Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Verdwijnt de es uit het Nederlandse landschap? Aziatische schimmel bedreigt tot 98 procent van de bomen
    Hiemstra, Jelle ; Copini, Paul - \ 2017

    Staatsbosbeheer verwacht 10 tot 20 miljoen euro kwijt te zijn aan kap en plaatsing van nieuwe bomen

    Het vals essenvlieskelkje waart door de Nederlandse bossen en legt in het zwartste scenario 98 procent van alle essen om. De uit Azië overgewaaide schimmel grijpt zo wild om zich heen, dat bosbeheerders in allerijl het komende jaar zieke bomen langs paden en wegen kappen die anders zelf dood neer dreigen te vallen.

    Nimfen eten zelfs pissebedden : Schijf van vijf van oorworm
    Winkler, Karin ; Waart, Sytske de; Helsen, H.H.M. - \ 2017
    De Fruitteelt 107 (2017)5. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 16 - 17.
    Feeding pattern during the nesting phase of the European earwig Forficula auricularia
    Winkler, Karin ; Waart, Sytske de; Helsen, H.H.M. - \ 2016
    Zorgvuldigheid boven snelheid bij stoppen met couperen
    Peet, Geert van der - \ 2016
    tail biting - pigs - animal welfare - animal behaviour - animal housing - animal production

    Wat te doen bij staartbijters? Bij het couperen van staarten wordt het vanzelfsprekende deeltje van het lichaam wel weggenomen, maar niet de drang om te bijten. De oplossing voor bijtgedrag is een onderzoeksvraag die al jaren door de sector waart. Nog niemand heeft ze kunnen beantwoorden. Er zijn inmiddels verschillende proeven opgezet waaruit we iets kunnen leren. Maar er kan nog steeds geen pasklare oplossing voor je bedrijf aangeboden worden.

    Robust Array-Based Coregulator Binding Assay Predicting ERa-Agonist Potency and Generating Binding Profiles Reflecting Ligand Structure
    Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. ; Wang, S. ; Houtman, R. ; Beuningen, R.M.G.J. van; Westerink, W.M.A. ; Waart, B.J. van de; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Bovee, T.F.H. - \ 2013
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 26 (2013)3. - ISSN 0893-228X - p. 336 - 346.
    sediment-associated samples - estrogen-receptor-alpha - integral assessment - nuclear receptors - coactivators - discovery - screen - optimization - potentials - bioassay
    Testing chemicals for their endocrine-disrupting potential, including interference with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling, is an important aspect of chemical safety testing. Because of the practical drawbacks of animal testing, the development of in vitro alternatives for the uterotrophic assay and other in vivo (anti)estrogenicity tests has high priority. It was previously demonstrated that an in vitro assay that profiles ligand-induced binding of ERa to a microarray of coregulator-derived peptides might be a valuable candidate for a panel of in vitro assays aiming at an ultimate replacement of the uterotrophic assay. In the present study, the reproducibility and robustness of this coregulator binding assay was determined by measuring the binding profiles of 14 model compounds that are recommended by the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances for testing laboratory proficiency in estrogen receptor transactivation assays. With a median coefficient of variation of 5.0% and excellent correlation (R(2) = 0.993) between duplicate measurements, the reproducibility of the ERa-coregulator binding assay was better than the reproducibility of other commonly used in vitro ER functional assays. In addition, the coregulator binding assay is correctly predicting the estrogenicity for 13 out of 14 compounds tested. When the potency of the ER-agonists to induce ERa-coregulator binding was compared to their ER binding affinity, their ranking was similar, and the correlation between the EC50 values was excellent (R(2) = 0.96), as was the correlation with their potency in a transactivation assay (R(2) = 0.94). Moreover, when the ERa-coregulator binding profiles were hierarchically clustered using Euclidian cluster distance, the structurally related compounds were found to cluster together, whereas the steroid test compounds having an aromatic A-ring were separated from those with a cyclohexene A-ring. We concluded that this assay is capable of distinguishing ERa agonists and antagonists and that it even reflects the structural similarity of ERa agonists, indicating a potential to achieve identification and classification of ERa endocrine disruptors with high fidelity
    Een beter tweede leven (interview met o.a. Johan Sanders)
    Schot, J. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2013
    MilieuMagazine: vakblad voor milieumanagement 2013 (2013)3. - ISSN 1384-6035 - p. 26 - 28.
