Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Importance and vulnerability of the world’s water towers
    Immerzeel, W.W. ; Lutz, A.F. ; Andrade, M. ; Bahl, A. ; Biemans, H. ; Bolch, T. ; Hyde, S. ; Brumby, S. ; Davies, B.J. ; Elmore, A.C. ; Emmer, A. ; Feng, M. ; Fernández, A. ; Haritashya, U. ; Kargel, J.S. ; Koppes, M. ; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A. ; Kulkarni, A.V. ; Mayewski, P.A. ; Nepal, S. ; Pacheco, P. ; Painter, T.H. ; Pellicciotti, F. ; Rajaram, H. ; Rupper, S. ; Sinisalo, A. ; Shrestha, A.B. ; Viviroli, D. ; Wada, Y. ; Xiao, C. ; Yao, T. ; Baillie, J.E.M. - \ 2020
    Nature 577 (2020)7790. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 364 - 369.

    Mountains are the water towers of the world, supplying a substantial part of both natural and anthropogenic water demands1,2. They are highly sensitive and prone to climate change3,4, yet their importance and vulnerability have not been quantified at the global scale. Here we present a global water tower index (WTI), which ranks all water towers in terms of their water-supplying role and the downstream dependence of ecosystems and society. For each water tower, we assess its vulnerability related to water stress, governance, hydropolitical tension and future climatic and socio-economic changes. We conclude that the most important (highest WTI) water towers are also among the most vulnerable, and that climatic and socio-economic changes will affect them profoundly. This could negatively impact 1.9 billion people living in (0.3 billion) or directly downstream of (1.6 billion) mountainous areas. Immediate action is required to safeguard the future of the world’s most important and vulnerable water towers.

    Cost-effective management of coastal eutrophication: A case study for the yangtze river basin
    Strokal, M. ; Kahil, T. ; Wada, Y. ; Albiac, J. ; Bai, Z. ; Ermolieva, T. ; Langan, S. ; Ma, L. ; Oenema, O. ; Wagner, F. ; Zhu, X. ; Kroeze, C. - \ 2020
    Resources, Conservation and Recycling 154 (2020). - ISSN 0921-3449
    Cost-effective management - Eutrophication - Integrated modelling - Nitrogen and phosphorus - Nutrient management - Waste recycling

    Many water resources are threatened with nutrient pollution worldwide. This holds for rivers exporting increasing amounts of nutrients from the intensification of food production systems and further urbanization. This riverine nutrient transport causes coastal eutrophication. This study aims to identify cost-effective management options to simultaneously reach environmental targets for river export of nitrogen and phosphorus by the Yangtze River (China) in 2050. A newly developed modelling approach is used that integrates the Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs (MARINA) with a cost-optimization procedure, and accounts for socio-economic developments, land use and climate changes in a spatially explicit way. The environmental targets for river export of nutrients aim to reduce the gap between baseline and desirable nutrient export. Our baseline is based on MARINA projections for future river export of nutrients, while the desirable nutrient export reflects a low eutrophication potential. Results show the possibilities to close the gap in river export of both nutrients by 80–90% at a cost of 1–3 billion $ per year in 2050. Recycling of animal waste on cropland is an important cost-effective option; reducing synthetic fertilizer inputs provides an opportunity to compensate for the additional costs of the recycling and treatment of manure and wastewater. Our study provides new insights on the combination of cost-effective management options for sub-basins of the Yangtze. This can support the design of cost-effective and sub-basin specific management options for reducing future water pollution.

    Exploring the value of machine learning for weighted multi-model combination of an ensemble of global hydrological models
    Zaherpour, Jamal ; Mount, Nick ; Gosling, Simon N. ; Dankers, Rutger ; Eisner, Stephanie ; Gerten, Dieter ; Liu, Xingcai ; Masaki, Yoshimitsu ; Müller Schmied, Hannes ; Tang, Qiuhong ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2019
    Environmental Modelling & Software 114 (2019). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 112 - 128.
    Gene expression programming - Global hydrological models - Machine learning - Model weighting - Optimisation

    This study presents a novel application of machine learning to deliver optimised, multi-model combinations (MMCs) of Global Hydrological Model (GHM) simulations. We exemplify the approach using runoff simulations from five GHMs across 40 large global catchments. The benchmarked, median performance gain of the MMC solutions is 45% compared to the best performing GHM and exceeds 100% when compared to the ensemble mean (EM). The performance gain offered by MMC suggests that future multi-model applications consider reporting MMCs, alongside the EM and intermodal range, to provide end-users of GHM ensembles with a better contextualised estimate of runoff. Importantly, the study highlights the difficulty of interpreting complex, non-linear MMC solutions in physical terms. This indicates that a pragmatic approach to future MMC studies based on machine learning methods is required, in which the allowable solution complexity is carefully constrained.

