial health effects, and are therefore of potential interest for supplementation. Methods and results: We investigated the in vitro fermentation of native and endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase-treated oat β-glucan using pooled fecal inocula of 2-and 8-week-old infants. While native oat β-glucan was not utilized, both inocula specifically utilized oat β-glucan oligomers containing β(1→4)-linkages formed upon enzyme treatment. The fermentation rate was highest in the fecal microbiota of 2-week-old infants, and correlated with a high lactate production. Fermentation of media supplemented with native and enzyme-treated oat β-glucans increased the relative abundance of Enterococcus and attenuated proinflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) in immature dendritic cells. This attenuating effect was more pronounced after enzyme treatment. This attenuation might result from the enhanced ability of fermented oat β-glucan to stimulate Dectin-1 receptors. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase treatment enhances the fermentability of oat β-glucan and attenuates pro-inflammatory responses. Hence, this study shows that especially enzyme-treated oat β-glucans have a high potential for supplementation of infant formula.

    Gut dysbacteriosis and intestinal disease: mechanism and treatment
    Meng, X. ; Zhang, G. ; Cao, H. ; Yu, D. ; Fang, X. ; Vos, W.M. de; Wu, H. - \ 2020
    Journal of Applied Microbiology (2020). - ISSN 1364-5072
    gut microbiome - immune response - intestinal diseases - prebiotics - probiotics

    The gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, enzymes or small molecules that can impact host physiology. Gut dysbacteriosis is associated with many intestinal diseases including (but not limited to) inflammatory bowel disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis-IBD, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic constipation, osmotic diarrhoea and colorectal cancer. The potential pathogenic mechanism of gut dysbacteriosis associated with intestinal diseases includes the alteration of composition of gut microbiota as well as the gut microbiota–derived signalling molecules. The many correlations between the latter and the susceptibility for intestinal diseases has placed a spotlight on the gut microbiome as a potential novel target for therapeutics. Currently, faecal microbial transplantation, dietary interventions, use of probiotics, prebiotics and drugs are the major therapeutic tools utilized to impact dysbacteriosis and associated intestinal diseases. In this review, we systematically summarized the role of intestinal microbiome in the occurrence and development of intestinal diseases. The potential mechanism of the complex interplay between gut dysbacteriosis and intestinal diseases, and the treatment methods are also highlighted.

    Fermentation of Chicory Fructo-Oligosaccharides and Native Inulin by Infant Fecal Microbiota Attenuates Pro-Inflammatory Responses in Immature Dendritic Cells in an Infant-Age-Dependent and Fructan-Specific Way
    Logtenberg, Madelon J. ; Akkerman, Renate ; An, Ran ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Haan, Bart J. de; Faas, Marijke M. ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Schols, Henk A. ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2020
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 64 (2020)13. - ISSN 1613-4125
    dendritic cells - in vitro fermentation - infant formula - inulin-type fructans - microbiota

    Scope: Inulin-type fructans are commonly applied in infant formula to support development of gut microbiota and immunity. These inulin-type fructans are considered to be fermented by gut microbiota, but it is unknown how fermentation impacts immune modulating capacity and whether the process of fermentation is dependent on the infant's age. Methods and results: The in vitro fermentation of chicory fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and native inulin are investigated using pooled fecal inocula of two- and eight-week-old infants. Both inocula primarily utilize the trisaccharides in FOS, while they almost completely utilize native inulin with degree of polymerization (DP) 3–8. Fecal microbiota of eight-week-old infants degrades longer chains of native inulin up to DP 16. This correlates with a higher abundance of Bifidobacterium and higher production of acetate and lactate after 26 h of fermentation. Fermented FOS and native inulin attenuate pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by immature dendritic cells (DCs), but profiles and magnitude of attenuation are stronger with native inulin than with FOS. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that fermentation of FOS and native inulin is dependent on the infant's age and fructan structure. Fermentation enhances attenuating effects of pro-inflammatory responses in DCs, which depend mainly on microbial metabolites formed during fermentation.

    Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests
    Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
    Science 368 (2020)6493. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 869 - 874.

    The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.

    Competition influences tree growth, but not mortality, across environmental gradients in Amazonia and tropical Africa
    Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Bánki, Olaf ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Camargo, José Luis C. ; Comiskey, James A. ; Djuikouo Kamdem, Marie Noël ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Laurance, William F. ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Neill, David A. ; Núñez Vargas, Percy ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Reitsma, Jan ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Sunderland, Terry ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Umetsu, Ricardo K. ; Heijden, Geertje M.F. van der; Vilanova, Emilio ; Vos, Vincent ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Zemagho, Lise ; Vanderwel, Mark C. - \ 2020
    Ecology 101 (2020)7. - ISSN 0012-9658
    climatic water deficit - competition - forest dynamics - mortality - neighborhood effects - soil fertility - trait-based models - tree growth - tropical forest - wood density

    Competition among trees is an important driver of community structure and dynamics in tropical forests. Neighboring trees may impact an individual tree’s growth rate and probability of mortality, but large-scale geographic and environmental variation in these competitive effects has yet to be evaluated across the tropical forest biome. We quantified effects of competition on tree-level basal area growth and mortality for trees ≥10-cm diameter across 151 ~1-ha plots in mature tropical forests in Amazonia and tropical Africa by developing nonlinear models that accounted for wood density, tree size, and neighborhood crowding. Using these models, we assessed how water availability (i.e., climatic water deficit) and soil fertility influenced the predicted plot-level strength of competition (i.e., the extent to which growth is reduced, or mortality is increased, by competition across all individual trees). On both continents, tree basal area growth decreased with wood density and increased with tree size. Growth decreased with neighborhood crowding, which suggests that competition is important. Tree mortality decreased with wood density and generally increased with tree size, but was apparently unaffected by neighborhood crowding. Across plots, variation in the plot-level strength of competition was most strongly related to plot basal area (i.e., the sum of the basal area of all trees in a plot), with greater reductions in growth occurring in forests with high basal area, but in Amazonia, the strength of competition also varied with plot-level wood density. In Amazonia, the strength of competition increased with water availability because of the greater basal area of wetter forests, but was only weakly related to soil fertility. In Africa, competition was weakly related to soil fertility and invariant across the shorter water availability gradient. Overall, our results suggest that competition influences the structure and dynamics of tropical forests primarily through effects on individual tree growth rather than mortality and that the strength of competition largely depends on environment-mediated variation in basal area.

    Green Challenges: plant en bodemweerbaarheidtegen ondergrondse ziekten
    Streminska, Marta ; Breeuwsma, Suzanne ; Huisman, Huei Ming ; Vos, Ric de; Eekelen, Henriette van; Stevens, Luc ; Salm, Caroline van der - \ 2020
    Bleiswijk : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Glastuinbouw (Rapport WPR 943) - 61
    Crops in soil-based and soilless greenhouse cultivation systems are susceptible to various soilborne diseases, such as foot and root rot and wilting, caused by pathogens as Fusarium and Pythium. The Grºeen Challenges project aims to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products and to develop new measures and strategies for disease and pest control through a system approach. This project investigated which measures can be taken to promote soil disease suppression and induced plant resistance against soilborne pathogens (Fusarium and Pythium) in different horticultural crops: vegetable crops (tomato and cucumber) and ornamental crop (lisianthus).
    Verbeteropties om de keten van gerookte zalm te verduurzamen
    Vos, B.I. de - \ 2020
    Wageningen Economic Research - 4 p.
    Verbeteropties om de mango- en avocadoketens te verduurzamen
    Vos, B.I. de - \ 2020
    Wageningen Economic Research - 4 p.
    Intestinimonas-like bacteria are important butyrate producers that utilize Nε-fructosyllysine and lysine in formula-fed infants and adults
    Bui, Thi Phuong Nam ; Troise, Antonio Dario ; Nijsse, Bart ; Roviello, Giovanni N. ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Vos, Willem M. de - \ 2020
    Journal of Functional Foods 70 (2020). - ISSN 1756-4646
    Amadori products - Dietary advanced glycation end-products - Human microbiome - Intestinimonas - Nε-fructosyllysine

