Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Prospects of bioenergy cropping systems for a more social‐ecologically sound bioeconomy
Cossel, Moritz Von ; Wagner, Moritz ; Lask, Jan ; Magenau, Elena ; Bauerle, Andrea ; Cossel, Viktoria Von ; Warrach‐Sagi, Kirsten ; Elbersen, Berien ; Staritsky, Igor ; Eupen, Michiel van; Iqbal, Yasir ; Jablonowski, Nicolai David ; Happe, Stefan ; Fernando, Ana Luisa ; Scordia, Danilo ; Cosentino, Salvatore Luciano ; Wulfmeyer, Volker ; Lewandowski, Iris ; Winkler, Bastian - \ 2019
Agronomy 9 (2019)10. - ISSN 2073-4395
Biodiversity - Bioeconomy - Bioenergy crop - Biomass - Carbon capture - Climate change adaptation - Cropping system - Industrial crop - Marginal land - Resilience

The growing bioeconomy will require a greater supply of biomass in the future for both bioenergy and bio‐based products. Today, many bioenergy cropping systems (BCS) are suboptimal due to either social‐ecological threats or technical limitations. In addition, the competition for land between bioenergy‐crop cultivation, food‐crop cultivation, and biodiversity conservation is expected to increase as a result of both continuous world population growth and expected severe climate change effects. This study investigates how BCS can become more social‐ecologically sustainable in future. It brings together expert opinions from the fields of agronomy, economics, meteorology, and geography. Potential solutions to the following five main requirements for a more holistically sustainable supply of biomass are summarized: (i) bioenergy‐crop cultivation should provide a beneficial social‐ecological contribution, such as an increase in both biodiversity and landscape aesthetics, (ii) bioenergy crops should be cultivated on marginal agricultural land so as not to compete with food‐crop production, (iii) BCS need to be resilient in the face of projected severe climate change effects, (iv) BCS should foster rural development and support the vast number of small‐scale family farmers, managing about 80% of agricultural land and natural resources globally, and (v) bioenergy‐crop cultivation must be planned and implemented systematically, using holistic approaches. Further research activities and policy incentives should not only consider the economic potential of bioenergy‐crop cultivation, but also aspects of biodiversity, soil fertility, and climate change adaptation specific to site conditions and the given social context. This will help to adapt existing agricultural systems in a changing world and foster the development of a more social‐ecologically sustainable bioeconomy.

Consumption of Bottled Water at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Who Purchases First?
Howell, Rachel ; Sinha, Kinsuk Mani ; Wagner, Natascha ; Doorn, Neelke ; Beers, Cees van - \ 2019
Journal of Macromarketing (2019). - ISSN 0276-1467
BoP consumers - bottled water - consumption - emerging markets - sub-Saharan Africa

While consumer and marketing research in developed markets is an established field, research on consumers in an Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) setting is less established and mostly conceptual or qualitative. This paper examines the individual heterogeneity and the local context of BoP consumers with an empirical study on consumption of low cost bottled water on the Kenyan coast and the capitals of Uganda and Rwanda. The empirical analysis builds on existing research exploring consumer behavior, and it studies a database of 713 bottled water consumers in Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda. Consumers with a higher level of education were less likely to be late consumers. Additionally, early consumers were more likely to purchase due to a purposeful search for a bottled drinking water solution. Since we control for location specific effects we highlight the importance of supply driven consumption in the BoP market. Furthermore, the results suggest that the two water companies may not be reaching their targeted low-income consumers but rather middle class consumers. The research contributes to the larger BoP debate by presenting evidence that consumers in a BoP setting may purchase more on the basis of supply of a product rather than other socio-demographic factors such as income.

Highly efficient mono-functionalization of knob-in-hole antibodies with strain-promoted click chemistry
Bruins, Jorick J. ; Wouw, Criss van de; Koen, Wagner ; Lina, Bartels ; Albada, Bauke ; Delft, F.L. van - \ 2019
Journal of the American Chemical Society 4 (2019). - ISSN 0002-7863 - p. 11801 - 11807.
Knob-in-hole antibodies can be utilized to introduce a single tag for chemo-enzymatic functionalization. By either introducing a single C-terminal sortase tag (sortase-tag expressed protein ligation) or tyrosine tag (G4Y), mono-functionalization of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab was achieved rapidly and in high yields. This method was applied to selectively and efficiently introduce a single fluorescent tag, cytokine or single-chain variable fragment, as well as produce clean homo dimers of trastuzumab.

Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, R. ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, D. ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, M.V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-lópez, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, J.A. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
biodiversity - agroecosystem - landscape composition - landscape configuration - functional traits - arthropods - natural pest control - pollination - yields
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non‐crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7‐ and 1.4‐fold respectively. Arable‐dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield‐enhancing ecosystem services.
sPlot – A new tool for global vegetation analyses
Bruelheide, Helge ; Dengler, Jürgen ; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja ; Purschke, Oliver ; Hennekens, Stephan M. ; Chytrý, Milan ; Pillar, Valério D. ; Jansen, Florian ; Kattge, Jens ; Sandel, Brody ; Aubin, Isabelle ; Biurrun, Idoia ; Field, Richard ; Haider, Sylvia ; Jandt, Ute ; Lenoir, Jonathan ; Peet, Robert K. ; Peyre, Gwendolyn ; Sabatini, Francesco Maria ; Schmidt, Marco ; Schrodt, Franziska ; Winter, Marten ; Aćić, Svetlana ; Agrillo, Emiliano ; Alvarez, Miguel ; Ambarlı, Didem ; Angelini, Pierangela ; Apostolova, Iva ; Arfin Khan, Mohammed A.S. ; Arnst, Elise ; Attorre, Fabio ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Beckmann, Michael ; Berg, Christian ; Bergeron, Yves ; Bergmeier, Erwin ; Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Bondareva, Viktoria ; Borchardt, Peter ; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán ; Boyle, Brad ; Breen, Amy ; Brisse, Henry ; Byun, Chaeho ; Cabido, Marcelo R. ; Casella, Laura ; Cayuela, Luis ; Černý, Tomáš ; Chepinoga, Victor ; Csiky, János ; Curran, Michael ; Ćušterevska, Renata ; Dajić Stevanović, Zora ; Bie, Els De; Ruffray, Patrice de; Sanctis, Michele De; Dimopoulos, Panayotis ; Dressler, Stefan ; Ejrnæs, Rasmus ; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.E.R.M. ; Enquist, Brian ; Ewald, Jörg ; Fagúndez, Jaime ; Finckh, Manfred ; Font, Xavier ; Forey, Estelle ; Fotiadis, Georgios ; García-Mijangos, Itziar ; Gasper, André Luis de; Golub, Valentin ; Gutierrez, Alvaro G. ; Hatim, Mohamed Z. ; He, Tianhua ; Higuchi, Pedro ; Holubová, Dana ; Hölzel, Norbert ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Indreica, Adrian ; Işık Gürsoy, Deniz ; Jansen, Steven ; Janssen, John ; Jedrzejek, Birgit ; Jiroušek, Martin ; Jürgens, Norbert ; Kącki, Zygmunt ; Kavgacı, Ali ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kessler, Michael ; Knollová, Ilona ; Kolomiychuk, Vitaliy ; Korolyuk, Andrey ; Kozhevnikova, Maria ; Kozub, Łukasz ; Krstonošić, Daniel ; Kühl, Hjalmar ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Kuzemko, Anna ; Küzmič, Filip ; Landucci, Flavia ; Lee, Michael T. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Li, Ching Feng ; Liu, Hongyan ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lysenko, Tatiana ; Macanović, Armin ; Mahdavi, Parastoo ; Manning, Peter ; Marcenò, Corrado ; Martynenko, Vassiliy ; Mencuccini, Maurizio ; Minden, Vanessa ; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold ; Moretti, Marco ; Müller, Jonas V. ; Munzinger, Jérôme ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Nobis, Marcin ; Noroozi, Jalil ; Nowak, Arkadiusz ; Onyshchenko, Viktor ; Overbeck, Gerhard E. ; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Pauchard, Anibal ; Pedashenko, Hristo ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Pérez-Haase, Aaron ; Peterka, Tomáš ; Petřík, Petr ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Prokhorov, Vadim ; Rašomavičius, Valerijus ; Revermann, Rasmus ; Rodwell, John ; Ruprecht, Eszter ; Rūsiņa, Solvita ; Samimi, Cyrus ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Schmiedel, Ute ; Šibík, Jozef ; Šilc, Urban ; Škvorc, Željko ; Smyth, Anita ; Sop, Tenekwetche ; Sopotlieva, Desislava ; Sparrow, Ben ; Stančić, Zvjezdana ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Swacha, Grzegorz ; Tang, Zhiyao ; Tsiripidis, Ioannis ; Turtureanu, Pavel Dan ; Uğurlu, Emin ; Uogintas, Domas ; Valachovič, Milan ; Vanselow, Kim André ; Vashenyak, Yulia ; Vassilev, Kiril ; Vélez-Martin, Eduardo ; Venanzoni, Roberto ; Vibrans, Alexander Christian ; Violle, Cyrille ; Virtanen, Risto ; Wehrden, Henrik von; Wagner, Viktoria ; Walker, Donald A. ; Wana, Desalegn ; Weiher, Evan ; Wesche, Karsten ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Willner, Wolfgang ; Wiser, Susan ; Wohlgemuth, Thomas ; Yamalov, Sergey ; Zizka, Georg ; Zverev, Andrei - \ 2019
Journal of Vegetation Science 30 (2019)2. - ISSN 1100-9233 - p. 161 - 186.
biodiversity - community ecology - ecoinformatics - functional diversity - global scale - macroecology - phylogenetic diversity - plot database - sPlot - taxonomic diversity - vascular plant - vegetation relevé