    A nexus modeling framework for assessing water scarcity solutions
    Kahil, Taher ; Albiac, Jose ; Fischer, Guenther ; Strokal, Maryna ; Tramberend, Sylvia ; Greve, Peter ; Tang, Ting ; Burek, Peter ; Burtscher, Robert ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 40 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 72 - 80.

    Water scarcity has become a crucial environmental issue worldwide. It has increased substantially in the last decades in many parts of the world, and it is expected to further exacerbate in the future driven by socio-economic and climatic changes. Several solution options could be implemented to address this growing water scarcity, including supply and demand-side management options that span the water, energy, and agricultural sectors. However, these options involve tradeoffs among various societal objectives, especially when the interactions between these objectives are not properly considered. This paper provides a review of the impending water scarcity challenges and suggests assessing water scarcity solution options using a nexus modeling framework that links well-established sectoral-oriented models.

    Increasing nitrogen export to sea: A scenario analysis for the Indus River
    Wang, Mengru ; Tang, Ting ; Burek, P. ; Havlík, Petr ; Krisztin, Tamás ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Leclère, D. ; Strokal, Maryna ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Wang, Yaoping ; Langan, S. - \ 2019
    Science of the Total Environment 694 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Indus River - Nitrogen sources - Representative concentration pathways - River export of nitrogen (N) - Shared socio-economic pathways - Sub-basins

    The Indus River Basin faces severe water quality degradation because of nutrient enrichment from human activities. Excessive nutrients in tributaries are transported to the river mouth, causing coastal eutrophication. This situation may worsen in the future because of population growth, economic development, and climate change. This study aims at a better understanding of the magnitude and sources of current (2010) and future (2050) river export of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) by the Indus River at the sub-basin scale. To do this, we implemented the MARINA 1.0 model (Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs). The model inputs for human activities (e.g., agriculture, land use) were mainly from the GLOBIOM (Global Biosphere Management Model) and EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Model) models. Model inputs for hydrology were from the Community WATer Model (CWATM). For 2050, three scenarios combining Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs 1, 2 and 3) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6 and 6.0) were selected. A novelty of this study is the sub-basin analysis of future N export by the Indus River for SSPs and RCPs. Result shows that river export of TDN by the Indus River will increase by a factor of 1.6–2 between 2010 and 2050 under the three scenarios. >90% of the dissolved N exported by the Indus River is from midstream sub-basins. Human waste is expected to be the major source, and contributes by 66–70% to river export of TDN in 2050 depending on the scenarios. Another important source is agriculture, which contributes by 21–29% to dissolved inorganic N export in 2050. Thus a combined reduction in both diffuse and point sources in the midstream sub-basins can be effective to reduce coastal water pollution by nutrients at the river mouth of Indus.

    The global nexus of food–trade–water sustaining environmental flows by 2050
    Pastor, A.V. ; Palazzo, A. ; Havlik, P. ; Biemans, H. ; Wada, Y. ; Obersteiner, M. ; Kabat, P. ; Ludwig, F. - \ 2019
    Nature Sustainability 2 (2019). - ISSN 2398-9629 - p. 499 - 507.

    In the face of meeting Sustainable Development Goals for the water–food–energy–ecosystems nexus, integrated assessments are a great means to measure the impact of global change on natural resources. In this study, we evaluate the impact of climate change with the representative concentration pathway 8.5 scenario and the impact of socioeconomics with the shared socioeconomic pathway 2 scenario on land use, water consumption and food trade under four water regulation policy scenarios (invest, exploit, environment and environment+). We used the Global Biosphere Management Model and constrained it with water availability, environmental flow requirements, and water use from agriculture, industry and households (simulated using the Lund–Potsdam–Jena managed Land model, Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model and WaterGap model). Here, we show that an increase in land use by 100 Mha would be required to double food production by 2050, to meet projected food demands. International trade would need to nearly triple to meet future crop demands, with an additional 10–20% trade flow from water-abundant regions to water-scarce regions to sustain environmental flow requirements on a global scale.

