Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Rapid and robust on-scene detection of cocaine in street samples using a handheld near-infrared spectrometer and machine learning algorithms
    Kranenburg, Ruben F. ; Verduin, Joshka ; Weesepoel, Yannick ; Alewijn, Martin ; Heerschop, Marcel ; Koomen, Ger ; Keizers, Peter ; Bakker, Frank ; Wallace, Fionn ; Esch, Annette van; Hulsbergen, Annemieke ; Asten, Arian C. van - \ 2020
    Drug Testing and Analysis (2020). - ISSN 1942-7603
    cocaine - forensic illicit-drug analysis - indicative testing - k-nearest neighbors - near-infrared

    On-scene drug detection is an increasingly significant challenge due to the fast-changing drug market as well as the risk of exposure to potent drug substances. Conventional colorimetric cocaine tests involve handling of the unknown material and are prone to false-positive reactions on common pharmaceuticals used as cutting agents. This study demonstrates the novel application of 740–1070 nm small-wavelength-range near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to confidently detect cocaine in case samples. Multistage machine learning algorithms are used to exploit the limited spectral features and predict not only the presence of cocaine but also the concentration and sample composition. A model based on more than 10,000 spectra from case samples yielded 97% true-positive and 98% true-negative results. The practical applicability is shown in more than 100 case samples not included in the model design. One of the most exciting aspects of this on-scene approach is that the model can almost instantly adapt to changes in the illicit-drug market by updating metadata with results from subsequent confirmatory laboratory analyses. These results demonstrate that advanced machine learning strategies applied on limited-range NIR spectra from economic handheld sensors can be a valuable procedure for rapid on-site detection of illicit substances by investigating officers. In addition to forensics, this interesting approach could be beneficial for screening and classification applications in the pharmaceutical, food-safety, and environmental domains.

    Effects of Dutch livestock production on human health and the environment
    Post, Pim M. ; Hogerwerf, Lenny ; Bokkers, Eddie A.M. ; Baumann, Bert ; Fischer, Paul ; Rutledge-Jonker, Susanna ; Hilderink, Henk ; Hollander, Anne ; Hoogsteen, Martine J.J. ; Liebman, Alex ; Mangen, Marie-Josée J. ; Manuel, Henk Jan ; Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Poll, Ric van; Posthuma, Leo ; Pul, Addo van; Rutgers, Michiel ; Schmitt, Heike ; Steenbergen, Jim van; Sterk, Hendrika A.M. ; Verschoor, Anja ; Vries, Wilco de; Wallace, Robert G. ; Wichink Kruit, Roy ; Lebret, Erik ; Boer, Imke J.M. de - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 737 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Animal production - Climate impact - Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) - Environmental impact - Livestock farming

    Observed multiple adverse effects of livestock production have led to increasing calls for more sustainable livestock production. Quantitative analysis of adverse effects, which can guide public debate and policy development in this area, is limited and generally scattered across environmental, human health, and other science domains. The aim of this study was to bring together and, where possible, quantify and aggregate the effects of national-scale livestock production on 17 impact categories, ranging from impacts of particulate matter, emerging infectious diseases and odor annoyance to airborne nitrogen deposition on terrestrial nature areas and greenhouse gas emissions. Effects were estimated and scaled to total Dutch livestock production, with system boundaries including feed production, manure management and transport, but excluding slaughtering, retail and consumption. Effects were expressed using eight indicators that directly express Impact in the sense of the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response framework, while the remaining 14 express Pressures or States. Results show that livestock production may contribute both positively and negatively to human health with a human disease burden (expressed in disability-adjusted life years) of up to 4% for three different health effects: those related to particulate matter, zoonoses, and occupational accidents. The contribution to environmental impact ranges from 2% for consumptive water use in the Netherlands to 95% for phosphorus transfer to soils, and extends beyond Dutch borders. While some aggregation across impact categories was possible, notably for burden of disease estimates, further aggregation of disparate indicators would require normative value judgement. Despite difficulty of aggregation, the assessment shows that impacts receive a different contribution of different animal sectors. While some of our results are country-specific, the overall approach is generic and can be adapted and tuned according to specific contexts and information needs in other regions, to allow informed decision making across a broad range of impact categories.

