Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Hoe overleeft het gentiaanblauwtje klimaatextremen?
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Limpens, J. - \ 2020
    Vlinders 35 (2020)augustus. - ISSN 0923-1846 - p. 4 - 7.
    Aan de vrije val van het gentiaanblauwtje lijkt maar geen einde te komen. Klimaatextremen lijken daar een belangrijke rol in te spelen. De laatste jaren hebben we de invloed daarvan met nieuw onderzoek proberen op te helderen. Het goede nieuws is dat de schade door klimaatverandering kan worden beperkt door aangepast terreinbeheer.
    Biological approach is harmful
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel - \ 2020
    Middellange termijn effecten van chopperen en drukbegrazing als alternatieven voor plaggen op natte heide
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Bobbink, Roland ; Brouwer, Emiel ; Loeb, Roos ; Vogels, J. - \ 2019
    De Levende Natuur 120 (2019)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 172 - 178.
    Herstel van de habitatkwaliteit van natte heide is zowel op nationaal als op Europees niveau een belangrijke opgave. Dit vergt behalve hydrologisch herstel ook een zorgvuldige afweging tussen verschillende maatregelen voor vegetatiebeheer en herstel van buffercapaciteit (Wallis de Vries et al., 2016). Vanwege de ingrijpende invloed van plaggen op bodem, vegetatie en fauna zijn in dit onderzoek chopperen en drukbegrazing, al of niet in combinatie met bekalking, als mogelijke alternatieven onderzocht.
    Distribution trends of European dragonflies under climate change
    Termaat, Tim ; Strien, Arco J. van; Grunsven, Roy H.A. van; Knijf, Geert De; Bjelke, Ulf ; Burbach, Klaus ; Conze, Klaus Jürgen ; Goffart, Philippe ; Hepper, David ; Kalkman, Vincent J. ; Motte, Grégory ; Prins, Marijn D. ; Prunier, Florent ; Sparrow, David ; Top, Gregory G. van den; Vanappelghem, Cédric ; Winterholler, Michael ; Wallis De Vries, Michiel F. - \ 2019
    Diversity and Distributions 25 (2019)6. - ISSN 1366-9516 - p. 936 - 950.
    citizen science data - climate change - Community Temperature Index - Multi-species Indicator - Odonata - Species Temperature Index

    Aim: Poleward range shifts of species are among the most obvious effects of climate change on biodiversity. As a consequence of these range shifts, species communities are predicted to become increasingly composed of warm-dwelling species, but this has only been studied for a limited number of taxa, mainly birds, butterflies and plants. As species groups may vary considerably in their adaptation to climate change, it is desirable to expand these studies to other groups, from different ecosystems. Freshwater macroinvertebrates, such as dragonflies (Odonata), have been ranked among the species groups with highest priority. In this paper, we investigate how the occurrence of dragonflies in Europe has changed in recent decades, and if these changes are in parallel with climate change. Location: Europe. Methods: We use data from 10 European geographical regions to calculate occupancy indices and trends for 99 (69%) of the European species. Next, we combine these regional indices to calculate European indices. To determine if changes in regional dragonfly communities in Europe reflect climatic warming, we calculate Species Temperature Indices (STI), Multi-species Indicators (MSI) and Community Temperature Indices (CTI). Results: 55 of 99 considered species increased in occupancy at European level, 32 species remained stable, and none declined. Trends for 12 species are uncertain. MSI of cold-dwelling and warm-dwelling species differ in some of the regions, but increased at a similar rate at European level. CTI increased in all regions, except Cyprus. The European CTI increased slightly. Main conclusions: European dragonflies, in general, have expanded their distribution in response to climate change, even though their CTI lags behind the increase in temperature. Furthermore, dragonflies proved to be a suitable species group for monitoring changes in communities, both at regional and continental level.