Aims: Vegetation-plot records provide information on the presence and cover or abundance of plants co-occurring in the same community. Vegetation-plot data are spread across research groups, environmental agencies and biodiversity research centers and, thus, are rarely accessible at continental or global scales. Here we present the sPlot database, which collates vegetation plots worldwide to allow for the exploration of global patterns in taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity at the plant community level. Results: sPlot version 2.1 contains records from 1,121,244 vegetation plots, which comprise 23,586,216 records of plant species and their relative cover or abundance in plots collected worldwide between 1885 and 2015. We complemented the information for each plot by retrieving climate and soil conditions and the biogeographic context (e.g., biomes) from external sources, and by calculating community-weighted means and variances of traits using gap-filled data from the global plant trait database TRY. Moreover, we created a phylogenetic tree for 50,167 out of the 54,519 species identified in the plots. We present the first maps of global patterns of community richness and community-weighted means of key traits. Conclusions: The availability of vegetation plot data in sPlot offers new avenues for vegetation analysis at the global scale.

The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agroecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, David ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, Mario V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, Jeroen ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair-Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
Ecology Letters 22 (2019)7. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1083 - 1094.
Agroecology - arthropod community - biological control - edge density - pest control - pollination - response trait - semi-natural habitat - trait syndrome - yield

Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non-crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7- and 1.4-fold respectively. Arable-dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield-enhancing ecosystem services.

Improved aerosol correction for OMI tropospheric NO2 retrieval over East Asia : Constraint from CALIOP aerosol vertical profile
Liu, Mengyao ; Lin, Jintai ; Folkert Boersma, K. ; Pinardi, Gaia ; Wang, Yang ; Chimot, Julien ; Wagner, Thomas ; Xie, Pinhua ; Eskes, Henk ; Roozendael, Michel Van; Hendrick, François ; Wang, Pucai ; Wang, Ting ; Yan, Yingying ; Chen, Lulu ; Ni, Ruijing - \ 2019
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 12 (2019)1. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 1 - 21.