    Forensische toepassing van een draagbare NIR-spectrometer
    Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Venderink, Tjerk ; Keizers, Peter ; Bakker, Frank ; Boshuis, Margot ; Heerschop, Marcel ; Esch, Annette van; Wallace, Fionn ; Hulsbergen-van den Berg, Annemieke ; Asten, Arian C. van - \ 2020
    De ontwikkeling van kleine IoT-achtige optische sensoren voor forensische toepassing gaan snel de laatste jaren. In dit onderzoek kijken we naar het potentieel van de meest gebruikte nabij-infrarood scanner, welke ook het beste afgestemd is voor inspecteurs en ontwikkelaars en voor de laagste aanschafkosten. In een samenwerking met de Nederlandse Rijkslaboratoria, is er gekeken naar de forensische toepassing van deze scanner op een breed scala aan praktijkmonsters beschikbaar, variërend van harddrugs tot namaakgeneesmiddelen tot vervalste voedingsmiddelen.
    NEOTROPICAL XENARTHRANS: a data set of occurrence of xenarthran species in the Neotropics
    Santos, Paloma Marques ; Bocchiglieri, Adriana ; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia ; Paglia, Adriano Pereira ; Moreira, Adryelle ; Souza, Agnis Cristiane de; Abba, Agustin Manuel ; Paviolo, Agustin ; Gatica, Ailin ; Medeiro, Akyllan Zoppi ; Costa, Alan Nilo ; Gallina, Alberto Gonzalez ; Yanosky, Alberto A. ; Jesus, Alejandro ; Bertassoni, Alessandra ; Rocha, Alessandro ; Bovo, Alex Augusto Abreu ; Bager, Alex ; Mol, Alexandra Cravino ; Martensen, Alexandre Camargo ; Faustino, Alexandre Casagrande ; Lopes, Alexandre Martins Costa ; Percequillo, Alexandre Reis ; Vogliotti, Alexandre ; Keuroghlian, Alexine ; Colina, María Alicia de la; Devlin, Allison L. ; García-Olaechea, Alvaro ; Sánchez, Amadeo ; Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina ; Ochoa, Ana Cecilia ; Oliveira, Ana Cristina Mendes ; Lacerda, Ana Cristyna Reis ; Campelo, Ana Kellen Nogueira ; Oliveira Paschoal, Ana Maria de; Costa, Ana Raíssa Cunha ; Meiga, Ana Yoko Ykeuti ; Jesus, Anamélia Souza ; Feijó, Anderson ; Hirsch, André ; Silva, André Luiz Ferreira da; Botelho, André Luis Moura ; Regolin, André Luis ; Lanna, André Monnerat ; Nunes, André Valle ; Kindel, Andreas ; Moraes, Andreia Magro ; Gatti, Andressa ; Noss, Andrew J. ; Nobre, Andrezza Bellotto ; Montanarin, Anelise ; Deffaci, Ângela Camila ; Albuquerque, Anna Carolina Figueiredo de; Oliveira, Anne Karoline de; Mangione, Antonio Marcelo ; Pontes, Antonio Rossano Mendes ; Bertoldi, Ariane Teixeira ; Calouro, Armando Muniz ; Desbiez, Arnaud L.J. ; Fernandes, Arthur ; Ferreguetti, Atilla Colombo ; Silva, Maria Augusta Andrade da; Zimbres, Barbara ; Luciano, Beatriz Fernandes Lima ; Thoisy, Benoit de; Niebuhr, Bernardo Brandão S. ; Papi, Bernardo ; Gómez-Valencia, Bibiana ; Santos, Bráulio A. ; Lima, Breno Campelo ; Oliveira, Bruna Gomes ; Santos, Bruna Silva ; Campos, Bruno Augusto Torres Parahyba ; Leles, Bruno ; Albuquerque França, Bruno Rodrigo de; Lim, Burton ; Oliveira, Caetano Troncoso ; Cantagallo, Camila ; Lara, Camila Clozato ; Lima, Camila Silveira ; Gestich, Carla Cristina ; Melo-Soares, Carla Danielle de; Peres, Carlos A. ; Kasper, Carlos Benhur ; Candia-Gallardo, Carlos ; Angelo, Carlos De; Fragoso, Carlos Eduardo ; Freitas, Carlos Henrique de; Salvador, Carlos Henrique ; Brocardo, Carlos R. ; Melo, Carolina Depolito ; Leuchtenberger, Caroline ; Braga, Caryne ; Sánchez-Lalinde, Catalina ; Bueno, Cecília ; Luna, Cecília Licarião ; Rojano, Cesar ; Hurtado, Cindy Meliza ; Santos, Cinthya Chiva dos; Tellaeche, Cintia ; Rosa, Clarissa ; Campos, Claudia Bueno de; Silva, Cláudia Regina ; Kanda, Claudia Zukeran ; Jenkins, Clinton N. ; McDonough, Colleen ; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé ; Cunha, Cristina Jaques da; Widmer, Cynthia Elisa ; Santos, Cyntia ; Buscariol, Daiane ; Carreira, Daiane Cristina ; Carvalho, Danianderson Rodrigues ; Silva Ferraz, Daniel da; Casali, Daniel ; Thornton, Daniel ; Vasconcellos, Daniela Rodrigues ; Barcelos, Daniele ; Brown, Danielle ; Ramos, Daniella Leal ; Moreira, Danielle Oliveira ; Yogui, Débora Regina ; Faria, Deborah ; Sana, Denis Alessio ; Mattia, Denise Lidoro de; Henz, Denison José ; Friedeberg, Diana B. ; Carvalho, Diana Letícia Kruger Pacheco ; Astúa, Diego ; Queirolo, Diego ; Varela, Diego M. ; Eaton, Donald P. ; Dias, Douglas Matos ; Rivadeneira, Edgar Federico ; Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido ; Abreu-Júnior, Edson Fiedler de; Carrano, Eduardo ; Santos, Eduardo Marques ; Setz, Eleonore Zulnara Freire ; Carvalho, Elildo Alves Ribeiro ; Almeida Chiquito, Elisandra de; Matos Cardoso, Elizandra de; Mendonça, Eloisa Neves ; Bastiani, Elvira D'; Vieira, Emerson M. ; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci ; Guijosa-Guadarrama, Emiliano ; González, Enrique ; Maggiorini, Erica Vanessa ; Fischer, Erich ; Aguiar, Erick Francisco ; Castro, Érika Paula ; Peña-Cuéllar, Erika de la; Viveiros de Castro, Ernesto B. ; Brítez, Evelyn Beatriz ; Vanderhoeven, Ezequiel Andres ; Pedó, Ezequiel ; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes ; Girardi, Fabiane ; Oliveira Roque, Fabio de; Mazim, Fábio Dias ; Barros, Fabio Monteiro de; Martello, Felipe ; Fantacini, Felipe Moreli ; Pedrosa, Felipe ; Peters, Felipe Bortolotto ; Abra, Fernanda Delborgo ; Azevedo, Fernanda Cavalcanti de; Silva Santos, Fernanda da; Silva, Fernanda Guedes da; Teixeira, Fernanda Zimmermann ; Perini, Fernando Araujo ; Passos, Fernando C. ; Carvalho, Fernando ; Azevedo, Fernando Cesar Cascelli de; Pinho, Fernando Ferreira de; Gonçalves, Fernando ; Lima, Fernando ; Contreras-Moreno, Fernando M. ; Pedroni, Fernando ; Tortato, Fernando Rodrigo ; Santos, Filipe Pereira Rego ; Caruso, Flavia ; Tirelli, Flávia Pereira ; Miranda, Flávia Regina ; Rodrigues, Flávio Henrique Guimarães ; Ubaid, Flávio Kulaif ; Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes ; Silva, Franciane Almeida da; Grotta-Neto, Francisco ; Souza, Franco Leandro de; Costa, Francys Emanuelle ; Pérez-Garduza, Freddy ; Delsuc, Frédéric ; Lemos, Frederico ; Pinto, Fredy Ramirez ; Boaglio, Gabriel Ivan ; Massocato, Gabriel Fávero ; Preuss, Gabriel ; Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach ; Aguiar, Gabriel Lima ; Oliveira, Gabriela Schuck ; Duarte, Gabriela Teixeira ; Beca, Gabrielle ; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez ; Batista, Graziele Oliveira ; Gil, Guillermo Eduardo ; Gonsioroski, Gustavo ; Secco, Helio ; Medeiros, Hugo Reis ; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer ; Franceschi, Ingridi Camboim ; Bernardi, Itiberê ; Torre, Antonio de la; Zocche, Jairo José ; Seibert, Jardel Brandão ; Faria Falcão, Jéssica Caroline de; Dias, Jéssica Helena Mangueira ; Nodari, Joana Zorzal ; Oliveira, João Alves ; Giovanelli, João Gabriel Ribeiro ; Favoretti, João Paulo Pandini ; Polisar, John ; Sponchiado, Jonas ; Cherem, Jorge José ; Ramírez, José Fernando Moreira ; Toledo, José Julio de; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti ; Matos, Jose Roberto de; Arrabal, Juan Pablo ; Faria Oshima, Júlia Emi de; Ribeiro, Juliana Fernandes ; Bogoni, Juliano André ; Pacheco, Julio Javier Chacón ; Schuchmann, Karl L. ; Ferraz, Katia M.P.M.B. ; Santos Everton, Laís dos; Bailey, Larissa