    Versterking van connectiviteit voor soorten van hellingschraallanden
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Nijssen, Marijn ; Ozinga, W.A. - \ 2019
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 108 (2019)4. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 105 - 110.
    Het behoud en herstel van de uitzonderlijk hoge biodiversiteit in het Limburgse Heuvelland
    Karakterisering, uitbreiding en herstel kwaliteit van Veldbies-Beukenbossen
    Hommel, Patrick ; Bijlsma, Rienk-Jan ; Jansman, Hugh ; Ouden, Jan den; Schaminée, Joop ; Waal, Rein de; Wallis de Vries, Michiel - \ 2018
    Driebergen : VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren (OBN rapport 2018/OBN225-HE) - 180
    Versterking van connectiviteit voor soorten van hellingschraallanden
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel F. ; Nijssen, Marijn E. ; Ozinga, Wim A. - \ 2018
    Driebergen : VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren - 109
    Effecten van damherten op dagvlinders in de Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2018
    De Levende Natuur 119 (2018)1. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 12 - 17.
    De populatie damherten in de Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen (AWD) is de
    laatste tientallen jaren sterk toegenomen, en als gevolg daarvan is het aantal
    dagvlinders sterk verminderd. Onderzocht is welke soorten het sterkste in aantal
    zijn achteruitgegaan, en in hoeverre deze achteruitgang kan worden verklaard uit
    veranderingen in de beschikbaarheid van waardplanten en van nectaraanbod.
    Achteruitgang insectenpopulaties in Nederland: trends, oorzaken en kennislacunes
    Kleijn, David ; Bink, Ruud J. ; Braak, Cajo J.F. ter; Grunsven, Roy van; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Roessink, Ivo ; Scheper, Jeroen A. ; Schmidt, Anne M. ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel F. ; Wegman, Ruut ; Zee, Friso F. van der; Zeegers, Th. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2871) - 85
    Kunstlicht nekt nachtvlinders
    Langevelde, F. van; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2018
    Vlinders als graadmeter voor verandering in onze omgeving
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 4 p.
    Position paper voor rondetafelgesprek Biodiversiteit, Tweede kamer, 29november 2017
    Vlinders als indicator voor stikstofdepositie
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2017
    Herstel van de Zuid-Limburgse hellingmoerassen, het Kalkmoeras in het bijzonder
    Mars, Hans de; Possen, Boy ; Delft, Bas van; Weeda, Eddy ; Schaminée, Joop ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel - \ 2017
    Driebergen : VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren (Rapport OBN 213-HE) - 171
    De opzet van het voor u liggende rapport vormt niet louter de verslaglegging van het Fase II onderzoek. Het is eerder de synthese van het uitgevoerde onderzoeksproject, waarbij met oog op de voorliggende kennisvragen ook direct gebruik is gemaakt van een aantal andere studies. Het rapport bestaat daarmee dus ook uit een integratie van de verkregen resultaten van de uitgevoerde veldonderzoeken en literatuur-onderzoek. Aan bod komen een algemene kenschets van Zuid-Limburgse hellingmoerassen, een beknopte historisch ecologische ontwikkeling, de belangrijkste natuurwaarden, standplaatscondities en sleutelprocessen. , Dit alles met specifieke aandacht voor het Kalkmoeras. Afgesloten wordt met een beknopt overzicht van herstelmaatregelen en uitbreidingsmogelijkheden c.q. locaties.
    Butterflies show different functional and species diversity in relationship to vegetation structure and land use
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Marshall, Leon ; Zelfde, Maarten van 't; Villalobos-Arámbula, Alma R. ; Boekelo, Bastiaen ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Franzén, Markus ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. - \ 2017
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 26 (2017)10. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1126 - 1137.

    Aim

    Biodiversity is rapidly disappearing at local and global scales also affecting the functional diversity of ecosystems. We aimed to assess whether functional diversity was correlated with species diversity and whether both were affected by similar land use and vegetation structure drivers. Better understanding of these relationships will allow us to improve our predictions regarding the effects of future changes in land use on ecosystem functions and services.


    Location

    The Netherlands.


    Methods

    We compiled a dataset of c. 3 million observations of 66 out of 106 known Dutch butterfly species collected across 6,075 sampling locations during a period of 7 years, together with very high-resolution maps of land use and countrywide vegetation structure data. Using a mixed-effects modelling framework, we investigated the relationship between functional and species diversity and their main land use and vegetation structure drivers.


    Results

    We found that high species diversity does not translate into high functional diversity, as shown by their different spatial distribution patterns in the landscape. Functional and species diversity are mainly driven by different sets of structural and land use parameters (especially average vegetation height, amount of vegetation between 0.5 and 2 m, natural grassland, sandy soils vegetation, marsh vegetation and urban areas). We showed that it is a combination of both vegetation structural characteristics and land use variables that defines functional and species diversity.