    Our study aim is to investigate the role of Intestinimonas, Nε-fructosyllysine (FL)-degrading bacterium, in infants and adults. We used lysine and subsequently FL in anaerobic serial dilutions of stools of infants and adults to enrich lysine and FL-degrading species. The fecal microbiota of adults were able to ferment lysine and FL to butyrate. Different groups of Intestinimonas spp. were detected from all lysine enrichments whereas the FL enrichments consisted of broader taxonomic groups with a reduced abundance of Intestinimonas-related species. Remarkably, the capability to degrade FL was only observed in formula-fed but not in breast-fed infants, which may relate to high contents of FL in formulas after thermal treatment. This possibility was supported by analyzing metagenomic datasets of 3-month and 4-month infants. Our data indicate the key role of Intestinimonas-like bacteria in FL degradation in formula-fed infants and adults as a profound example of adaptation of intestinal bacteria to dietary components.

    Flowers, powers, and water flows : conflicts over Irrigation Water and Rose Farming in the Ecuadorian Andes
    Mena-Vásconez, Patricio - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.A. Boelens, co-promotor(en): J.M.C. Vos. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463952644 - 224

    Water coming from high-altitude tropical ecosystems in the northern Andes of Ecuador has been in the centre of conflicts related to irrigation in the Pisque River watershed. This dissertation presents historical and political-ecological analyses of these conflicts from Pre-Columbian times to the present. The local inhabitants of the watershed have confronted powerful external actors that started with the Incas and continued with the Spanish invasion and the Republican era. These stakeholders have encroached upon local resources, including irrigation water, and local inhabitants have responded with various strategies including sometimes vehement uprisings and the up taking of external productive activities such as dairy farming and, more recently, floriculture. This last activity started in this mountainous valley close to the capital city of Quito and at a height of ca. 2800 metres some 40 years ago, taking advantage of neoliberal tendencies and a set of natural, social and economic features that made export-oriented rose cultivation quite attractive. Large agribusinesses started using the lands of the remaining extemporaneous large colonial-type estates (haciendas) and the seemingly abundant but actually waning irrigation water. Local people reacted in two ways: on the one hand, they heralded deeply-rooted perceptions of self-sufficiency and food security against a discourse of modernity and efficiency touted by flower agribusinesses. On the other hand, some local families that had worked for large flower farms and that saw their traditional agriculture declining adopted rose cultivation against quite negative odds in very small plots. These small farms cannot or are not interested in acquiring socio-environmental certification labels that are fashionable with large farms that sell to countries where these schemes are esteemed. Small rose growers either sell their roses to countries like Russia that do not enforce these labels or to large local agribusinesses. If they could overcome long-standing misgivings regarding associativity, they could develop potentially very successful cooperatives in a fashion similar to what happened to communities that took up dairy cows some decades ago. For these analyses of conflicting and dynamic discursive and practical frames, political ecology has proven to be both a rigorous theoretical backbone and a sound ethical guide.

    Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status : The NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries
    Ghosh, Tarini Shankar ; Rampelli, Simone ; Jeffery, Ian B. ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Neto, Marta ; Capri, Miriam ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Jennings, Amy ; Candela, Marco ; Turroni, Silvia ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Elodie, Caumon ; Brugere, Corinne Malpuech ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Berendsen, Agnes M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskins, Edith J.M. ; Kaluza, Joanna ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Bielak, Marta Jeruszka ; Comte, Blandine ; Maijo-Ferre, Monica ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Vos, Willem M. de; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Brigidi, Patrizia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; O'Toole, Paul W. - \ 2020
    Gut 69 (2020)7. - ISSN 0017-5749
    ageing - diet - enteric bacterial microflora - inflammation - intestinal bacteria