L. ; Gonçalves, Larissa Oliveira ; Cullen, Laury ; Andrade, Layla Reis de; Trevelin, Leonardo Carreira ; Bonjorne, Lilian ; Almeida Rodrigues, Livia de; Leuzinger, Lucas ; Perillo, Lucas Neves ; Araújo, Luciana Souza ; Hufnagel, Ludmila ; Ribeiro, Ludmilla Oliveira ; Bernardo, Luis Renato Rezende ; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues ; Varzinczak, Luiz Henrique ; Borges, Luiz Henrique Medeiros ; Guimarães, Luiza Neves ; Möcklinghoff, Lydia ; Oliveira, Marcela Alvares ; Magioli, Marcelo ; Assis Jardim, Márcia Maria de; Oliveira, Márcio Leite de; Tortato, Marcos Adriano ; Dums, Marcos ; Iezzi, Maria Eugenia ; Pereira, Maria João Ramos ; Jorge, Maria Luísa ; Castro Morini, Maria Santina de; Landis, Mariana Bueno ; Xavier, Mariana Sampaio ; Barros, Marília A.S. ; Silva, Marina Lima da; Rivero, Marina ; Zanin, Marina ; Marques, Marinêz Isaac ; Alves, Mario Henrique ; Bitetti, Mario S. Di; Alvarez, Martín R. ; Graipel, Maurício Eduardo ; Godoi, Mauricio Neves ; Benedetti, Maximiliano Augusto ; Beltrão, Mayara Guimarães ; Monteiro, Miguel Coutinho Moretta ; Paula, Milton José de; Perilli, Miriam Lucia Lages ; Silva, Murillo Prado da; Villar, Nacho ; Albuquerque, Natasha Moraes De; Canassa, Nathália F. ; Filho, Newton Mota ; Rosa Oliveira, Nicole da; Pasqualotto, Nielson ; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos ; Attias, Nina ; Favarini, Marina Ochoa ; Ribeiro, Otávio Santi ; Gonçalves, Pablo Rodrigues ; Rocha, Patrício Adriano da; Condé, Paula Alves ; Akkawi, Paula ; Cruz, Paula ; Lira, Paula Koeler ; Ferreira, Paula Modenesi ; Arroyo-Gerala, Paulina ; Hartmann, Paulo Afonso ; Tarso Zuquim Antas, Paulo de; Marinho, Paulo Henrique ; Faria Peres, Pedro Henrique de; Peña-Mondragón, Juan Luis ; Lombardi, Pryscilla Moura ; Souza Laurindo, Rafael de; Alves, Rafael Souza Cruz ; Grangeiro, Raissa Danielle Praxedes ; Silva, Ramon Lima ; Beltrão-Mendes, Raone ; Bonikowski, Renata Twardowsky Ramalho ; Reppucci, Juan ; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa ; Sampaio, Ricardo ; Sartorello, Ricardo ; Bovendorp, Ricardo Siqueira ; McNab, Roan ; Hack, Robson Odeli Espíndola ; Magalhães, Rodolfo Assis ; Araújo, Rodrigo Costa ; Almeida Nobre, Rodrigo de; Pérez, Rodrigo Raúl León ; Massara, Rodrigo Lima ; Paula, Rogério Cunha de; Anleu, Rony García ; Marques, Rosane Vieira ; Dornas, Rubem ; Rolim, Samir Gonçalves ; Cavalcanti, Sandra M.C. ; Lima, Saulo Ramos ; Ballari, Sebastián A. ; Santamaría, Silvia Benito ; Silva, Sofia Marques ; Age, Stefani Gabrieli ; Godim, Tayana ; Sobral-Souza, Thadeu ; Maccarini, Thiago Bernardes ; Rodrigues, Thiago Ferreira ; Piovezan, Ubiratan ; Cunha Tavares, Valéria da; Quiroga, Verónica Andrea ; Krepschi, Victor Gasperotto ; Filho, Vilmar Picinatto ; Galvão Bastazini, Vinícius Augusto ; Oliveira Gasparotto, Vinicius Peron de; Orsini, Vinicius Santana ; Guedes Layme, Viviane Maria ; Hannibal, Wellington ; Dáttilo, Wesley ; Carvalho, William Douglas de; Loughry, William James ; Blanco, Yamil Edgardo Di; Núñez-Regueiro, Mauricio M. ; Giubbina, Marina Furlan ; Passamani, Marcelo ; Alagão Querido, Luciano Carramaschi de; Costa Toledo, Gustavo Alvez da; Ribeiro, Igor Kintopp ; Quintilham, Lucas ; Bustos, Soledad de; Maza, Javier de la; Lima Neto, Jorge Ferreira ; Kossel de Andrade Silva, Katyucha Von; Sartorello, Leonardo ; Rampim, Lilian Elaine ; Marás, Gustavo A. ; Camino, Micaela ; Freitas-Junior, Mozart ; Perovic, Pablo Gaston ; Paolino, Roberta Montanheiro ; Ferreira, Scarlat Dalva ; Towns, Valeria ; Esperandio, Isadora Beraldi ; Aximoff, Izar ; Beduschi, Júlia ; Guenther, Mariana ; Cassia Bianchi, Rita de; Keuroghlian-Eaton, Sean ; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena ; Fatima Cunha, Lerrane de; Cirignoli, Sebastián ; Ciocheti, Giordano ; Prado, Helena Alves do; Fernandes-Ferreira, Hugo ; Mendes de Sena, Liana Mara ; Yamane, Marcelo Hideki ; Brennand, Pamella G.G. ; Silva, Rayana Diniz da; Escobar, Santiago ; Endo, Whaldener ; Hurtado, Rafael Reyna ; Gontijo, Nila Rássia Costa ; Marsh, Laura K. ; Severo, Magnus Machado ; Pardo, Julia Martinez ; Costa, Sebastián Andrés ; Melo, Geruza Leal ; Santana, Gindomar Gomes ; Miranda Mourão, Guilherme de; Gaspari, Gustavo Gabirele ; Duarte, Herbert ; Cabral, Hugo ; Silva, Leonardo Henrique da; Mendonça, Luana ; Barbosa, Lucas Lobo ; Santos, Manuela Vieira dos; Moraes, Marcela Figuerêdo Duarte ; Gordo, Marcelo ; Versiani, Natalia Fraguas ; Cantero, Nicolás ; Pays, Olivier ; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves ; Colas-Rosas, Paul François ; Ribeiro, Paulo ; Renaud, Pierre Cyril ; Hoogesteijn, Rafael Jan ; Ayala, Rodrigo ; Cunha, Rogério Grassetto Teixeira da; Schaub, Roxane ; Laurito, Sabrina ; Betkowski, Samuel Eurich ; Cortez, Sara ; Silva, Shirley Seixas Pereira ; Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes de; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Gengler, Nicholas ; Hidalgo, Mircea Mihart ; Juárez, Rugieri ; Iglesias, Jesús A. ; Anacleto, Teresa Cristina ; Souza Fialho, Marcos de; Cavicchioli, Guilherme ; Beccato, Maria Angélica Barbosa ; Silva, Marcelo da; Neto, Omar Correia ; Lopes, Karine Galisteo Diemer ; Godoy, Leandro Perez ; Luiz, Micheli Ribeiro ; Rojas Bonzi, Viviana B. ; Ferreira, Guilherme Braga ; Oliveira, Marcelo Juliano Rabelo ; Hinojosa, Javier ; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa de; Nagy-Reis, Mariana Baldy ; Ramirez, Sixto Fernández ; Concone, Henrique Villas Boas ; Mourthe, Italo ; Martínez-Lanfranco, Juan A. ; Zanoni, Juliani Bruna ; Moreira, Tainah Cruz ; Guarderas, Zoila Vega ; Bazilio, Sérgio ; Cervini, Marcelo ; Pinheiro, Marcell Soares ; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves ; Peroni, Nivaldo ; Trigo, Tatiane Campos ; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim ; Gaspari, Fernando ; Koenemann, Joceleia G. ; Rudolf, Juan Carlos ; Benchimol, Maíra ; Vieira, Marcus Vinícius ; Retta, Lucía Martínez ; Santiago, Pablo Gerardo Fernández ; Ciccia, Paula Gonzalez ; Estrela, Pedro Cordeiro ; Carvalho, Santiago ; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa ; Cruz, Yaribeth Bravata de la; Castro-Prieto, Jessica ; Braga, Ricardo Miranda ; Cartes, Jose Luis ; Andrade-Núñez, María José ; Denkiewicz, Natalia Mariana ; Falconi, Nereyda ; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito ; Castillo Cordero, Hugo Fernando del; Sousa, Luziene Conceição de; Gaspari Júnior, Roque Lázaro de; Santos-Filho, Manoel ; Almeida, Josué Santos ; Thompson, Jeffrey J. ; Santos, Juliana Silveira dos; Pereira-Ribeiro, Juliane ; Burs, Kathrin ; Silva, Kena Ferrari Moreira da; Velilla, Marianela ; Silva, Marina Xavier da; Sancha, Noé U. de la; Pinheiro, Paula Fabiana ; Castilho, Pedro Volkmer de; Bercê, William ; Assis, Julia Camara ; Tonetti, Vinicius Rodrigues ; Alves-Eigenheer, Milene ; Chinem, Simonne ; Honda, Laura K. ; Godoy Bergallo, Helena de; Alberici, Vinicius ; Wallace, Robert ; Campos Krauer, Juan Manuel ; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar ; Galetti, Mauro - \ 2019
    Ecology 100 (2019)7. - ISSN 0012-9658
    biodiversity hotspot - cingulata - forest fragmentation - habitat loss - neotropical mammals - neotropical region - pilosa - xenarthra