    Main conclusions

    Functional diversity and species diversity of butterflies are not consistently correlated and must therefore be treated separately. High functional diversity levels occurred even in areas with low species diversity. Thus, conservation actions may differ depending on whether the focus is on conservation of high functional diversity or high species diversity. A more integrative analysis of biodiversity at both species and trait levels is needed to infer the full effects of environmental change on ecosystem functioning.
    Data from: Gene flow and effective population sizes of the butterfly Maculinea alcon in a highly fragmented, anthropogenic landscape
    Vanden Broeck, A.H. ; Maes, Dirk ; Kelager, Andreas ; Wynhoff, Irma ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Nash, David R. ; Oostermeijer, J.G.B. ; Dyck, Hans van; Mergeay, Joachim - \ 2017
    Wageningen University & Research
    gene flow - microsatellite data - effective population size - dispersal - sedentary species - Maculinea alcon - Phengaris alcon
    The file Maculinea alcon microsatellite data includes the data from 12 microsatellites for 398 unique genotypes of Maculinea alcon from in total 14 sampling locations located in Belgium and The Netherlands. The data matrix also include the spatial coordinates of each sampled population, given in the two last columns.
    Naar een Actieplan Heischrale graslanden : hoe behouden en herstellen we heischrale graslanden in Nederland?
    Zee, Friso van der; Bobbink, Roland ; Loeb, Roos ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Oostermeijer, Gerard ; Luijten, Sheila ; Graaf, Maaike de - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2812) - 135
    graslanden - graslandbeheer - ecologisch herstel - habitats - grasslands - grassland management - ecological restoration - habitats
    Heischraal grasland is een van oorsprong soortenrijk ecosysteem in het zandlandschap, het heuvellandschap en de duinen. De staat van instandhouding van de habitattypen H6230 en H2130C (waar dit ecosysteem in Nederland wordt verdeeld) is slecht, met name de droge varianten. Dat is extra zorgelijk, omdat het om prioritaire habitattypen gaat, dat wil zeggen dat er extra aandacht moet zijn voor het zo spoedig mogelijk bereiken van een gunstige staat van instandhouding. Er is landelijk gezien nog maar 30-40 ha redelijk ontwikkeld heischraal grasland over. Veel heischrale graslanden, ook die er qua soortensamenstelling nog relatief goed uitzien, zijn sterk verzuurd. Door menselijke aanvoer van eerst zwavel en nu stikstof is de zuurbuffering in de bodem ernstig aangetast, en monitoring van de stikstofbelasting laat zien dat deze nog nauwelijks is verminderd.
    Ecological determinants of butterfly vulnerability across the European continent
    Essens, Tijl ; Langevelde, Frank van; Vos, Rutger A. ; Swaay, Chris A.M. van; Wallis de Vries, Michiel - \ 2017
    Journal of Insect Conservation 21 (2017)3. - ISSN 1366-638X - p. 439 - 450.
    Butterflies - Conservation - Life-history traits - Phylogeny - Red List - Vulnerability

    In drawing up Red Lists, the extinction risks of butterflies and other insects are currently assessed mainly by using information on trends in distribution and abundance. Incorporating information on species traits may increase our ability to predict species responses to environmental change and, hence, their vulnerability. We summarized ecologically relevant life-history and climatic niche traits in principal components, and used these to explain the variation in five vulnerability indicators (Red List status, Endemicity, Range size, Habitat specialisation index, Affinity for natural habitats) for 397 European butterfly species out of 482 species present in Europe. We also evaluated a selection of 238 species to test whether phylogenetic correction affected these relationships. For all but the affinity for natural habitats, climatic niche traits predicted more variation in vulnerability than life-history traits; phylogenetic correction had no relevant influence on the findings. The life-history trait component reflecting mobility, development rate, and overwintering stage, proved the major non-climatic determinant of species vulnerability. We propose that this trait component offers a preferable alternative to the frequently used, but ecologically confusing generalist-specialist continuum. Our analysis contributes to the development of trait-based approaches to prioritise vulnerable species for conservation at a European scale. Further regional scale analyses are recommended to improve our understanding of the biological basis of species vulnerability.