    The Shadow Price of Irrigation Water in Major Groundwater‐Depleting Countries
    Bierkens, M.F.P. ; Reinhard, A.J. ; Bruijn, Jens A. de; Veninga, Willeke ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2019
    Water Resources Research 55 (2019)5. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 4266 - 4287.
    In many semiarid regions with irrigation, the depletion rate of groundwater resources has increased substantially during the last decades. A possible reason for this is that the price that users pay for their water does not reflect its scarcity and value. An alternative way to assess the perceived value of water is calculating its shadow price, which is defined here as the marginal value produced, and relates to the efficiency gain from current reallocation. Here we determine the shadow price of water used for irrigation for the most important groundwater‐depleting countries and for four staple crops and one cash crop. To quantify the shadow price, the relation between the output and the water input is represented using production functions. We use globally available panel data on country‐specific crop yields and prices together with crop‐specific water consumption, calculated with the global hydrological model PCR‐GLOBWB, to parameterize the production function by country and crop with econometric analyses.
    Our results show that the variation of shadow prices for staple crops within several countries is high, indicating economically inefficient use of water resources, including nonrenewable groundwater. We also analyze the effects of reallocating irrigation water between crops, showing that changes in water
    allocation could lead to either an increase in the economic efficiency of water use or large reductions in irrigation water consumption. Our study thus provides a hydroeconomic basis to stimulate sustainable use of finite groundwater resources globally.
    High-Resolution Global Water Temperature Modeling
    Wanders, Niko ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Wada, Yoshihide ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. ; Beek, Ludovicus P.H. van - \ 2019
    Water Resources Research 55 (2019)4. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 2760 - 2778.
    global - high-resolution - modeling - water temperature

    The temperature of river water plays a crucial role in many physical, chemical, and aquatic ecological processes. Despite the importance of having detailed information on this environmental variable at locally relevant scales (≤50 km), high-resolution simulations of water temperature on a large scale are currently lacking. We have developed the dynamical 1-D water energy routing model (DynWat), that solves both the energy and water balance, to simulate river temperatures for the period 1960–2014 at a nominal 10-km and 50-km resolution. The DynWat model accounts for surface water abstraction, reservoirs, riverine flooding, and formation of ice, enabling a realistic representation of the water temperature. We present a novel 10-km water temperature data set at the global scale for all major rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Validated results against 358 stations worldwide indicate a decrease in the simulated root-mean-square error (0.2 °C) and bias (0.7 °C), going from 50- to 10-km simulations. We find an average global increase in water temperature of 0.16 °C per decade between 1960 and 2014, with more rapid warming toward 2014. Results show increasing trends for the annual daily maxima in the Northern Hemisphere (0.62 °C per decade) and the annual daily minima in the Southern Hemisphere (0.45 °C per decade) for 1960–2014. The high-resolution modeling framework not only improves the model performance, it also positively impacts the relevance of the simulations for regional-scale studies and impact assessments in a region without observations. The resulting global water temperature data set could help to improve the accuracy of decision-support systems that depend on water temperature estimates.