    Xenarthrans—anteaters, sloths, and armadillos—have essential functions for ecosystem maintenance, such as insect control and nutrient cycling, playing key roles as ecosystem engineers. Because of habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, and conflicts with domestic dogs, these species have been threatened locally, regionally, or even across their full distribution ranges. The Neotropics harbor 21 species of armadillos, 10 anteaters, and 6 sloths. Our data set includes the families Chlamyphoridae (13), Dasypodidae (7), Myrmecophagidae (3), Bradypodidae (4), and Megalonychidae (2). We have no occurrence data on Dasypus pilosus (Dasypodidae). Regarding Cyclopedidae, until recently, only one species was recognized, but new genetic studies have revealed that the group is represented by seven species. In this data paper, we compiled a total of 42,528 records of 31 species, represented by occurrence and quantitative data, totaling 24,847 unique georeferenced records. The geographic range is from the southern United States, Mexico, and Caribbean countries at the northern portion of the Neotropics, to the austral distribution in Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, and Uruguay. Regarding anteaters, Myrmecophaga tridactyla has the most records (n = 5,941), and Cyclopes sp. have the fewest (n = 240). The armadillo species with the most data is Dasypus novemcinctus (n = 11,588), and the fewest data are recorded for Calyptophractus retusus (n = 33). With regard to sloth species, Bradypus variegatus has the most records (n = 962), and Bradypus pygmaeus has the fewest (n = 12). Our main objective with Neotropical Xenarthrans is to make occurrence and quantitative data available to facilitate more ecological research, particularly if we integrate the xenarthran data with other data sets of Neotropical Series that will become available very soon (i.e., Neotropical Carnivores, Neotropical Invasive Mammals, and Neotropical Hunters and Dogs). Therefore, studies on trophic cascades, hunting pressure, habitat loss, fragmentation effects, species invasion, and climate change effects will be possible with the Neotropical Xenarthrans data set. Please cite this data paper when using its data in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us of how they are using these data