    Pathways for the effects of increased nitrogen deposition on fauna
    Nijssen, M.E. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Siepel, H. - \ 2017
    Biological Conservation 212 (2017)pt. B. - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 423 - 431.
    Acidification - Chemical stress - Eutrophication - Food web - Microclimate - Plant stoichiometry imbalance
    Effects of increased N deposition, caused by agricultural practices and combustion of fossil fuels in traffic and industry, have been studied in detail for soil and water chemistry as well as for vegetation and ecosystem functioning. Knowledge on fauna is limited to descriptive and correlative data for a small number of species or communities. Therefore, mechanisms behind effects of N deposition on animal species and diversity remain unclear, which hampers optimisation of nature restoration and conservation measures.The aim of this review is to identify and structure possible different pathways in which fauna is affected by high N deposition. We identify ten pathways leading to six basic potentially negative bottlenecks: (1) chemical stress, (2) a levelled and humid microclimate, (3) decrease in reproductive habitat, (4) changes in food plant quantity, (5) changes in nutritional quality of food plants and (6) changes in availability of prey or host species due to cumulative effects in the food web. Depending on species and habitat type, different pathways play a dominant role and interference between different pathways can strengthen or weaken the net effect of N deposition.Although all identified pathways and bottlenecks are supported by peer reviewed literature, we conclude that scientific evidence on the causal relationship between increased N deposition and effects on fauna in the complete causal chain is still insufficient. We recommend that future research should aim to clarify the causal mechanisms underlying the observed changes in species composition attributed to N deposition. The most severe gaps in knowledge concern subtle changes in plant chemistry and changes in availability of prey and host species to higher trophic levels.
    Historical changes in the importance of climate and land use as determinants of Dutch pollinator distributions
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús ; Kissling, W.D. ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Reemer, Menno ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. - \ 2017
    Journal of Biogeography 44 (2017)3. - ISSN 0305-0270 - p. 696 - 707.
    biodiversity change - climate change - ecological niche models - environmental variable importance - global warming - habitat fragmentation - habitat loss - species distribution models
    Aim: Species distribution models are often used to project species distributions to different environmental conditions. However, most models do not consider whether the importance of abiotic factors may change over time. If they change, this has implications for the assessment of how abiotic changes affect species distributions. Here, we use spatially explicit historical data on species occurrences, climate and land use to test whether the importance of different climatic and land-use drivers as determinants of species distributions has remained constant over a period of > 60 years (1951–2014). Location: The Netherlands. Methods: Using species distribution models and a comprehensive country-wide dataset at 5 × 5 km resolution, we modelled the distribution of a total of 398 pollinator species (bees, butterflies and hoverflies) for three periods (1951–1970, 1971–1990 and 1998–2014). We then evaluated whether the importance of variables related to climate (precipitation, temperature) and land use (landscape composition and habitat fragmentation) in determining pollinator distributions has changed over time. Results: Variables related to landscape composition were highly important in determining pollinator distributions in all periods. Precipitation was generally less important than temperature, and habitat fragmentation less than landscape composition. Land-use variables remained equally important across time for all pollinator groups, except for bees where the importance of habitat fragmentation decreased significantly over time. Among climate variables, the importance of precipitation did not change across time for any pollinator group. However, the importance of temperature increased significantly in recent times for bees and hoverflies. Main conclusions: Determinants of species distributions can change in their importance over time when changes in the magnitude and range of environmental conditions occur. Given future temperature rises, our results imply that species distribution models calibrated with current climatic conditions may not adequately predict the future importance of environmental factors in driving species distributions.
    Gene flow and effective population sizes of the butterfly Maculinea alcon in a highly fragmented, anthropogenic landscape
    Vanden Broeck, An ; Maes, Dirk ; Kelager, Andreas ; Wynhoff, Irma ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Nash, David R. ; Oostermeijer, J.G.B. ; Dyck, Hans van; Mergeay, Joachim - \ 2017
    Biological Conservation 209 (2017). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 89 - 97.
    Butterfly conservation - Dispersal - Effective population size - Gene flow - Sedentary species

    Understanding connectivity among populations in fragmented landscapes is of paramount importance in species conservation because it determines their long-term viability and helps to identify and prioritize populations to conserve. Rare and sedentary species are particularly vulnerable to habitat fragmentation as they occupy narrow niches or restricted habitat ranges. Here, we assess contemporary interpopulation connectedness of the threatened, myrmecophilous butterfly, Maculinea alcon, in a highly fragmented landscape. We inferred dispersal, effective population sizes, genetic diversity and structure based on 14 locations of M. alcon in Belgium and the Netherlands using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Despite the reported sedentary behaviour of M. alcon, we observed moderate levels of contemporary dispersal between patches, but only in landscapes where populations were located within a distance of 3 km from neighbouring populations. Estimates of effective population sizes (Ne) were very low (ranging from 1.6 to 17.6) and bottleneck events occurred in most of the studied populations. We discuss the functional conservation units delineated based on a former mark-release-recapture study, and formulate appropriate conservation strategies to maintain viable (meta)populations in highly fragmented, anthropogenic landscapes.