Satellite retrieval of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is critical for NOx pollution and impact evaluation. For regions with high aerosol loadings, the retrieval accuracy is greatly affected by whether aerosol optical effects are treated implicitly (as additional effective clouds) or explicitly, among other factors. Our previous POMINO algorithm explicitly accounts for aerosol effects to improve the retrieval, especially in polluted situations over China, by using aerosol information from GEOS-Chem simulations with further monthly constraints by MODIS/Aqua aerosol optical depth (AOD) data. Here we present a major algorithm update, POMINO v1.1, by constructing a monthly climatological dataset of aerosol extinction profiles, based on level 2 CALIOP/CALIPSO data over 2007-2015, to better constrain the modeled aerosol vertical profiles. We find that GEOS-Chem captures the month-to-month variation in CALIOP aerosol layer height (ALH) but with a systematic underestimate by about 300-600 m (season and location dependent), due to a too strong negative vertical gradient of extinction above 1 km. Correcting the model aerosol extinction profiles results in small changes in retrieved cloud fraction, increases in cloud-top pressure (within 2 %-6 % in most cases), and increases in tropospheric NO2 VCD by 4 %-16 % over China on a monthly basis in 2012. The improved NO2 VCDs (in POMINO v1.1) are more consistent with independent ground-based MAX-DOAS observations (R2=0.80, NMB =-3.4 %, for 162 pixels in 49 days) than POMINO (R2=0.80, NMB =-9.6 %), DOMINO v2 (R2=0.68, NMB =-2.1 %), and QA4ECV (R2=0.75, NMB =-22.0 %) are. Especially on haze days, R2 reaches 0.76 for POMINO v1.1, much higher than that for POMINO (0.68), DOMINO v2 (0.38), and QA4ECV (0.34). Furthermore, the increase in cloud pressure likely reveals a more realistic vertical relationship between cloud and aerosol layers, with aerosols situated above the clouds in certain months span id=page2 instead of always below the clouds. The POMINO v1.1 algorithm is a core step towards our next public release of the data product (POMINO v2), and it will also be applied to the recently launched S5P-TROPOMI sensor.

Integrated culture of Nile tilapia and Amazon river prawn in stagnant ponds, using nutrient-rich water and substrates
Rodrigues, Caio G. ; Garcia, Baltasar F. ; Verdegem, Marc ; Santos, Michelle R. ; Amorim, Rafael V. ; Valenti, Wagner C. - \ 2019
Aquaculture 503 (2019). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 111 - 117.
Amazon river prawn - Integrated aquaculture - Nile tilapia - Nutrient-rich water - Substrates

Monoculture is an inefficient aquaculture system because on average <~20% of the diet supplied is assimilated by the target species. Integrated aquaculture systems are attractive alternatives because they take advantage of the wasted nutrients to produce other marketable species. Substrate addition is known as beneficial management to promote natural food (periphyton) by trapping nutrients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of integrating the culture of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus with the culture of Amazon river prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum in stagnant ponds supplied with water rich in nitrogen and phosphorus, and investigate if the addition of substrates affects the performance of both species. The target species (tilapia) was fed with commercial diet, while the secondary species (prawn) took advantage directly and indirectly of feed wastes. A completely randomized experimental design comprised of three treatments (culture with geotextile blanket substrates, bamboo substrates, and no substrates) with four replicates per treatment was used. Vertical substrates were installed in each pond, which total area was equivalent to 50% pond bottom area. Twelve 0.01-ha earthen ponds were stocked with Nile tilapia (~30 g) and prawn post-larvae (~0.04 g) together, which were cultured for 140 days. Dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature were measured daily, whereas water samples were collected biweekly to evaluate ammonia-N, nitrite-N and nitrate-N. The water quality remained suitable for production throughout the experimental period and was not affected by the use of substrates. The addition of substrates did not affect the growth, survival, productivity and apparent feed conversion ratio of Nile tilapia. On average, Nile tilapia grew to ~0.5 kg, with a survival close to 90%, resulting in productivity of about 5 t/ha. On the other hand, substrates increased the portion of larger prawns in the harvest, improving market value. A major effect was observed using the geotextile blanket substrate. The proportions of prawn heavier than 3 g were 54.2, 41.9 and 25.6% in ponds using geotextile blanket, bamboo and no substrate, respectively. In conclusion, farming Nile tilapia and Amazon river prawn in integrated systems supplied with nutrient-rich water in stagnant ponds is technically feasible. The addition of substrates does not affect tilapia performance but increase the proportion of large prawns; the effect was more pronounced with geotextile substrates.