    Exploring the forensic application of a handheld NIR spectrometer
    Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Venderink, Tjerk ; Keizers, Peter ; Bakker, Frank ; Boshuis, Margot ; Heerschop, Marcel ; Esch, Annette van; Wallace, Fionn ; Hulsbergen-van den Berg, Annemieke ; Asten, Arian van - \ 2019
    Massive deployment of small IoT-like optical sensors for forensic application is eminent. In this work, we explore the potential of the near-infrared device most frequently used, best integrated for end-users and developers and most economically priced. By collaborating with Dutch governmental labs, a wide range of real-life samples was available, ranging from hard drugs to counterfeit medicine to adulterated foods.
    Evaluation of calcium lignosulfonate as a acceptable previous cargo for edible fats and oils
    Schrenk, Dieter ; Bignami, Margherita ; Bodin, Laurent ; Chipman, James Kevin ; Mazo, Jesús del; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Leblanc, Jean Charles ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Nielsen, Elsa ; Ntzani, Evangelia ; Petersen, Annette ; Sand, Salomon ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Wallace, Heather ; Grob, Konrad ; Castle, Laurence ; Christodoulidou, Anna ; Vleminckx, Christiane - \ 2019
    EFSA Journal 17 (2019)12. - ISSN 1831-4732
    acceptable previous cargo - calcium lignosulfonate - edible fats and oils - sea transport