    Nitrogen deposition impacts on biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems : Mechanisms and perspectives for restoration
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Bobbink, Roland - \ 2017
    Biological Conservation 212 (2017)pt. B. - ISSN 0006-3207
    A nitrogen index to track changes in butterfly species assemblages under nitrogen deposition
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Swaay, Chris A.M. van - \ 2017
    Biological Conservation 212 (2017)pt. B. - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 448 - 453.
    Biodiversity - Butterflies - Global change - Indicators - Insects - Nitrogen deposition
    The impacts of nitrogen deposition (N) on animal communities are still poorly understood in comparison to plant communities. Long-term monitoring of community changes may contribute to this understanding, complementing experimental studies on underlying mechanisms. Butterflies are particularly suitable for such analyses, because the different species cover a broad gradient of productivity, their ecological traits are well-known, monitoring data are available in a growing number of countries, and the short life history of butterflies ensures a rapid response to changing environmental conditions.Here, we use species-specific nitrogen optima to develop a community nitrogen index (CNI) for butterflies in the Netherlands. Over a 25-year period (1990-2015), data from the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme reveal a significant increase in the CNI in response to high nitrogen deposition levels. However, the rate of increase is declining, in close parallel with reduced nitrogen deposition loads. The continuing increase indicates that nitrogen deposition still exceeds the critical nitrogen load of butterfly communities in the Netherlands. Overall, the relative increase of butterflies from more productive environments reflects the advantage, under high nitrogen availability, of mobile and multivoltine species with high reproductive capacity, rapid larval development and hibernation as pupae or adults. We discuss the perspectives and limitations in applying the CNI at both national and local scales. We propose that, when taking the critical nitrogen load of the examined butterfly community into account, the CNI may prove a valuable tool to track changes of biotic communities in relation to nitrogen deposition.
    Differentiating the effects of climate and land use change on European biodiversity : A scenario analysis
    Vermaat, Jan E. ; Hellmann, Fritz A. ; Teeffelen, Astrid J.A. van; Wallis de Vries, Michiel - \ 2017
    Ambio 46 (2017)3. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 277 - 290.
    Climate envelope modelling - Dry grasslands - Habitat connectivity - Land use change - Species sensitivity database - SRES scenario articulation - Wetlands - 016-3982 - 017-3997
    Current observed as well as projected changes in biodiversity are the result of multiple interacting factors, with land use and climate change often marked as most important drivers. We aimed to disentangle the separate impacts of these two for sets of vascular plant, bird, butterfly and dragonfly species listed as characteristic for European dry grasslands and wetlands, two habitats of high and threatened biodiversity. We combined articulations of the four frequently used SRES climate scenarios and associated land use change projections for 2030, and assessed their impact on population trends in species (i.e. whether they would probably be declining, stable or increasing). We used the BIOSCORE database tool, which allows assessment of the effects of a range of environmental pressures including climate change as well as land use change. We updated the species lists included in this tool for our two habitat types. We projected species change for two spatial scales: the EU27 covering most of Europe, and the more restricted biogeographic region of ‘Continental Europe’. Other environmental pressures modelled for the four scenarios than land use and climate change generally did not explain a significant part of the variance in species richness change. Changes in characteristic bird and dragonfly species were least pronounced. Land use change was the most important driver for vascular plants in both habitats and spatial scales, leading to a decline in 50–100% of the species included, whereas climate change was more important for wetland dragonflies and birds (40–50 %). Patterns of species decline were similar in continental Europe and the EU27 for wetlands but differed for dry grasslands, where a substantially lower proportion of butterflies and birds declined in continental Europe, and 50 % of bird species increased, probably linked to a projected increase in semi-natural vegetation. In line with the literature using climate envelope models, we found little divergence among the four scenarios. Our findings suggest targeted policies depending on habitat and species group. These are, for dry grasslands, to reduce land use change or its effects and to enhance connectivity, and for wetlands to mitigate climate change effects.
    Grazing and biodiversity: from selective foraging to wildlife habitats
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2016
    In: Mountain pastures and livestock farming facing uncertainty: environmental, technical and socio-economic challenges / Casasús, I., Lombardi, G., Zaragoza : Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes (Options Méditerranéennes series A: Mediterranean Seminars 116) - ISBN 9782853525596 - p. 177 - 187.
    016-3959
    Livestock grazing in low-intensity farming systems is a key aspect in the conservation of Europe's biodiversity, which reaches high levels of species richness in semi-natural grasslands. With the demise of traditional grazing systems, the design of viable low-intensity grazing systems for the future requires a good understanding of grazing impacts on biodiversity. Here, I review various scale-dependent aspects of selective grazing and how they may affect biodiversity. Insects such as butterflies are well-suited to elucidate small-scale impacts of grazing intensity. They highlight the importance of viewing grazing impacts in a framework of spatial heterogeneity and successional dynamics. In order to optimise these successional dynamics, grazing management may adopt techniques such as rotational grazing and strategic placement of mineral licks. However, we still lack a good evidence base on the effects of targeted grazing practices on biodiversity. The challenge to solve this gap can be met by a combination of creative field experiments that focus on the mechanisms of biodiversity responses and adaptive management that builds on a continuous feedback from sound monitoring.
    Politiek landschap moet vergroenen
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2016
    016-3979
    De argusvlinder: hoe keren we de afname van een 'gewone vlindersoort'?
    Stip, A. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2016
    De Levende Natuur 117 (2016)2. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 46 - 51.
    016-3723 - 016-3923
    Er zijn momenteel in Nederland maar weinig vlindersoorten die zo hard
    achteruitgaan als de Argusvlinder (Lasiommata megera). In goed twintig
    jaar tijd verdween maar liefst 98% van de populatie in ons land. En dat terwijl
    het tot voor kort een heel ‘gewone’ vlindersoort was in een breed scala aan
    biotopen. Om het tij te keren heeft De Vlinderstichting recent een beschermingsplan voor de Argusvlinder opgesteld. Met de daaruit voortkomende
    maatregelen en onderzoek is nieuwe kennis opgedaan over de ecologie van de Argusvlinder en de problemen waar de soort mee kampt. In dit artikel presenteren we deze kennis. Op basis daarvan geven we richtlijnen voor het beheer van het habitat van de Argusvlinder.
    Beheeroptimalisatie Zuid-Limburgse hellingschraallanden : effecten van gefaseerde begrazing op bodem, vegetatie en fauna
    Nijssen, Marijn ; Bobbink, Roland ; Geertsma, Marten ; Scherpenisse, Miriam ; Huiskes, Rik ; Kuper, Jan ; Smits, Nina ; Bohnen-Verbaarschot, Evi ; Verbeek, Peter ; Versluijs, Remco ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Weijters, Maaike ; Wouters, Bart - \ 2016
    Driebergen : VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren (Rapport / Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren nr. OBN-209-HE) - 183
    Effects of grazing management on biodiversity across trophic levels – The importance of livestock species and stocking density in salt marshes
    Klink, Roel van; Nolte, Stefanie ; Mandema, Freek S. ; Lagendijk, D.D.G. ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Bakker, Jan P. ; Esselink, Peter ; Smit, Christian - \ 2016
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 235 (2016). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 329 - 339.
    Birds - Butterflies - Cattle - Flower-visiting insects - Horses - Plants - Vegetation - Wetland