    Het motto 'Afval is grondstof ' waart rond. Bedrijven werken hard aan technologie om biologisch afval een nieuwe bestemming te geven. Het zoeken is naar opwaardering van het afval tot nieuwe producten. Zowel de afvalmarkt als de nog zwakke afzetmarkt spelen deze zogenoemde cascadering nog parten.
    Van zorgenkindje tot paradepaardje?
    Arnold, D. ; Waart, R. van de; Laurentzen, M. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2011
    In: Kwartiermakers van de toekomst / Nooteboom, S., Deventer : Mastercircle BV - ISBN 9789081109420 - p. 226 - 233.
    Absorption, distribution and biliary excretion of cafestol, a potent cholesterol elevating compound in unfiltered coffees in mice
    Cruchten, S.T.J. van; Waart, D.R. de; Kunne, C. ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Katan, M.B. ; Oude Elferink, R.P.J. ; Witkamp, R.F. - \ 2010
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 38 (2010)4. - ISSN 0090-9556 - p. 635 - 640.
    chemopreventive components kahweol - raising factor - liver aminotransferases - diterpenes cafestol - serum-lipids - rat-liver - metabolism - 4-ipomeanol - enzymes - beans
    Cafestol is a diterpene present in unfiltered coffees. It is the most potent cholesterol-elevating compound present in the human diet. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this effect are still unclear. In contrast, cafestol is also known as a hepatoprotective compound which is likely to be related to the induction of glutathione biosynthesis and conjugation. In the present study we investigated whole body distribution, biliary excretion and portal bioavailability of cafestol in mice. First, dissection was used to study distribution. Five hours after an oral dose with 3H labeled cafestol, most activity was found in small intestine, liver and bile. These results were confirmed by quantitative whole body autoradiography in a time course study which also showed elimination of all radioactivity within 48 hours after administration. Next, radiolabeled cafestol was dosed i.v. to bile duct cannulated mice. Five hours post dose 20% of the radioactivity was found in bile. Bile contained several metabolites but no parent compound. After intestinal administration of radioactive cafestol to portal vein cannulated mice, cafestol was shown to be rapidly absorbed into the portal vein as parent compound, a glucuronide and an unidentified metabolite. From the presence of a glucuronide in bile that can be deconjugated by a bacterial enzyme and the prolonged absorption of parent compound from the GI tract we hypothesize that cafestol undergoes enterohepatic cycling. Together with our earlier observation that epoxidation of the furan ring occurs in liver these findings merit further research on the process of accumulation of this coffee ingredient in liver and intestinal tract
    CO2-labeling van voeding : (hoe) kan de consument rekening houden met klimaatgevolgen van de aankoop van voedingsmiddelen
    Nijenhuis, L. ; Waart, S. de; Timmermans, A.J.M. ; Eppink, M.M. ; Rosekrans, W. ; Dutilh, C. - \ 2008
    Amsterdam : Stichting DuVO - 24 p.
    Milieueffecten van Nederlandse consumptie van eiwitrijke producten : gevolgen van vervanging van dierlijke eiwitten anno 2008
    Blonk, H. ; Kool, A. ; Luske, B. ; Waart, S. de; Pierick, E. ten - \ 2008
    Gouda : Blonk Milieu Advies - 153
    voedselconsumptie - vleeswaren - eiwitrijke voedingsmiddelen - eiwitproducten - dierlijke eiwitten - melkproducten - vleesvervangers - milieueffect - broeikasgassen - consumptiepatronen - food consumption - meat products - protein foods - protein products - animal proteins - milk products - meat alternates - environmental impact - greenhouse gases - consumption patterns
    In 2008 heeft Blonk Milieu Advies in samenwerking met de vegetariërsbond en het LEI een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de milieueffecten van een verschuiving van consumptie van dierlijke naar plantaardige eiwitten in de Nederlandse voeding. Daarbij is vooral de focus gelegd op het broeikaseffect en het ruimtebeslag en de mogelijke biodiversiteitseffecten daarvan. Daarnaast is er meer kwalitatief aandacht besteed aan andere effecten zoals dierenwelzijn en de effecten van een consumptiestop van dierlijke producten op de productiekolom van dierlijke producten in Nederland
    An in vitro/in vovo screening assay as a sensitive tool to assess endocrine disruptive activity in surface water
    Bogers, R. ; Buitenweg, S. ; Geuijen, I. ; Waart, B. van de; Kuiper, R. ; Linden, S. van der; Puijker, L. ; Murk, A.J. ; Burg, B. van der; Legler, J. - \ 2007
    Environment International 33 (2007)3. - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 292 - 301.