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability of calcium lignosulfonate as previous cargo for fats and oils. The evaluation was based on the same criteria as those used for the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as a acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils. In 2017, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) concluded that calcium lignosulfonate did not meet the acceptability criteria, due to uncertainties as regards the composition and toxicity of its low-molecular weight fraction (LMWF) below 1,000 Da. In the current evaluation, new information, showing lack of genotoxicity of the LMWF isolated from a technical grade of calcium lignosulfonate was provided. Due to uncertainties regarding the presence of lignosulfonate components below 200 Da in this LMWF tested for genotoxicity, the CONTAM Panel concluded that the information provided was insufficient to assess the acceptability of calcium lignosulfonate as previous cargo. The Panel recommends a better analysis of the LMWF and a new genotoxicity test using this LMWF, including components < 200 Da, and evidence that the tested material is representative of the LMWF in products intended to be shipped as previous cargo for edible fat and oils.

    Evaluation of the health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in foods other than raw apricot kernels
    Schrenk, Dieter ; Bignami, Margherita ; Bodin, Laurent ; Chipman, James Kevin ; Mazo, Jesús del; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Leblanc, Jean Charles ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Nielsen, Elsa ; Ntzani, Evangelia ; Petersen, Annette ; Sand, Salomon ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Wallace, Heather ; Benford, Diane ; Brimer, Leon ; Mancini, Francesca Romana ; Metzler, Manfred ; Viviani, Barbara ; Altieri, Andrea ; Arcella, Davide ; Steinkellner, Hans ; Schwerdtle, Tanja - \ 2019
    EFSA Journal 17 (2019)4. - ISSN 1831-4732
    cyanide - cyanogenic glycosides - health-based guidance values - risk assessment

    In 2016, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) published a scientific opinion on the acute health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides (CNGs) in raw apricot kernels in which an acute reference dose (ARfD) of 20 μg/kg body weight (bw) was established for cyanide (CN). In the present opinion, the CONTAM Panel concluded that this ARfD is applicable for acute effects of CN regardless the dietary source. To account for differences in cyanide bioavailability after ingestion of certain food items, specific factors were used. Estimated mean acute dietary exposures to cyanide from foods containing CNGs did not exceed the ARfD in any age group. At the 95th percentile, the ARfD was exceeded up to about 2.5-fold in some surveys for children and adolescent age groups. The main contributors to exposures were biscuits, juice or nectar and pastries and cakes that could potentially contain CNGs. Taking into account the conservatism in the exposure assessment and in derivation of the ARfD, it is unlikely that this estimated exceedance would result in adverse effects. The limited data from animal and human studies do not allow the derivation of a chronic health-based guidance value (HBGV) for cyanide, and thus, chronic risks could not be assessed.

    Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids in feed and food, in particular in lupins and lupin-derived products
    Schrenk, Dieter ; Bodin, Laurent ; Chipman, James Kevin ; Mazo, Jesús del; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Leblanc, Jean Charles ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Nielsen, Elsa ; Ntzani, Evangelia ; Petersen, Annette ; Sand, Salomon ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Wallace, Heather ; Alexander, Jan ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dusemund, Birgit ; Mulder, Patrick ; Arcella, Davide ; Baert, Katleen ; Cascio, Claudia ; Steinkellner, Hans ; Bignami, Margherita - \ 2019
    EFSA Journal 17 (2019)11. - ISSN 1831-4732
    feed - food - lupanine - Lupin - margin of exposure (MOE) - quinolizidine alkaloid - sparteine

    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in feed and food. This risk assessment is limited to QAs occurring in Lupinus species/varieties relevant for animal and human consumption in Europe (i.e. Lupinus albus L., Lupinus angustifolius L., Lupinus luteus L. and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet). Information on the toxicity of QAs in animals and humans is limited. Following acute exposure to sparteine (reference compound), anticholinergic effects and changes in cardiac electric conductivity are considered to be critical for human hazard characterisation. The CONTAM Panel used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach identifying a lowest single oral effective dose of 0.16 mg sparteine/kg body weight as reference point to characterise the risk following acute exposure. No reference point could be identified to characterise the risk of chronic exposure. Because of similar modes of action for QAs, the CONTAM Panel used a group approach assuming dose additivity. For food, the highest mean concentration of Total QAs (TotQAs) (i.e. the 6 most abundant QAs) was found in lupin seed samples classified as ‘Lupins (dry) and similar-’. Due to the limited data on occurrence and consumption, dietary exposure was calculated for some specific scenarios and no full human health risk characterisation was possible. The calculated margin of exposures (MOEs) may indicate a risk for some consumers. For example, when lupin seeds are consumed without a debittering step, or as debittered lupin seeds high in QA content and when ‘lupin-based meat imitates’ are consumed. For horses, companion and farm animals, other than salmonids, the available database on adverse effects was too limited to identify no-observed-adverse-effect levels and/or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels and no risk characterisation was possible. For salmonids, the CONTAM Panel considers the risk for adverse effects to be low.

    The Evolution and Cultural Framing of Food Safety Management Systems—Where From and Where Next?
    Manning, Louise ; Luning, Pieternel A. ; Wallace, Carol A. - \ 2019
    Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 18 (2019)6. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 1770 - 1792.
    food safety - food safety culture - HACCP - private food safety and quality standards - risk assessment

    The aim of this paper is to review the development of food safety management systems (FSMS) from their origins in the 1950s to the present. The food safety challenges in modern food supply systems are explored and it is argued that there is a need for a more holistic thinking approach to food safety management. The narrative review highlights that while the transactional elements of how FSMS are developed, validated, implemented, monitored, and verified remains largely unchanged, how organizational culture frames the operation and efficacy of FSMS is becoming more important. The evolution of a wider academic and industry understanding of both the influence of food safety culture (FS-culture) and also how such culture frames and enables, or conversely restricts the efficacy of the FSMS is crucial for consumer well-being. Potential research gaps worthy of further study are identified as well as recommendations given for the application of the research findings within the food industry.