    European coastal salt marshes are important for the conservation of numerous species of specialist plants, invertebrates, breeding and migratory birds. When these marshes are managed for nature conservation purposes, livestock grazing is often used to counter the dominance of the tall grass Elytrigia atherica, and the subsequent decline in plant species richness. However, it remains unclear what is the optimal choice of livestock species and stocking density to benefit biodiversity of various trophic levels. To fill this knowledge gap, we set up a triplicate, full factorial grazing experiment with cattle and horse grazing at low and high stocking densities (0.5 or 1 animal ha−1) at the mainland coast of the Dutch Wadden Sea. Here, we present the results after 4 years and integrate these with previously published results from the same experiment to assess effects of livestock grazing on various trophic groups. Stocking density affected almost all measured variables: high stocking densities favoured plant species richness and suppression of E. atherica, whereas low stocking densities favoured abundances of voles, pollinators and flowers. Densities of different functional groups of birds showed no significant response to the regimes, but tended to be somewhat higher under 0.5 horse and 1 cattle ha−1. Choice of livestock species had fewer and smaller effects than stocking density. Horse grazing was detrimental to vole density, and showed an interactive effect with stocking density for Asteraceae flower abundance. Multidiversity, a synthetic whole-ecosystem biodiversity measure, did not differ among regimes. These results are discussed in the light of other results from the same experiment. Because of these contrasting effects on different trophic groups, we advise concurrent application of different grazing regimes within a spatial mosaic, with the inclusion of long-term abandonment. High density horse grazing, however, is detrimental to biodiversity.