    State-of-the-art global models underestimate impacts from climate extremes
    Schewe, Jacob ; Gosling, Simon N. ; Reyer, Christopher ; Zhao, Fang ; Ciais, Philippe ; Elliott, Joshua ; Francois, Louis ; Huber, Veronika ; Lotze, Heike K. ; Seneviratne, Sonia I. ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. Van; Vautard, Robert ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Breuer, Lutz ; Büchner, Matthias ; Carozza, David A. ; Chang, Jinfeng ; Coll, Marta ; Deryng, Delphine ; Wit, Allard De; Eddy, Tyler D. ; Folberth, Christian ; Frieler, Katja ; Friend, Andrew D. ; Gerten, Dieter ; Gudmundsson, Lukas ; Hanasaki, Naota ; Ito, Akihiko ; Khabarov, Nikolay ; Kim, Hyungjun ; Lawrence, Peter ; Morfopoulos, Catherine ; Müller, Christoph ; Müller Schmied, Hannes ; Orth, René ; Ostberg, Sebastian ; Pokhrel, Yadu ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Sakurai, Gen ; Satoh, Yusuke ; Schmid, Erwin ; Stacke, Tobias ; Steenbeek, Jeroen ; Steinkamp, Jörg ; Tang, Qiuhong ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tittensor, Derek P. ; Volkholz, Jan ; Wang, Xuhui ; Warszawski, Lila - \ 2019
    Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723
    Global impact models represent process-level understanding of how natural and human systems may be affected by climate change. Their projections are used in integrated assessments of climate change. Here we test, for the first time, systematically across many important systems, how well such impact models capture the impacts of extreme climate conditions. Using the 2003 European heat wave and drought as a historical analogue for comparable events in the future, we find that a majority of models underestimate the extremeness of impacts in important sectors such as agriculture, terrestrial ecosystems, and heat-related human mortality, while impacts on water resources and hydropower are overestimated in some river basins; and the spread across models is often large. This has important implications for economic assessments of climate change impacts that rely on these models. It also means that societal risks from future extreme events may be greater than previously thought.
    Model inter-comparison design for large-scale water quality models
    Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Flörke, Martina ; Harrison, John A. ; Hofstra, Nynke ; Keller, Virginie ; Ludwig, Fulco ; Spanier, J.E. ; Strokal, Maryna ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Wen, Yingrong ; Williams, Richard J. - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 59 - 67.

    Several model inter-comparison projects (MIPs) have been carried out recently by the climate, hydrological, agricultural and other modelling communities to quantify modelling uncertainties and improve modelling systems. Here we focus on MIP design for large-scale water quality models. Water quality MIPs can be useful to improve our understanding of pollution problems and facilitate the development of harmonized estimates of current and future water quality. This can provide new opportunities for assessing robustness in estimates of water quality hotspots and trends, improve understanding of processes, pollution sources, water quality model uncertainties, and to identify priorities for water quality data collection and monitoring. Water quality MIP design should harmonize relevant model input datasets, use consistent spatial/temporal domains and resolutions, and similar output variables to improve understanding of water quality modelling uncertainties and provide harmonized water quality data that suit the needs of decision makers and other users.

    Analysing trade-offs between SDGs related to water quality using salinity as a marker
    Flörke, Martina ; Bärlund, Ilona ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Bouwman, Alexander F. ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 96 - 104.

    Salinisation can have different adverse impacts on water resources that are used for drinking, irrigation, or industrial purposes. In addition, salinisation in its turn is also strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities such as irrigation. This paper maps trade-offs between water quality (SDG 6.3) and other Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) using salinisation as an example. Many interlinkages exist between SDG 6.3 and other SDGs as identified in the literature review part. These are however not yet fully addressed in studies applying a comprehensive systems approach or modelling frameworks. In order to find solution options for achieving a sustainable future the interlinkages between SDGs related to salinisation and its impacts need to be considered as they play a key role in mitigating impacts, prioritising measures for action and hence turning trade-offs into synergies.

    Bridging global, basin and local-scale water quality modeling towards enhancing water quality management worldwide
    Tang, Ting ; Strokal, Maryna ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Seuntjens, Piet ; Burek, Peter ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Langan, Simon ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 39 - 48.

    Global water quality (WQ) modeling is an emerging field. In this article, we identify the missing linkages between global and basin/local-scale WQ models, and discuss the possibilities to fill these gaps. We argue that WQ models need stronger linkages across spatial scales. This would help to identify effective scale-specific WQ management options and contribute to future development of global WQ models. Two directions are proposed to improve the linkages: nested multiscale WQ modeling towards enhanced water management, and development of next-generation global WQ models based-on basin/local-scale mechanistic understanding. We highlight the need for better collaboration among WQ modelers and policy-makers in order to deliver responsive water policies and management strategies across scales.