    Convergent evolution of hetero-oligomeric cellulose synthesis complexes in mosses and seed plants
    Li, Xingxing ; Speicher, Tori L. ; Dees, Dianka C.T. ; Mansoori, Nasim ; McManus, John B. ; Tien, Ming ; Trindade, Luisa M. ; Wallace, Ian S. ; Roberts, Alison W. - \ 2019
    The Plant Journal (2019). - ISSN 0960-7412
    cell wall - cellulose - cellulose synthase - cellulose synthesis complex - convergent evolution - Physcomitrella patens

    In seed plants, cellulose is synthesized by rosette-shaped cellulose synthesis complexes (CSCs) that are obligate hetero-oligomeric, comprising three non-interchangeable cellulose synthase (CESA) isoforms. The moss Physcomitrella patens has rosette CSCs and seven CESAs, but its common ancestor with seed plants had rosette CSCs and a single CESA gene. Therefore, if P. patens CSCs are hetero-oligomeric, then CSCs of this type evolved convergently in mosses and seed plants. Previous gene knockout and promoter swap experiments showed that PpCESAs from class A (PpCESA3 and PpCESA8) and class B (PpCESA6 and PpCESA7) have non-redundant functions in secondary cell wall cellulose deposition in leaf midribs, whereas the two members of each class are redundant. Based on these observations, we proposed the hypothesis that the secondary class A and class B PpCESAs associate to form hetero-oligomeric CSCs. Here we show that transcription of secondary class A PpCESAs is reduced when secondary class B PpCESAs are knocked out and vice versa, as expected for genes encoding isoforms that occupy distinct positions within the same CSC. The class A and class B isoforms co-accumulate in developing gametophores and co-immunoprecipitate, suggesting that they interact to form a complex in planta. Finally, secondary PpCESAs interact with each other, whereas three of four fail to self-interact when expressed in two different heterologous systems. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that obligate hetero-oligomeric CSCs evolved independently in mosses and seed plants and we propose the constructive neutral evolution hypothesis as a plausible explanation for convergent evolution of hetero-oligomeric CSCs.

    What agricultural practices are most likely to deliver “sustainable intensification” in the UK?
    Dicks, Lynn V. ; Rose, David C. ; Ang, Frederic ; Aston, Stephen ; Birch, A.N.E. ; Boatman, Nigel ; Bowles, Elizabeth L. ; Chadwick, David ; Dinsdale, Alex ; Durham, Sam ; Elliott, John ; Firbank, Les ; Humphreys, Stephen ; Jarvis, Phil ; Jones, Dewi ; Kindred, Daniel ; Knight, Stuart M. ; Lee, Michael R.F. ; Leifert, Carlo ; Lobley, Matt ; Matthews, Kim ; Midmer, Alice ; Moore, Mark ; Morris, Carol ; Mortimer, Simon ; Murray, T.C. ; Norman, Keith ; Ramsden, Stephen ; Roberts, Dave ; Smith, Laurence G. ; Soffe, Richard ; Stoate, Chris ; Taylor, Bryony ; Tinker, David ; Topliff, Mark ; Wallace, John ; Williams, Prysor ; Wilson, Paul ; Winter, Michael ; Sutherland, William J. - \ 2019
    Food and Energy Security 8 (2019)1. - ISSN 2048-3694

    Sustainable intensification is a process by which agricultural productivity is enhanced whilst also creating environmental and social benefits. We aimed to identify practices likely to deliver sustainable intensification, currently available for UK farms but not yet widely adopted. We compiled a list of 18 farm management practices with the greatest potential to deliver sustainable intensification in the UK, following a well-developed stepwise methodology for identifying priority solutions, using a group decision-making technique with key agricultural experts. The list of priority management practices can provide the focal point of efforts to achieve sustainable intensification of agriculture, as the UK develops post-Brexit agricultural policy, and pursues the second Sustainable Development Goal, which aims to end hunger and promote sustainable agriculture. The practices largely reflect a technological, production-focused view of sustainable intensification, including for example, precision farming and animal health diagnostics, with less emphasis on the social and environmental aspects of sustainability. However, they do reflect an integrated approach to farming, covering many different aspects, from business organization and planning, to soil and crop management, to landscape and nature conservation. For a subset of 10 of the priority practices, we gathered data on the level of existing uptake in English and Welsh farms through a stratified survey in seven focal regions. We find substantial existing uptake of most of the priority practices, indicating that UK farming is an innovative sector. The data identify two specific practices for which uptake is relatively low, but which some UK farmers find appealing and would consider adopting. These practices are: prediction of pest and disease outbreaks, especially for livestock farms; staff training on environmental issues, especially on arable farms.