Life cycle assessment of ethanol production from miscanthus : A comparison of production pathways at two European sites
Lask, Jan ; Wagner, Moritz ; Trindade, Luisa M. ; Lewandowski, Iris - \ 2019
Global change biology Bioenergy 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 269 - 288.
biofuel - environmental performance - life cycle assessment - lignocellulosic ethanol - marginal land - miscanthus - perennial crop - pretreatment

Lignocellulosic ethanol represents a renewable alternative to petrol. Miscanthus, a perennial plant that grows on marginal land, is characterized by efficient use of resources and is considered a promising source of lignocellulosic biomass. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to determine the environmental impacts of ethanol production from miscanthus grown on marginal land in Great Britain (Aberystwyth) and an average-yield site in Germany (Stuttgart; functional unit: 1 GJ). As the conversion process has substantial influence on the overall environmental performance, the comparison examined three pretreatment options for miscanthus. Overall, results indicate lower impacts for the production in Stuttgart in comparison with the corresponding pathways in Aberystwyth across the analysed categories. Disparities between the sites were mainly attributed to differences in biomass yield. When comparing the conversion options, liquid hot water treatment resulted in the lowest impacts, followed by dilute sulphuric acid. Dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment represented the least favourable option. Site-dependent variation in biomass composition and degradability did not have substantial influence on the environmental performance of the analysed pathways. Additionally, implications of replacing petrol with miscanthus ethanol were examined. Ethanol derived from miscanthus resulted in lower impacts with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil resource depletion, natural land transformation and ozone depletion. However, for other categories, including toxicity, eutrophication and agricultural land occupation, net scores were substantially higher than for the fossil reference. Nevertheless, the results indicate that miscanthus ethanol produced via dilute acid and liquid hot water treatment at the site in Stuttgart has the potential to comply with the requirements of the European Renewable energy directive for greenhouse gas emission reduction. For ethanol production at the marginal site, carbon sequestration needs to be considered in order to meet the requirements for greenhouse gas mitigation.

A review on the removal of conditioning chemicals from cooling tower water in constructed wetlands
Wagner, Thomas V. ; Parsons, John R. ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. ; Voogt, Pim de; Langenhoff, Alette A.M. - \ 2018
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 48 (2018)19-21. - ISSN 1064-3389 - p. 1094 - 1125.
conditioning chemicals - constructed wetlands - Cooling tower blowdown - desalination

Large volumes of freshwater are used globally for cooling towers. The reuse of discharged cooling tower water in cooling towers itself could mitigate freshwater scarcity problems. Prior to its reuse, the cooling tower blowdown has to be desalinated. However, physicochemical desalination techniques are hampered by conditioning chemicals (CC) that are added to the cooling tower water circuit to prevent corrosion, mineral scaling, and biofouling and can damage physicochemical desalination equipment. The potential of constructed wetlands (CWs) for the cost-effective removal of these CC prior to desalination is discussed in this review. The characteristics of CWs that determine their suitability for the removal of CC from cooling tower blowdown are elucidated, such as multiple removal pathways working simultaneously. In addition, specific challenges for the design of a constructed wetland for cooling tower blowdown treatment are reviewed, such as configuration options, the toxicity of CC, and the formation and removal of harmful byproducts.

Harmonization of methods of analysis for organic contaminants in feed – Activities of CEN/TC 327/WG 1
Wagner, M. ; Gebbink, Wouter ; Fry, K. ; Lacoste, F. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2018
Improving algorithms and uncertainty estimates for satellite NO2 retrievals : Results from the quality assurance for the essential climate variables (QA4ECV) project
Boersma, K.F. ; Eskes, Henk J. ; Richter, Andreas ; Smedt, Isabelle De; Lorente, Alba ; Beirle, Steffen ; Geffen, Jos H.G.M. van; Zara, Marina ; Peters, Enno ; Roozendael, Michel Van; Wagner, Thomas ; Maasakkers, Joannes D. ; A, Ronald J. van der; Nightingale, Joanne ; Rudder, Anne De; Irie, Hitoshi ; Pinardi, Gaia ; Lambert, Jean Christopher ; Compernolle, Steven C. - \ 2018
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 11 (2018)12. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 6651 - 6678.