    minnow pimephales-promelas - vitellogenin messenger-rna - secondary sex characteristics - treated sewage effluent - medaka oryzias-latipes - fathead minnow - cyprinodon-variegatus - estrogenic activity - synthetic estrogen - rainbow-trout
    Adult male fathead minnow were exposed for 14 or 28-days under flow-through conditions to undiluted filtered water samples from the rivers Meuse and Rhine in the Netherlands. The experiment included two vessels per treatment each containing 10 fish and samples of five fish were taken after 14 and 28 days. Additional groups were exposed to 17¿-ethinylestradiol (EE2) as a reference and untreated drinking water as a negative control. Major endpoints examined included induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis, VTG mRNA activity, hepato- and gonadosomatic indices (HSI and GSI) and gonadal histology. No significant difference was recorded in body weight or mean GSI values between the various treatments. Only exposure to Meuse water resulted in significantly higher HSI means after 14 days. Histological examination showed no apparent effects on gonadal tissue except for eosinophilic blood plasma in fish exposed to Meuse water or EE2. After 14 and 28 days, elevated VTG and VTG mRNA levels were measured in most livers of the fish exposed to Meuse water, but not in the fish exposed to Rhine water. This was confirmed by measuring estrogenic responses in the in vitro ER CALUX® assay. Induction of VTG synthesis proved to be the most sensitive endpoint in the Non Spawning Male Fish Assay for in vivo detection of bio-available estrogenic activity supplementary to a sensitive in vitro assay. The other endpoints examined varied too much and required a higher number of fish or replicates to achieve sufficient power for statistical testing making them less animal friendly.
    QSARs in ecotoxicological risk assessment
    Roode, D. De; Hoekzema, C.C. ; Vries-Buitenweg, S. de; Waart, B. van de; Hoeven, J. Van der - \ 2006
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 45 (2006)1. - ISSN 0273-2300 - p. 24 - 35.
    aquatic toxicity - environmental-pollutants - applicability domain - existing chemicals - organic-compounds - fish - model - pharmaceuticals - descriptors - pesticides
    The need for more ecotoxicological data encourages the use of QSARs because of the reduction of (animal) testing, time and cost. QSARs may however only be used if they prove to be reliable and accurate. In this paper, four QSARs were attempted to predict toxicity for 170 compounds from a broad chemical class, using them as a black-box. Predictions were obtained for 122 compounds, indicating an important drawback of QSARs, i.e., for 28% of the compounds QSARs cannot be used at all. Ecosar, Topkat, and QSARs for non-polar and polar narcosis generated predictions for 120, 39, 24, and I I compounds, respectively. Correlations between experimental and predicted effect concentrations were significant for Topkat and the QSAR for polar narcosis, but generally poor for Ecosar and the QSAR for non-polar narcosis. When predicted effect concentrations for fish were allowed to deviate from experimental values by a factor of 5, correct predictions were generated for 77%, 54%, 68%, and 91% of the compounds using Ecosar, Topkat, and the QSARs for non-polar and polar narcosis, respectively. It was impossible to indicate specific chemical classes for which a QSAR should be used or not. The results show that currently available QSARs cannot be used as a black-box.