    Risks to human and animal health related to the presence of moniliformin in food and feed
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Saeger, Sarah De; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Farmer, Peter ; Fremy, Jean-Marc ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Meyer, Karsten ; Naegeli, Hanspeter ; Parent‐Massin, Dominique ; Egmond, Hans van; Altieri, Andrea ; Colombo, Paolo ; Eskola, Mari ; Manen, Mathijs van; Edler, Lutz - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)3. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Moniliformin (MON) is a mycotoxin with low molecular weight primarily produced by Fusarium fungi and occurring predominantly in cereal grains. Following a request of the European Commission, the CONTAM Panel assessed the risk of MON to human and animal health related to its presence in food and feed. The limited information available on toxicity and on toxicokinetics in experimental and farm animals indicated haematotoxicity and cardiotoxicity as major adverse health effects of MON. MON causes chromosome aberrations in vitro but no in vivo genotoxicity data and no carcinogenicity data were identified. Due to the limitations in the available toxicity data, human acute or chronic health‐based guidance values (HBGV) could not be established. The margin of exposure (MOE) between the no‐observed‐adverse‐effect level (NOAEL) of 6.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) for cardiotoxicity from a subacute study in rats and the acute upper bound (UB) dietary exposure estimates ranged between 4,000 and 73,000. The MOE between the lowest benchmark dose lower confidence limit (for a 5% response ‐ BMDL05) of 0.20 mg MON/kg bw per day for haematological hazards from a 28‐day study in pigs and the chronic dietary human exposure estimates ranged between 370 and 5,000,000 for chronic dietary exposures. These MOEs indicate a low risk for human health but were associated with high uncertainty. The toxicity data available for poultry, pigs, and mink indicated a low or even negligible risk for these animals from exposure to MON in feed at the estimated exposure levels under current feeding practices. Assuming similar or lower sensitivity as for pigs, the CONTAM Panel considered a low or even negligible risk for the other animal species for which no toxicity data suitable for hazard characterisation were identified. Additional toxicity studies are needed and depending on their outcome, the collection of more occurrence data on MON in food and feed is recommended to enable a comprehensive human risk assessment.
    Update of the Scientific Opinion on opium alkaloids in poppy seeds
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Benford, Diane ; Calò, Girolamo ; Dahan, Albert ; Dusemund, Birgit ; Mulder, Patrick ; Németh‐zámboriné, Éva ; Arcella, Davide ; Baert, Katleen ; Cascio, Claudia ; Levorato, Sara ; Schutte, Marijke ; Vleminckx, Christiane - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)5. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Poppy seeds are obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). They are used as food and to produce edible oil. The opium poppy plant contains narcotic alkaloids such as morphine and codeine. Poppy seeds do not contain the opium alkaloids, but can become contaminated with alkaloids as a result of pest damage and during harvesting. The European Commission asked EFSA to provide an update of the Scientific Opinion on opium alkaloids in poppy seeds. The assessment is based on data on morphine, codeine, thebaine, oripavine, noscapine and papaverine in poppy seed samples. The CONTAM Panel confirms the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 10 μg morphine/kg body weight (bw) and concluded that the concentration of codeine in the poppy seed samples should be taken into account by converting codeine to morphine equivalents, using a factor of 0.2. The ARfD is therefore a group ARfD for morphine and codeine, expressed in morphine equivalents. Mean and high levels of dietary exposure to morphine equivalents from poppy seeds considered to have high levels of opium alkaloids (i.e. poppy seeds from varieties primarily grown for pharmaceutical use) exceed the ARfD in most age groups. For poppy seeds considered to have relatively low concentrations of opium alkaloids (i.e. primarily varieties for food use), some exceedance of the ARfD is also seen at high levels of dietary exposure in most surveys. For noscapine and papaverine, the available data do not allow making a hazard characterisation. However, comparison of the dietary exposure to the recommended therapeutical doses does not suggest a health concern for these alkaloids. For thebaine and oripavine, no risk characterisation was done due to insufficient data. However, for thebaine, limited evidence indicates a higher acute lethality than for morphine and the estimated exposure could present a health risk.
    Risk to human and animal health related to the presence of 4,15‐diacetoxyscirpenol in food and feed
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Saeger, Sarah De; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Farmer, Peter ; Fremy, Jean-Marc ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Meyer, Karsten ; Parent‐Massin, Dominique ; Egmond, Hans van; Altieri, Andrea ; Colombo, Paolo ; Horváth, Zsuzsanna ; Levorato, Sara ; Edler, Lutz - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)8. - ISSN 1831-4732
    4,15‐Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) is a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi and occurring predominantly in cereal grains. As requested by the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) assessed the risk of DAS to human and animal health related to its presence in food and feed. Very limited information was available on toxicity and on toxicokinetics in experimental and farm animals. Due to the limitations in the available data set, human acute and chronic health‐based guidance values (HBGV) were established based on data obtained in clinical trials of DAS as an anticancer agent (anguidine) after intravenous administration to cancer patients. The CONTAM Panel considered these data as informative for the hazard characterisation of DAS after oral exposure. The main adverse effects after acute and repeated exposure were emesis, with a no‐observed‐adverse‐effect level (NOAEL) of 32 μg DAS/kg body weight (bw), and haematotoxicity, with a NOAEL of 65 μg DAS/kg bw, respectively. An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 3.2 μg DAS/kg bw and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.65 μg DAS/kg bw were established. Based on over 15,000 occurrence data, the highest acute and chronic dietary exposures were estimated to be 0.8 and 0.49 μg DAS/kg bw per day, respectively, and were not of health concern for humans. The limited information for poultry, pigs and dogs indicated a low risk for these animals at the estimated DAS exposure levels under current feeding practices, with the possible exception of fattening chicken. Assuming similar or lower sensitivity than for poultry, the risk was considered overall low for other farm and companion animal species for which no toxicity data were available. In consideration of the similarities of several trichothecenes and the likelihood of co‐exposure via food and feed, it could be appropriate to perform a cumulative risk assessment for this group of substances.
    Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin‐like PCBs in feed and food
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Fürst, Peter ; Håkansson, Helen ; Halldorsson, Thorhallur ; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine ; Pohjanvirta, Raimo ; Rylander, Lars ; Smith, Andrew ; Loveren, Henk van; Waalkens‐Berendsen, Ine ; Zeilmaker, Marco ; Binaglia, Marco ; Gómez Ruiz, José Ángel ; Horváth, Zsuzsanna ; Christoph, Eugen ; Ciccolallo, Laura ; Ramos Bordajandi, Luisa ; Steinkellner, Hans ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)11. - ISSN 1831-4732
    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL‐PCBs in feed and food. The data from experimental animal and epidemiological studies were reviewed and it was decided to base the human risk assessment on effects observed in humans and to use animal data as supportive evidence. The critical effect was on semen quality, following pre‐ and postnatal exposure. The critical study showed a NOAEL of 7.0 pg WHO2005‐TEQ/g fat in blood sampled at age 9 years based on PCDD/F‐TEQs. No association was observed when including DL‐PCB‐TEQs. Using toxicokinetic modelling and taking into account the exposure from breastfeeding and a twofold higher intake during childhood, it was estimated that daily exposure in adolescents and adults should be below 0.25 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. The CONTAM Panel established a TWI of 2 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. With occurrence and consumption data from European countries, the mean and P95 intake of total TEQ by Adolescents, Adults, Elderly and Very Elderly varied between, respectively, 2.1 to 10.5, and 5.3 to 30.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/week, implying a considerable exceedance of the TWI. Toddlers and Other Children showed a higher exposure than older age groups, but this was accounted for when deriving the TWI. Exposure to PCDD/F‐TEQ only was on average 2.4‐ and 2.7‐fold lower for mean and P95 exposure than for total TEQ. PCDD/Fs and DL‐PCBs are transferred to milk and eggs, and accumulate in fatty tissues and liver. Transfer rates and bioconcentration factors were identified for various species. The CONTAM Panel was not able to identify reference values in most farm and companion animals with the exception of NOAELs for mink, chicken and some fish species. The estimated exposure from feed for these species does not imply a risk.
    Assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and PCBs from fish meal by replacement of fish oil
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine ; Metzler, Manfred ; Colombo, Paolo ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)2. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) provided a scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process of fish meal. It consisted of extraction of the fish oil, filtration and adsorption with activated carbon, and replacement with decontaminated fish oil in order to reduce the amount of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)), and dioxin‐like (DL‐) and non‐dioxin‐like (NDL‐) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. Data provided by the feed business operator were assessed for efficacy of the process and to demonstrate that the process did not adversely affect the characteristics and the nature of the product. The process was effective in removing PCDD/Fs (97%) and DL‐ and NDL‐PCBs (93%). The fish meal produced complied with EU regulations for these contaminants. The Panel considered that the reference to information available in published literature was a pragmatic approach to demonstrate that the replacement of fish oil and the use of activated carbon to adsorb these contaminants does not lead to any detrimental changes in the nature of the fish meal. However, it was noted that the process could deplete some beneficial constituents (e.g. oil‐soluble vitamins). Information was provided to demonstrate the safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that on the basis of the information submitted by the feed business operator the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs from the fish meal by oil extraction followed by replacement with decontaminated fish oil, was compliant with the acceptability criteria provided for in Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786 of 19 May 2015.
    Assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and PCBs from fish meal by hexane extraction and replacement of fish oil
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine ; Metzler, Manfred ; Colombo, Paolo ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)2. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) provided a scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for fish meal. This process entails solvent (hexane) extraction of fish oil from fish meal to remove dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) as well as dioxin‐like (DL‐) and non‐dioxin‐like (NDL‐) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) followed by replacement with decontaminated fish oil. All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. The data provided by the feed business operator were assessed with respect to the efficacy of the process, absence of solvent residues, and on information demonstrating that the process does not adversely affect the nature and characteristics of the product. According to data provided, the process was effective in removing PCDD/Fs and DL‐PCBs by approximately 70% and NDL‐PCBs by about 60%. The data showed that it is possible to meet the current EU requirements with respect to these contaminants, provided that the level of contamination of untreated fish meal is within the range of the tested batches. It is unlikely that hazardous substances (i.e. hexane) remain in the final product. The Panel considered that there is no evidence that fish oil extraction followed by replacement with decontaminated fish oil leads to detrimental changes in the nutritional composition of the fish meal, although some beneficial constituents (e.g. lipophilic vitamins) might be depleted. The feed business operator submitted information to demonstrate safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs from fish meal by means of solvent extraction and fish oil replacement was assessed to be compliant with the acceptability criteria provided for in Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786 of 19 May 2015.
    Risks for animal health related to the presence of fumonisins, their modified forms and hidden forms in feed
    Knutsen, Helle-Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Dall'Asta, Chiara ; Eriksen, Gunnar-Sundstøl ; Taranu, Ionelia ; Altieri, Andrea ; Roldán‐Torres, Ruth ; Oswald, Isabelle P. - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)5. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Fumonisins, mycotoxins primarily produced by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, occur predominantly in cereal grains, especially in maize. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to fumonisins and their modified and hidden forms in feed. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 are the most common forms of fumonisins in feedstuffs and thus were included in the assessment. FB1, FB2 and FB3 have the same mode of action and were considered as having similar toxicological profile and potencies. For fumonisins, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) identified no‐observed‐adverse‐effect levels (NOAELs) for cattle, pig, poultry (chicken, ducks and turkeys), horse, and lowest‐observed‐adverse‐effect levels (LOAELs) for fish (extrapolated from carp) and rabbits. No reference points could be identified for sheep, goats, dogs, cats and mink. The dietary exposure was estimated on 18,140 feed samples on FB1–3 representing most of the feed commodities with potential presence of fumonisins. Samples were collected between 2003 and 2016 from 19 different European countries, but most of them from four Member States. To take into account the possible occurrence of hidden forms, an additional factor of 1.6, derived from the literature, was applied to the occurrence data. Modified forms of fumonisins, for which no data were identified concerning both the occurrence and the toxicity, were not included in the assessment. Based on mean exposure estimates, the risk of adverse health effects of feeds containing FB1–3 was considered very low for ruminants, low for poultry, horse, rabbits, fish and of potential concern for pigs. The same conclusions apply to the sum of FB1–3 and their hidden forms, except for pigs for which the risk of adverse health effect was considered of concern.
    Effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level for ‘aflatoxin total’ from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Fürst, Peter ; Baert, Katleen ; Cortiñas Abrahantes, José ; Dujardin, Bruno ; Ferrini, Krizia ; Petersen, Annette - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)2. - ISSN 1831-4732
    EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion regarding the effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level (ML) for ‘aflatoxin total’ (AFT; sum of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2) from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof. Aflatoxins are genotoxic and cause hepatocellular carcinomas in humans. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) evaluated 8,085 samples of peanuts and 472 samples of peanut butter, with > 60% left‐censored. The mean concentration of AFT in peanuts was 2.65/3.56 μg/kg (lower bound (LB)/upper bound (UB)) with a maximum of 1,429 μg/kg. The mean concentration in peanut butter was 1.47/1.92 μg/kg (LB/UB) with a maximum of 407 μg/kg. Peanut oil was not included since all data were left‐censored and the ML does not apply for oil. Exposure was calculated for a ‘Current ML’ and ‘Increased ML’ scenario, and mean chronic exposure estimates for consumers only, amounted to 0.04–2.74 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day and 0.07–4.28 ng/kg bw per day, respectively. The highest exposures were calculated for adolescents and other children. The CONTAM Panel used the cancer potencies estimated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for the risk characterisation. Under the scenario of the current ML, the cancer risk was estimated to range between 0.001 and 0.213 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Under the scenario of the increased ML, it ranged between 0.001 and 0.333 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Comparing these data calculated under the current ML scenario with the yearly excess cancer risk of 0.014 shows a higher risk for consumers of peanuts and peanut butter in some surveys. The calculated cancer risks indicate that an increase of the ML would further increase the risk by a factor of 1.6–1.8.
    Update of the risk assessment on 3‐monochloropropane diol and its fatty acid esters
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Lampen, Alfonso ; Morris, Ian ; Piersma, Aldert ; Schrenk, Dieter ; Binaglia, Marco ; Levorato, Sara ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)1. - ISSN 1831-4732
    The CONTAM Panel updated the assessment of the risks for human health related to the presence of 3‐monochloropropane diol (3‐MCPD) and its fatty acid esters in food published in 2016 in view of the scientific divergence identified in the establishment of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) in the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (FAO/WHO) report published in 2017. In this update, dose–response analysis was performed following the recent EFSA Scientific Committee guidance on the use of benchmark dose (BMD) approach in risk assessment, and a review of available data on developmental and reproduction toxicity was included. The outcome of this review indicates that in rats short‐term exposure to 3‐MCPD above 1 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day can induce reduced sperm motility associated with reduced male fecundity. Decreased sperm count and histopathological changes in the testis and epididymis were observed following longer treatment periods at higher doses. Regarding increased incidence kidney tubular hyperplasia, BMD analysis using model averaging resulted in a BMDL10 of 0.20 mg/kg bw per day in male rats, which was selected as the new Reference Point (RP) for renal effects. For the effects on male fertility, decreased sperm motility was selected as the most sensitive relevant endpoint and a BMDL05 of 0.44 mg/kg bw per day was calculated. The RP for renal effects was considered to derive an updated group TDI of 2 μg/kg bw per day for 3‐MCPD and its fatty acid esters and was considered protective also for effects on male fertility. The established TDI of 2 μg/kg bw per day is not exceeded in the adult population. A slight exceedance of the TDI was observed in the high consumers of the younger age groups and in particular for the scenarios on infants receiving formula only.
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