Global observations of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns have been shown to be feasible from space, but consistent multi-sensor records do not yet exist, nor are they covered by planned activities at the international level. Harmonised, multi-decadal records of NO2 columns and their associated uncertainties can provide crucial information on how the emissions and concentrations of nitrogen oxides evolve over time. Here we describe the development of a new, community best-practice NO2 retrieval algorithm based on a synthesis of existing approaches. Detailed comparisons of these approaches led us to implement an enhanced spectral fitting method for NO2, a 1°  ×  1° TM5-MP data assimilation scheme to estimate the stratospheric background and improve air mass factor calculations. Guided by the needs expressed by data users, producers, and WMO GCOS guidelines, we incorporated detailed per-pixel uncertainty information in the data product, along with easily traceable information on the relevant quality aspects of the retrieval. We applied the improved QA4ECV NO2 algorithm to the most current level-1 data sets to produce a complete 22-year data record that includes GOME (1995–2003), SCIAMACHY (2002–2012), GOME-2(A) (2007 onwards) and OMI (2004 onwards). The QA4ECV NO2 spectral fitting recommendations and TM5-MP stratospheric column and air mass factor approach are currently also applied to S5P-TROPOMI. The uncertainties in the QA4ECV tropospheric NO2 columns amount to typically 40 % over polluted scenes. The first validation results of the QA4ECV OMI NO2 columns and their uncertainties over Tai'an, China, in June 2006 suggest a small bias (−2 %) and better precision than suggested by uncertainty propagation. We conclude that our improved QA4ECV NO2 long-term data record is providing valuable information to quantitatively constrain emissions, deposition, and trends in nitrogen oxides on a global scale.

Anybody home? A modest proposal for complete mobility
Wagner, L.B. ; Driessen, C.P.G. - \ 2018
At home in the world: a modest proposal for complete mobility
Wagner, Lauren - \ 2018
Improved slant column density retrieval of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde for OMI and GOME-2A from QA4ECV : Intercomparison, uncertainty characterisation, and trends
Zara, Marina ; Boersma, K.F. ; Smedt, Isabelle De; Richter, Andreas ; Peters, Enno ; Geffen, Jos H.G.M. van; Beirle, Steffen ; Wagner, Thomas ; Roozendael, Michel Van; Marchenko, Sergey ; Lamsal, Lok N. ; Eskes, Henk J. - \ 2018
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 11 (2018)7. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 4033 - 4058.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2/ and formaldehyde (HCHO) column data from satellite instruments are used for air quality and climate studies. Both NO2 and HCHO have been identified as precursors to the ozone (O3/ and aerosol essential climate variables, and it is essential to quantify and characterise their uncertainties. Here we present an intercomparison of NO2 and HCHO slant column density (SCD) retrievals from four different research groups (BIRA-IASB, IUP Bremen, and KNMI as part of the Quality Assurance for Essential Climate Variables (QA4ECV) project consortium, and NASA) and from the OMI and GOME-2A instruments. Our evaluation is motivated by recent improvements in differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) fitting techniques and by the desire to provide a fully traceable uncertainty budget for the climate data record generated within QA4ECV. The improved NO2 and HCHO SCD values are in close agreement but with substantial differences in the reported uncertainties between groups and instruments. To check the DOAS uncertainties, we use an independent estimate based on the spatial variability of the SCDs within a remote region. For NO2, we find the smallest uncertainties from the new QA4ECV retrieval (0.8×1015 molec. cm-2 for both instruments over their mission lifetimes). Relative to earlier approaches, the QA4ECV NO2 retrieval shows better agreement between DOAS and statistical uncertainty estimates, suggesting that the improved QA4ECV NO2 retrieval has reduced but not altogether eliminated systematic errors in the fitting approach. For HCHO, we reach similar conclusions (QA4ECV uncertainties of 8-12×1015 molec. cm-2), but the closeness between the DOAS and statistical uncertainty estimates suggests that HCHO uncertainties are indeed dominated by random noise from the satellite's level 1 data. We find that SCD uncertainties are smallest for high top-of-atmosphere reflectance levels with high measurement signal-to-noise ratios. From 2005 to 2015, OMI NO2 SCD uncertainties increase by 1-2%year-1, which is related to detector degradation and stripes, but OMI HCHO SCD uncertainties are remarkably stable (increase <1%year-1) and this is related to the use of Earth radiance reference spectra which reduces stripes. For GOME-2A, NO2 and HCHO SCD uncertainties increased by 7-9 and 11-15%year-1 respectively up until September 2009, when heating of the instrument markedly reduced further throughput loss, stabilising the degradation of SCD uncertainty to <3%year-1 for 2009-2015. Our work suggests that the NO2 SCD uncertainty largely consists of a random component (∼65% of the total uncertainty) as a result of the propagation of measurement noise but also of a substantial systematic component (∼35% of the total uncertainty) mainly from "stripe effects". Averaging over multiple pixels in space and/or time can significantly reduce the SCD uncertainties. This suggests that trend detection in OMI, GOME-2 NO2, and HCHO time series is not limited by the spectral fitting but rather by the adequacy of assumptions on the atmospheric state in the later air mass factor (AMF) calculation step.