    Landscape complexity and farmland biodiversity: Evaluating the CAPtarget on natural elements
    Cormont, A. ; Siepel, H. ; Clement, J. ; Melman, Th.C.P. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2016
    Journal for Nature Conservation 30 (2016). - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 19 - 26.
    Increasing pressures on natural areas and limited conservation budgets require, particularly in rural landscapes in the Western world, an immediate answer to the question how much natural area is required to provide a sustainable future for wild plant and animal species on farmland. The European Union proposed in its Common Agricultural Policy that 3–7% of EU farmland should be managed as ecological focus area (EFA) in order to halt biodiversity loss. For the first time, we empirically assessed the implications of this policy by evaluating the effects of the density of natural elements in agricultural landscapes on multi-taxon species richness, including vascular plants, breeding birds, butterflies, hoverflies, dragonflies, and grasshoppers for an entire European country. We found that species richness increased either as linear or as a logarithmic function of the proportion of natural elements in the landscape, but not with a sigmoid function as predicted by the ‘intermediate landscape complexity’ hypothesis. Even landscapes with 3–7% of natural elements harboured generally 37–75% of maximum species richness, indicating good potential of implementing the CAP target to preserve farmland biodiversity. However, differences between the 3 and 7% limits were considerable for butterflies, birds, and hoverflies. Also, the shape of the species richness response was shown to differ between landscape types for butterflies. Thus, it may be necessary to develop tailor-made guidelines at regional levels.
    How much Biodiversity is in Natura 2000? : the “Umbrella Effect” of the European Natura 2000 protected area network : technical report
    Sluis, T. van der; Foppen, R. ; Gillings, Simon ; Groen, T.A. ; Henkens, R.J.H.G. ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Huskens, K. ; Noble, David ; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Santini, L. ; Sierdsema, H. ; Kleunen, A. van; Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Swaay, C. van; Toxopeus, Bert ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Jones-Walters, L.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2738) - 147
    biodiversity - habitats directive - birds directive - natura 2000 - statistical analysis - geographical information systems - biodiversiteit - habitatrichtlijn - vogelrichtlijn - natura 2000 - statistische analyse - geografische informatiesystemen
    In order to assess the significance of the presumed “umbrella effect” of Natura 2000 areas the European Commission initiated a study, in 2013, to address the following questions: 1) Which are, amongst the species regularly occurring within the European territory of the EU-28 Member States, those that significantly benefit from the site conservation under the EU Birds and Habitats Directive? 2) What is the percentage of all species occurring in the wild in the EU that benefit significantly from Natura 2000? 3) How significant is the contribution of Natura 2000 in relation to the objective of halting and reversing biodiversity loss? The approach used existing data, and covered the terrestrial mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibian, butterfly and plant species. The analysis is mostly based on statistical distribution models and GIS processing of species distribution data in relation to their presence within protected areas of the Natura 2000 network. The main findings for all species groups were: Animal species for which Natura 2000 areas were not specifically designated occur more frequently inside Natura 2000 than outside (in particular breeding birds and butterflies). These species do, therefore, gain benefit from the protected areas network. The species for which Natura 2000 areas were designated generally occur more frequently within the Natura 2000 site boundaries than the nonannex species; this is in particular the case for birds and butterflies, for amphibians and reptiles the difference is negligible. More specific conclusions and findings, as well as discussion of these results and implications for further studies are included in the report.
    Herstel kwaliteit van natte heide in het zandlandschap
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Bobbink, R. ; Jansen, A.J.M. ; Vogels, J.J. - \ 2016
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 33 (2016)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 110 - 115.
    016-3951 - natuurbeheer - ecologisch herstel - heidegebieden - bodemkwaliteit - flora - vegetatie - fauna - toegepast onderzoek - bodems van waterrijke gebieden - grondwater - nature management - ecological restoration - heathlands - soil quality - flora - vegetation - fauna - applied research - wetland soils - groundwater
    Het verspreidingsgebied van natte heiden is in omvang min of meer gelijk gebleven sinds de laatste ontginningen. De kwaliteit blijft echter een dalende trend vertonen door de inwerking van stikstofdepositie en verdroging. Tegelijkertijd zijn er veelbelovende resultaten geboekt door nieuwe vormen van herstelbeheer. OBN heeft daarvoor de kennisbasis ontwikkeld. In dit artikel worden de daaruit voortvloeiende inzichten uiteen gezet en worden uitdagingen voor de toekomst geschetst.
    Contrasting responses of insect communities to grazing intensity in lowland heathlands
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Noordijk, Jinze ; Colijn, Ed O. ; Smit, John T. ; Veling, Kars - \ 2016
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 234 (2016). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 72 - 80.
    Biodiversity - Butterflies - Grasshoppers - Grazing - Heathlands - Insects