    Objective: Ageing is accompanied by deterioration of multiple bodily functions and inflammation, which collectively contribute to frailty. We and others have shown that frailty co-varies with alterations in the gut microbiota in a manner accelerated by consumption of a restricted diversity diet. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with health. In the NU-AGE project, we investigated if a 1-year MedDiet intervention could alter the gut microbiota and reduce frailty. Design: We profiled the gut microbiota in 612 non-frail or pre-frail subjects across five European countries (UK, France, Netherlands, Italy and Poland) before and after the administration of a 12-month long MedDiet intervention tailored to elderly subjects (NU-AGE diet). Results: Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production and lower production of secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol and carbon dioxide. Microbiome ecosystem network analysis showed that the bacterial taxa that responded positively to the MedDiet intervention occupy keystone interaction positions, whereas frailty-associated taxa are peripheral in the networks. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings support the feasibility of improving the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota which in turn has the potential to promote healthier ageing.

    Effect of fructans, prebiotics and fibres on the human gut microbiome assessed by 16S rRNA-based approaches : a review
    Swanson, K.S. ; Vos, W.M. de; Martens, E.C. ; Gilbert, J.A. ; Menon, R.S. ; Soto-Vaca, A. ; Hautvast, J. ; Meyer, P.D. ; Borewicz, K. ; Vaughan, E.E. ; Slavin, J.L. - \ 2020
    Beneficial Microbes 11 (2020)2. - ISSN 1876-2883 - p. 101 - 129.
    health - intestine - inulin - microbiota - nutrition

    The inherent and diverse capacity of dietary fibres, nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) and prebiotics to modify the gut microbiota and markedly influence health status of the host has attracted rising interest. Research and collective initiatives to determine the composition and diversity of the human gut microbiota have increased over the past decade due to great advances in high-throughput technologies, particularly the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing. Here we reviewed the application of 16S rRNA-based molecular technologies, both community wide (sequencing and phylogenetic microarrays) and targeted methodologies (quantitative PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridisation) to study the effect of chicory inulin-type fructans, NDOs and specific added fibres, such as resistant starches, on the human intestinal microbiota. Overall, such technologies facilitated the monitoring of microbiota shifts due to prebiotic/fibre consumption, though there are limited community-wide sequencing studies so far. Molecular studies confirmed the selective bifidogenic effect of fructans and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in human intervention studies. Fructans only occasionally decreased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes or stimulated other groups. The sequencing studies for various resistant starches, polydextrose and beta-glucan showed broader effects with more and different types of gut microbial species being enhanced, often including phylotypes of Ruminococcaceae. There was substantial variation in terms of magnitude of response and in individual responses to a specific fibre or NDO which may be due to numerous factors, such as initial presence and relative abundance of a microbial type, diet, genetics of the host, and intervention parameters, such as intervention duration and fibre dose. The field will clearly benefit from a more systematic approach that will support defining the impact of prebiotics and fibres on the gut microbiome, identify biomarkers that link gut microbes to health, and address the personalised response of an individual's microbiota to prebiotics and dietary fibres.

    Pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila protects from fat mass gain but not from bone loss
    Lawenius, Lina ; Scheffler, Julia M. ; Gustafsson, Karin L. ; Henning, Petra ; Nilsson, Karin H. ; Colldén, Hannah ; Islander, Ulrika ; Plovier, Hubert ; Cani, Patrice D. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Ohlsson, Claes ; Sjögren, Klara - \ 2020
    American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 318 (2020)4. - ISSN 0193-1849 - p. E480 - E491.
    Akkermansia - bone mass - gut microbiota - osteoporosis - probiotic