Algorithm theoretical baseline for formaldehyde retrievals from S5P TROPOMI and from the QA4ECV project
Smedt, Isabelle De; Theys, Nicolas ; Yu, Huan ; Danckaert, Thomas ; Lerot, Christophe ; Compernolle, Steven ; Roozendael, Michel Van; Richter, Andreas ; Hilboll, Andreas ; Peters, Enno ; Pedergnana, Mattia ; Loyola, Diego ; Beirle, Steffen ; Wagner, Thomas ; Eskes, Henk ; Geffen, Jos Van; Folkert Boersma, Klaas ; Veefkind, Pepijn - \ 2018
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 11 (2018)4. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 2395 - 2426.
On board the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) platform, the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is a double-channel, nadir-viewing grating spectrometer measuring solar back-scattered earthshine radiances in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared with global daily coverage. In the ultraviolet range, its spectral resolution and radiometric performance are equivalent to those of its predecessor OMI, but its horizontal resolution at true nadir is improved by an order of magnitude. This paper introduces the formaldehyde (HCHO) tropospheric vertical column retrieval algorithm implemented in the S5P operational processor and comprehensively describes its various retrieval steps. Furthermore, algorithmic improvements developed in the framework of the EU FP7-project QA4ECV are described for future updates of the processor. Detailed error estimates are discussed in the light of Copernicus user requirements and needs for validation are highlighted. Finally, verification results based on the application of the algorithm to OMI measurements are presented, demonstrating the performances expected for TROPOMI.
Erratum to: Modeling the Fate and Transport of Plastic Debris in Freshwaters: Review and Guidance
Kooi, M. ; Besseling, E. ; Kroeze, C. ; Wezel, A.P. van; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2018
In: Freshwater Microplastics / Wagner, Martin, Lambert, Scott, Cham : Springer (The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ) - ISBN 9783319616148 - p. E1 - E1.
Global environmental change effects on plant community composition trajectories depend upon management legacies
Perring, Michael P. ; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus ; Baeten, Lander ; Midolo, Gabriele ; Blondeel, Haben ; Depauw, Leen ; Landuyt, Dries ; Maes, Sybryn L. ; Lombaerde, Emiel De; Carón, Maria Mercedes ; Vellend, Mark ; Brunet, Jörg ; Chudomelová, Markéta ; Decocq, Guillaume ; Diekmann, Martin ; Dirnböck, Thomas ; Dörfler, Inken ; Durak, Tomasz ; Frenne, Pieter De; Gilliam, Frank S. ; Hédl, Radim ; Heinken, Thilo ; Hommel, Patrick ; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan ; Kirby, Keith J. ; Kopecký, Martin ; Lenoir, Jonathan ; Li, Daijiang ; Máliš, František ; Mitchell, Fraser J.G. ; Naaf, Tobias ; Newman, Miles ; Petřík, Petr ; Reczyńska, Kamila ; Schmidt, Wolfgang ; Standovár, Tibor ; Świerkosz, Krzysztof ; Calster, Hans Van; Vild, Ondřej ; Wagner, Eva Rosa ; Wulf, Monika ; Verheyen, Kris - \ 2018
Global Change Biology 24 (2018)4. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1722 - 1740.
Biodiversity change - Climate change - Disturbance regime - ForestREplot - Herbaceous layer - Management intensity - Nitrogen deposition - Plant functional traits - Time lag - Vegetation resurvey