    Development of chronic tests for endocrine active chemicals. Part 2. An extended fish earli-life stage test with an androgenic chemical in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)
    Bogers, R. ; Vries-Buitenweg, S. de; Gils, H.A.M. van; Baltussen, E. ; Hargreaves, A. ; Waart, B. van de; Roode, D.F. de; Legler, J. ; Murk, A.J. - \ 2006
    Aquatic Toxicology 80 (2006)2. - ISSN 0166-445X - p. 119 - 130.
    medaka oryzias-latipes - zebrafish danio-rerio - secondary sex characteristics - mill effluent - in-vivo - nonaromatizable androgens - receptor agonist - methyltestosterone - disruption - growth
    The Endocrine Modulators Study Group (EMSG) of the European Chemical Industry has proposed an extended fish early-life stage (ELS) test based on OECD test guideline 210 in combination with a fish pair-breeding reproduction study as a possible alternative for fish full life cycle testing. In this paper the androgen methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT) was tested in an extended ELS test with fathead minnow supplementary to such a test with the weak estrogen 4-tert-pentylphenol (4TPP). Main endpoints were secondary sexual characteristics (SSC), plasma vitellogenin (VTG) induction and gonadal development. Early blastula embryos were exposed to 0, 0.10, 0.32 and 1.0 ¿g MDHT l-1 for up to 114 days post-hatch (dph). A batch of fish exposed to 1.0 ¿g l-1 was transferred to clean water after 30 or 63 dph for the remainder of the study. Ethinylestradiol (EE2) was included as estrogenic reference substance at 0.01 ¿g l-1. Exposure to MDHT had no significant effect on hatching success or survival, but significantly increased the condition factor of fish exposed for 63 and 114 dph (up to 150% of the control). At 63 dph MDHT exposure induced appearance of tubercles on the snout (a male SSC) of more than 80% of fish. Compared to the controls, plasma VTG was not detectable or significantly lower in fish exposed to MDHT at 0.10 ¿g/l, but not significantly affected at higher MDHT concentrations. Both lower levels of MDHT significantly inhibited the development of female gonads as of 30 dph. Fish exposed to MDHT at 0.32 and 1.0 ¿g l-1 showed higher incidences of mixed sex gonads (10-25%) and smaller testes or dysplasia of gonadal tissue. Dysplasia was present in 80% of the fish continuously exposed to 1.0 ¿g l-1 up to 114 dph, but reversible when fish were transferred to dilution water. Results indicate that suppression of ovarian development was the most sensitive endpoint for MDHT exposure after 30 dph. Other endpoints (e.g., growth and SSC) required exposure during at least up to 63 dph to yield a significant effect. Androgenic effects on VTG production required even longer exposure, i.e., until sufficient number of females had matured
    Alternative approaches can greatly reduce the number of fish used for acute toxicity testing
    Hoekzema, C.C. ; Murk, A.J. ; Waart, B.J. van de; Hoeven, J.C.M. van der; Roode, D.F. de - \ 2006
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25 (2006)5. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1322 - 1325.
    toxiciteit - chemicaliën - tests - toxicologie - testen - vissen - toxicity - chemicals - tests - toxicology - testing - fishes - european-union - ecotoxicity - strategy - daphnia - embryo - algae
    We first examined the uptake kinetics of Cd and Zn in the juvenile marine black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli) over a wide range of ambient Cd and Zn concentrations, and the relationships with metal accumulation (uptake rate and amount of nonexchangeable surface binding) were established for different fish tissues. Both Cd and Zn accumulation in the body increased linearly with exposure time after the initial metal surface binding. The dissolved Cd and Zn uptake rate constants were 2.64 and 6.50 L/kg/d, respectively, and the kinetics followed a first-order process. No evidence of biphasic transport was found, in contrast to the situation in freshwater fish. Viscera were the most important sites of metal uptake, and gills were the second most important sites. The black sea breams were then acclimated at different Cd or Zn concentrations from either waterborne or dietary source for one week, and the alteration of metal uptake kinetics or subcellular distribution and metallothionein (MT) induction were further quantified. The Cd body burden was enhanced up to 8.6- and 49-fold after waterborne and dietary Cd pre-exposure, respectively. Cadmium pre-exposure also altered the tissue-specific subcellular Cd distribution and significantly elevated tissue MT levels. In contrast, the black sea breams were able to regulate Zn accumulation, and waterborne or dietary Zn pre-exposure had only weak influences on Zn body burden and redistribution. Both Cd and Zn pre-exposures enhanced the metal uptake rate constants, whereas the nonexchangeable surface bindings were less impacted by these pre-exposures. We demonstrated a positive relationship between the Cd uptake rate and Cd or MT concentration in the fish. Pre-exposure to metals may substantially modify the kinetics of metal uptake.