    Global multi-pollutant modelling of water quality: scientific challenges and future directions
    Strokal, M. ; Spanier, Emiel ; Kroeze, C. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Florke, Martina ; Franssen, W.H.P. ; Hofstra, N. ; Langan, Simon ; Ting, Tang ; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Wada, Yoshihide ; Wang, M. ; Wijnen, Jikke van; Williams, R. - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 116 - 125.
    Assessing global water quality issues requires a multi-pollutant modelling approach. We discuss scientific challenges and future directions for such modeling. Multi-pollutant river models need to integrate information on sources of pollutants such as plastic debris, nutrients, chemicals, pathogens, their effects and possible solutions. In this paper, we first explain what we consider multi-pollutant modelling. Second, we discuss scientific challenges in multi-pollutant modelling relating to consistent model inputs, modelling approaches and model evaluation. Next, we illustrate the potential of global multi-pollutant modelling for hotspot analyses. We show hotspots of river pollution with microplastics, nutrients, triclosan and Cryptosporidium in many sub-basins of Europe, North America and South Asia. Finally, we reflect on future directions for multi-pollutant modelling, and for linking model results to policy-making.
    Worldwide evaluation of mean and extreme runoff from six global-scale hydrological models that account for human impacts
    Zaherpour, Jamal ; Gosling, Simon N. ; Mount, Nick ; Schmied, Hannes Müller ; Veldkamp, Ted I.E. ; Dankers, Rutger ; Eisner, Stephanie ; Gerten, Dieter ; Gudmundsson, Lukas ; Haddeland, Ingjerd ; Hanasaki, Naota ; Kim, Hyungjun ; Leng, Guoyong ; Liu, Junguo ; Masaki, Yoshimitsu ; Oki, Taikan ; Pokhrel, Yadu ; Satoh, Yusuke ; Schewe, Jacob ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2018
    Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)6. - ISSN 1748-9318
    extreme events - global hydrological models - human impacts - land surface models - model evaluation - model validation

    Global-scale hydrological models are routinely used to assess water scarcity, flood hazards and droughts worldwide. Recent efforts to incorporate anthropogenic activities in these models have enabled more realistic comparisons with observations. Here we evaluate simulations from an ensemble of six models participating in the second phase of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISIMIP2a). We simulate monthly runoff in 40 catchments, spatially distributed across eight global hydrobelts. The performance of each model and the ensemble mean is examined with respect to their ability to replicate observed mean and extreme runoff under human-influenced conditions. Application of a novel integrated evaluation metric to quantify the models' ability to simulate timeseries of monthly runoff suggests that the models generally perform better in the wetter equatorial and northern hydrobelts than in drier southern hydrobelts. When model outputs are temporally aggregated to assess mean annual and extreme runoff, the models perform better. Nevertheless, we find a general trend in the majority of models towards the overestimation of mean annual runoff and all indicators of upper and lower extreme runoff. The models struggle to capture the timing of the seasonal cycle, particularly in northern hydrobelts, while in southern hydrobelts the models struggle to reproduce the magnitude of the seasonal cycle. It is noteworthy that over all hydrological indicators, the ensemble mean fails to perform better than any individual model - a finding that challenges the commonly held perception that model ensemble estimates deliver superior performance over individual models. The study highlights the need for continued model development and improvement. It also suggests that caution should be taken when summarising the simulations from a model ensemble based upon its mean output.

    Comparison of gas chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight and quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry in anti-doping analysis : I. Detection of anabolic-androgenic steroids
    Abushareeda, Wadha ; Tienstra, Marc ; Lommen, Arjen ; Blokland, Marco ; Sterk, Saskia ; Kraiem, Suhail ; Horvatovich, Peter ; Nielen, Michel ; Al-Maadheed, Muhammad ; Georgakopoulos, Costas - \ 2018
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 32 (2018)23. - ISSN 0951-4198 - p. 2055 - 2064.

    Rationale: The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) encourages drug-testing laboratories to develop screening methods that can detect as many doping substances as possible in urine. The use of full-scan high-resolution acquisition (FS/HR) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the detection of known and unknown trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) provides anti-doping testing bodies with a new analytical tool. Methods: The AAS were extracted from urine samples by generic liquid–liquid extraction, after enzymatic hydrolysis, and TMS derivatization. The extracted urine was analyzed by GC/Q-TOF and GC/Q-Orbitrap to compare the performance of the two instrument types for the detection of 46 AAS in human urine. The quantitation of endogenous anabolic steroids and the ability of the two analytical platforms to comply with the requirements for testing as part of the WADA Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) were also assessed. Results: The data presented show that the analytical performance for both instruments complies with the WADA specifications. The limits of detection (LODs) for both instruments are well below the WADA 50% Minimum Required Performance Levels. The mass errors in the current study for the GC/Q-Orbitrap platform are lower than those obtained for the GC/Q-TOF instrument. Conclusions: The data presented herein proved that both molecular profiling platforms can be used for antidoping screening. The mass accuracies are excellent in both instruments; however, the GC/Q-Orbitrap performs better as it provides higher resolution than the GC/Q-TOF platform.