The contemporary state of functional traits and species richness in plant communities depends on legacy effects of past disturbances. Whether temporal responses of community properties to current environmental changes are altered by such legacies is, however, unknown. We expect global environmental changes to interact with land-use legacies given different community trajectories initiated by prior management, and subsequent responses to altered resources and conditions. We tested this expectation for species richness and functional traits using 1814 survey-resurvey plot pairs of understorey communities from 40 European temperate forest datasets, syntheses of management transitions since the year 1800, and a trait database. We also examined how plant community indicators of resources and conditions changed in response to management legacies and environmental change. Community trajectories were clearly influenced by interactions between management legacies from over 200 years ago and environmental change. Importantly, higher rates of nitrogen deposition led to increased species richness and plant height in forests managed less intensively in 1800 (i.e., high forests), and to decreases in forests with a more intensive historical management in 1800 (i.e., coppiced forests). There was evidence that these declines in community variables in formerly coppiced forests were ameliorated by increased rates of temperature change between surveys. Responses were generally apparent regardless of sites' contemporary management classifications, although sometimes the management transition itself, rather than historic or contemporary management types, better explained understorey responses. Main effects of environmental change were rare, although higher rates of precipitation change increased plant height, accompanied by increases in fertility indicator values. Analysis of indicator values suggested the importance of directly characterising resources and conditions to better understand legacy and environmental change effects. Accounting for legacies of past disturbance can reconcile contradictory literature results and appears crucial to anticipating future responses to global environmental change.
Modeling the fate and transport of plastic debris in fresh waters. Review and guidance
Kooi, M. ; Besseling, E. ; Kroeze, C. ; Wenzel, A.P. van; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2018
In: Freshwater Microplastics / Wagner, M., Lambert, S., Springer (The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ) - ISBN 9783319616155 - p. 125 - 152.
Fate - Freshwater - Microplastics - Modeling - Nanoplastics
Contamination with plastic debris has been recognized as one of today’s major environmental quality problems. Because most of the sources are land based, concerns are increasingly focused on the freshwater and terrestrial environment. Fate and transport models for plastic debris can complement information from measurements and will play an important role in the prospective risk assessment of plastic debris. We review the present knowledge with respect to fate and transport modeling of plastic debris in freshwater catchment areas, focusing especially on nano- and microplastics. Starting with a brief overview of theory and models for nonplastic particles, we discuss plastic-specific properties, processes, and existing mass-balance-, multimedia-, and spatiotemporally explicit fate models. We find that generally many theoretical and conceptual approaches from models developed earlier for other types of (low density) particles apply also to plastic debris. A unique feature of plastic debris, however, is its combination of high persistence, low density, and extremely wide size distribution, ranging from the nanometer to the >cm scale. This causes the system behavior of plastic debris to show a far wider variety than most other materials or chemicals. We provide recommendations for further development of these models and implications and guidance for how fate and transport models can be used in a framework for the tiered risk assessment of plastic debris.
QA4ECV total and tropospheric HCHO column data from OMI
Smedt, Isabelle De; Geffen, Jos Van; Richter, Andreas ; Beirle, Steffen ; Yu, Huan ; Vlietinck, Jonas ; Roozendael, Michel Van; A, Ronald van der; Lorente Delgado, A. ; Scanlon, Tracy ; Compernolle, Steven ; Wagner, Thomas ; Boersma, K.F. - \ 2017
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