    Agroparken : het concept, de ontvangst, de praktijk
    Wilt, J. de; Dobbelaar, T. ; Schoor, L. van den; Evers, F. ; Goossens, A.L.M. ; Hartog, L. ; Hulshof, C. ; Pegge, S.M. ; Smeets, P.J.A.M. ; Waart, R. van de; Vonder, M. - \ 2005
    Den Haag : InnovatieNetwerk Groene Ruimte en Agrocluster (Innovatienetwerk rapport nr. 05.2.095) - ISBN 9789050592529 - 43
    agro-industriële complexen - agro-industriële sector - landbouwsector - innovaties - landbouwbedrijven - agroindustrial complexes - agroindustrial sector - agricultural sector - innovations - farms
    Deze verzameling van beschouwingen, interviews en aanzetten tot evaluatie is een weergave van denkbeelden en handelingen rondom het concept agroparken. InnovatieNetwerk lanceerde dit concept in 2000 om vernieuwingen in de landbouw te entameren
    Paraoxonase genotype, LDL-oxidation and carotid atherosclerosis in male life-long smokers
    Himbergen, T. van; Roest, M. ; Waart, F. de; Voorbij, H. ; Tits, L. van; Stalenhoef, A. - \ 2004
    Free Radical Research 38 (2004)6. - ISSN 1071-5762 - p. 553 - 560.
    low-density-lipoprotein - coronary-artery-disease - intima-media thickness - human serum paraoxonase - oxidized ldl - heart-disease - gln-arg192 polymorphism - gene polymorphisms - cigarette-smoking - wall thickness
    Paraoxonase (PON-1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) associated enzyme that hydrolyzes lipid peroxides in vitro , which may therefore protect against the onset of atherosclerosis. Heavy smokers are more exposed to oxidative stress and hence at high-risk for oxidative modification of LDL. Our hypothesis is that the anti-oxidative properties of PON-1 inhibit LDL oxidation, especially in populations exposed to high oxidative stress. We have studied the effects of PON-1 genotype and smoking to variation in oxidative status parameters and intima-media thickness (IMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The contribution of two common polymorphisms in the PON-1 gene (Q192R and L55M) to LDL oxidizability, autoantibodies directed against oxLDL and IMT were studied in 207 male life-long smokers. Smokers were classified into average, heavy and excessive smokers based on pack years of cigarettes smoked. PON-1 genotype was not associated with autoantibodies to oxLDL, LDL oxidizability or IMT. Smoking was associated with IMT in subgroups with the high levels of LDL, but not in the population at large. The lack of association of PON-1 genotype with oxidative status parameters and IMT suggests that PON-1 is not a major inhibitor of LDL oxidation in a population of life-long smokers.
    Neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity in chronic smoking: effect of long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy
    Tits, L. van; Waart, F. de; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M. ; Graaf, J. de; Demacker, P.N. ; Stalenhoef, A.F. - \ 2003
    Journal of Biosciences 28 (2003)1. - ISSN 0250-5991 - p. 23 - 27.
    low-density-lipoprotein - kinase-c activity - vitamin-e - invitro oxidation - supplementation - activation
    We investigated whether long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy in chronic smoking affects superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils ex vivo. To this purpose, we randomly assigned 128 male chronic smokers (37 21 pack years of smoking) to treatment with placebo (n = 64) or alpha-tocopherol (400 IU dL-alpha-tocopherol daily, n = 64). After two years of therapy, we measured phorbol 12-myristate 13 -acetate- induced superoxide production of isolated neutrophils and of diluted whole blood by monitoring reduction of ferricytochrome c and luminol-enhanced peroxidase-catalyzed chemiluminescence. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins were not different between the two treatment groups. As expected, concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in plasma and in low-density lipoproteins were markedly elevated in the supplemented group compared to the placebo group (+ 120%, P <0.0001 and + 83%, P <0.0001, respectively). Consequently, resistance to in vitro oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (reflected by lag time of conjugated diene formation) was higher in the supplemented group than in the placebo group (+ 22%, P <0.0001). Superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils and superoxide production in diluted whole blood did not differ between α-tocopherol and placebo group. It is concluded that in chronic smoking long-term supranormal α-tocopherol intake does not reduce neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity, despite large increases in the concentrations of α-tocopherol in plasma and in low-density lipoproteins.