    Bridging global and basin scale water quality modeling towards enhancing global water quality modeling and management
    Tang, Ting ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Strokal, M. ; Burek, P. ; Langan, Simon - \ 2018
    Geophysical Research Abstracts 20 (2018). - ISSN 1029-7006 - 1 p.
    High resolution full scan liquid chromatography mass spectrometry comprehensive screening in sports antidoping urine analysis
    Abushareeda, Wadha ; Vonaparti, Ariadni ; Saad, Khadija Al ; Almansoori, Moneera ; Meloug, Mbarka ; Saleh, Amal ; Aguilera, Rodrigo ; Angelis, Yiannis ; Horvatovich, Peter L. ; Lommen, Arjen ; Alsayrafi, Mohammed ; Georgakopoulos, Costas - \ 2018
    Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 151 (2018). - ISSN 0731-7085 - p. 10 - 24.
    Full scan high-resolution - Human urine - Liquid chromatography - Mass spectrometry - Small molecule prohibited substances - Sulfo-conjugate steroids
    The aim of this paper is to present the development and validation of a high-resolution full scan (HR-FS) electrospray ionization (ESI) liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LC/Q/Orbitrap MS) platform for the screening of prohibited substances in human urine according to World Antidoping Agency (WADA) requirements. The method was also validated for quantitative analysis of six endogenous steroids (epitestosterone, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone) in their intact sulfates form. The sample preparation comprised a combination of a hydrolyzed urine liquid–liquid extraction and the dilute & shoot addition of original urine in the extracted aliquot. The HR-FS MS acquisition mode with Polarity Switching was applied in combination of the Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass filter. The HR-FS acquisition of analytical signal, for known and unknown small molecules, allows the inclusion of all analytes detectable with LC–MS for antidoping investigations to identify the use of known or novel prohibited substances and metabolites after electronic data files’ reprocessing. The method has been validated to be fit-for-purpose for the antidoping analysis.
    Cross‐scale intercomparison of climate change impacts simulated by regional and global hydrological models in eleven large river basins
    Hattermann, F.F. ; Krysanova, V. ; Gosling, S.N. ; Dankers, R. ; Daggupati, P. ; Donnelly, C. ; Flörke, M. ; Huang, S. ; Motovilov, Y. ; Buda, S. ; Yang, T. ; Müller, C. ; Leng, G. ; Tang, Q. ; Portmann, F.T. ; Hagemann, S. ; Gerten, D. ; Wada, Y. ; Masaki, Y. ; Alemayehu, T. ; Satoh, Y. ; Samaniego, L. - \ 2017
    Climatic Change 141 (2017)3. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 561 - 576.

    Ideally, the results from models operating at different scales should agree in trend direction and magnitude of impacts under climate change. However, this implies that the sensitivity to climate variability and climate change is comparable for impact models designed for either scale. In this study, we compare hydrological changes simulated by 9 global and 9 regional hydrological models (HM) for 11 large river basins in all continents under reference and scenario conditions. The foci are on model validation runs, sensitivity of annual discharge to climate variability in the reference period, and sensitivity of the long-term average monthly seasonal dynamics to climate change. One major result is that the global models, mostly not calibrated against observations, often show a considerable bias in mean monthly discharge, whereas regional models show a better reproduction of reference conditions. However, the sensitivity of the two HM ensembles to climate variability is in general similar. The simulated climate change impacts in terms of long-term average monthly dynamics evaluated for HM ensemble medians and spreads show that the medians are to a certain extent comparable in some cases, but have distinct differences in other cases, and the spreads related to global models are mostly notably larger. Summarizing, this implies that global HMs are useful tools when looking at large-scale impacts of climate change and variability. Whenever impacts for a specific river basin or region are of interest, e.g. for complex water management applications, the regional-scale models calibrated and validated against observed discharge should be used.

    Nature, source and incidence of meat contaminants interfering with anti-doping tests
    Sterk, Saskia - \ 2017
    The shadow price of fossil groundwater
    Bierkens, M.F.P. ; Reinhard, A.J. ; Bruijn, J.A. de; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2017
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