    Probiotic bacteria can protect from ovariectomy (ovx)-induced bone loss in mice. Akkermansia muciniphila is considered to have probiotic potential due to its beneficial effect on obesity and insulin resistance. The purpose of the present study was to determine if treatment with pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila (pAkk) could prevent ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with vehicle or pAkk for 4 wk, starting 3 days before ovx or sham surgery. Treatment with pAkk reduced fat mass accumulation confirming earlier findings. However, treatment with pAkk decreased trabecular and cortical bone mass in femur and vertebra of gonadal intact mice and did not protect from ovx-induced bone loss. Treatment with pAkk increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and increased expression of the calcium transporter Trpv5 in kidney suggesting increased reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys. Serum amyloid A 3 (SAA3) can suppress bone formation and mediate the effects of PTH on bone resorption and bone loss in mice and treatment with pAkk increased serum levels of SAA3 and gene expression of Saa3 in colon. Moreover, regulatory T cells can be protective of bone and pAkk-treated mice had decreased number of regulatory T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and bone marrow. In conclusion, treatment with pAkk protected from ovx-induced fat mass gain but not from bone loss and reduced bone mass in gonadal intact mice. Our findings with pAkk differ from some probiotics that have been shown to protect bone mass, demonstrating that not all prebiotic and probiotic factors have the same effect on bone.

    Treatment with Anaerobutyricum soehngenii : a pilot study of safety and dose–response effects on glucose metabolism in human subjects with metabolic syndrome
    Gilijamse, Pim W. ; Hartstra, Annick V. ; Levin, Evgeni ; Wortelboer, Koen ; Serlie, Mireille J. ; Ackermans, Mariette T. ; Herrema, Hilde ; Nederveen, Aart J. ; Imangaliyev, Sultan ; Aalvink, Steven ; Sommer, Morton ; Levels, Han ; Stroes, Erik S.G. ; Groen, Albert K. ; Kemper, Marleen ; Vos, Willem M. de; Nieuwdorp, Max ; Prodan, Andrei - \ 2020
    npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 6 (2020)1. - ISSN 2055-5008

    Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been implicated in insulin resistance, although evidence regarding causality in humans is scarce. We performed a phase I/II dose-finding and safety study on the effect of oral intake of the anaerobic butyrogenic strain Anaerobutyricum soehngenii on glucose metabolism in 24 subjects with metabolic syndrome. We found that treatment with A. soehngenii was safe and observed a significant correlation between the measured fecal abundance of administered A. soehngenii and improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity after 4 weeks of treatment. This was accompanied by an altered microbiota composition and a change in bile acid metabolism. Finally, we show that metabolic response upon administration of A. soehngenii (defined as improved insulin sensitivity 4 weeks after A. soehngenii intake) is dependent on microbiota composition at baseline. These data in humans are promising, but additional studies are needed to reproduce our findings and to investigate long-term effects, as well as other modes of delivery.

    Organic matter reduces the amount of detectable environmental DNA in freshwater
    Bochove, Kees van; Bakker, Freek T. ; Beentjes, Kevin K. ; Hemerik, Lia ; Vos, Rutger A. ; Gravendeel, Barbara - \ 2020
    Ecology and Evolution 10 (2020)8. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 3647 - 3654.
    degradation - detection - environmental DNA - Gammarus pulex - organic matter - pH

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is used for monitoring the occurrence of freshwater organisms. Various studies show a relation between the amount of eDNA detected and target organism abundance, thus providing a potential proxy for reconstructing population densities. However, environmental factors such as water temperature and microbial activity are known to affect the amount of eDNA present as well. In this study, we use controlled aquarium experiments using Gammarus pulex L. (Amphipoda) to investigate the relationship between the amount of detectable eDNA through time, pH, and levels of organic material. We found eDNA to degrade faster when organic material was added to the aquarium water, but that pH had no significant effect. We infer that eDNA contained inside cells and mitochondria is extra resilient against degradation, though this may not reflect actual presence of target species. These results indicate that, although estimation of population density might be possible using eDNA, measured eDNA concentration could, in the future, be corrected for local environmental conditions in order to ensure accurate comparisons.

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