    The 4G/5G-polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene is not associated with markers of atherosclerosis in male smokers
    Hoekstra, T. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Waart, F. de; Nederhand, R. ; Kluft, C. ; Kok, F.J. ; Schouten, E.G. - \ 2002
    Thrombosis Research 102 (2002). - ISSN 0049-3848 - p. 115 - 119.
    Effects of alpha-tocopherol on superoxide production and plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and antibodies to oxidized LDL in chronic smokers
    Tits, L.J. van; Waart, F. de; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M. ; Heijst, P. ; Graaf, J. de; Demacker, P.N. ; Stalenhoef, A.F. - \ 2001
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 30 (2001)10. - ISSN 0891-5849 - p. 1122 - 1129.
    low-density-lipoprotein - coronary-artery disease - human endothelial-cells - apparently healthy-men - protein-kinase-c - cigarette-smoking - vitamin-e - carotid atherosclerosis - lipid-peroxidation - heart-disease
    Antioxidants have been postulated to exert beneficial effects in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is associated with raised plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). It is not known whether antioxidants affect these plasma factors in chronic smokers. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 128 male normolipidemic chronic smokers the effect of a 2-year a-tocopherol treatment (400 IU dL-a-tocopherol daily) on plasma levels of sICAM-1 and autoantibodies against oxLDL was evaluated. In addition, we monitored production of superoxide by leukocytes ex vivo. It was found that compared to nonsmokers (n = 33) plasma levels of IgG but not IgM autoantibodies against oxLDL and concentrations of sICAM-1 in smokers were significantly elevated (30 and 42%, respectively). After supplementation with a-tocopherol concentration of TBARS in plasma and in vitro oxidizability of LDL had decreased, but autoantibodies and sICAM-1 had not changed. Production of superoxide was not different between a-tocopherol- and placebo-treated smokers. It is concluded that in chronic smokers, long-term treatment with a-tocopherol does not normalize the raised levels of sICAM-1 and autoantibodies against oxLDL, both risk factors for initiation or progression of cardiovascular disease, despite a decrease in in vitro oxidizability of LDL.
    Serum carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol and mortality risk in a prospective study among Dutch elderly
    Waart, F. de; Schouten, E.G. ; Stalenhoef, A.F. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2001
    International Journal of Epidemiology 30 (2001)1. - ISSN 0300-5771 - p. 136 - 143.
    coronary heart-disease - performance liquid-chromatography - beta-carotene - vitamin-e - cardiovascular-disease - cancer prevention - plasma - antioxidants - retinol - lycopene
    Background Although beta -carotene has shown inverse associations with chronic diseases involving free radical damage in observational epidemiological studies less attention has been paid to five other major carotenoids also showing antioxidant activity irt vitro. Methods We studied the associations between 7.2-year mortality and serum levels of six caroteneids, and alpha -tocopherol, measured in stored serum, sampled in 1991/1992 during a health survey among 638 independently Living elderly subjects aged 65-85 years. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of all-cause mortality for the lowest tertiles of serum vitamins with the highest tertiles, adjusting for possible confounding effects. Results During a follow-up period of 7.2 years 171 elderly died. The adjusted hazard ratios for ail-cause mortality for the lowest tertiles of vitamins compared with the highest tertiles were between 1.02 and 1.73. The strongest increase in mortality risk was seen for beta -cryptoxanthin (1.52, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.32), lutein (1.56, 95% CI : 1.05, 2.31) and zeaxanthin (1.32, 95% CI : 0.89, 1.97) and their sum (oxygenated carotenoids: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.67). Tests for trend were significant (P <0.05) for all-cause mortality risk and serum levels of total carotenoids, oxygenated carotenoids and -cryptoxanthin. Conclusions Our findings suggest that serum levels of individual carotenoids, particularly the oxygenated species are inversely associated with all-cause mortality and should be considered as candidates for further investigations.
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