    Grazing at low stocking rates is often recommended for the preservation of the characteristic biodiversity of open landscapes. However, the fine-tuning of grazing management still lacks a good evidence base. This is particularly true for insect communities, as available evidence indicates that these are more vulnerable to grazing than plant communities. The outcome, however, may be expected to differ between insect species. Here, we analysed the impact of different grazing intensities on insect communities from lowland heathlands in the Netherlands. Firstly, we use detailed data on butterfly distribution and abundances to analyse population responses of 10 butterfly species to heathland grazing management. Secondly, we investigated species responses to grazing intensity on 16 field locations across a range of insect groups (butterflies, day-active moths, grasshoppers, and ants). We hypothesized that species from early successional stages would benefit from grazing whereas late-successional species would suffer from grazing. Moreover, we expected summer grazing to have less beneficial effects than year-round grazing. Both hypotheses were largely supported by our results. Species responses to grazing contrasted between early and late successional species. Variation in species responses were strongly linked to grazing intensity and soil moisture, reflecting species-specific niches in relation to vegetation structure and microclimate. We conclude that low-intensity year-round cattle grazing or herded sheep grazing may promote insect biodiversity in large, heterogeneous heathlands, whereas targeted or rotational grazing may be advisable in smaller areas.

    Mogelijkheden voor herstelbeheer in hellingbossen op kalkrijke bodem in Zuid-Limburg : resultaten praktijkproeven: omvorming van voormalig middenbos naar gevarieerd opgaand bos
    Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Eichhorn, K.A.O. ; Ouden, J. den; Waal, R.W. de; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Eichhorn, L. ; Goudzwaard, L. ; Heijerman, T. ; Kemmers, R.H. ; Prick, M.J.M. ; Smeets, Floris - \ 2016
    Driebergen : Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren - 155
    Using a phenological network to assess weather influences on first appearance of butterflies in the Netherlands
    Kolk, Henk Jan Van Der; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Vliet, Arnold J.H. Van - \ 2016
    Ecological Indicators 69 (2016). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 205 - 212.
    Anthocharis cardamines - Butterflies - Climate change - Monitoring network - Phenology - Plant-host interaction

    Phenological responses of butterflies to temperature have been demonstrated in several European countries by using data from standardized butterfly monitoring schemes. Recently, phenological networks have enabled volunteers to record phenological observations at project websites. In this study, the quality of the first appearance data of butterflies from the Dutch phenological network 'De Natuurkalender' was examined and these data were then used to analyze trends in butterfly appearance between 2001 and 2013, the effects of climatic factors on appearance of butterflies as well as the phenological interaction of one butterfly species, Anthocharis cardamines, and its two major host plants. Although phenological networks are relatively unstructured, this study shows that data from De Natuurkalender were highly comparable to more standardized data collected by the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. No trend in first appearance of any butterfly species was found during the time period 2001-2013. The first appearance dates of most butterflies showed, however, a clear relationship with spring temperature. Higher temperatures, especially in March and April, advanced the first appearance of butterflies. Therefore, with climatic warming in the future, earlier appearance of butterflies is expected. Although climate warming is a potential threat for phenological mismatches between different trophic levels, this study shows a similar temperature response of A. cardamines and its main host plants in the Netherlands. However, as only few phenological interactions between species are examined, further research including rarer monophagous butterfly species and their host plants is needed.

    Effecten van omvorming van hellingbossen naar ongelijkvormig hooghout op de vlinderfauna
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Prick, M.J.M. - \ 2015
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 104 (2015)12. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 243 - 247.
    De Keizersmantel als indicator voor het herstel van lichte en viooltjesrijke hellingbossen
    Omon, B. ; Veling, K. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2015
    De Levende Natuur 116 (2015)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 204 - 207.
    bosgebieden - bossen - soortenrijkdom - fauna - lepidoptera - nymphalidae - waardplanten - ecosystemen - habitats - zuid-limburg - bosbeheer - natuurbeheer - woodlands - forests - species richness - fauna - lepidoptera - nymphalidae - host plants - ecosystems - habitats - zuid-limburg - forest administration - nature management
    Een deel van de soorten die eens kenmerkend waren voor de hellingbossen in Zuid-Limburg is afgenomen of zelfs verdwenen. Het dichtgroeien van de bossen na het beëindigen van hakhoutbeheer zou een verklaring kunnen zijn, maar is dat ook zo? In dit artikel worden de ecologische eisen van de fauna van hellingbossen besproken aan de hand van de Keizersmantel. Ingegaan wordt op de vraag in welke mate de ecologische randvoorwaarden voor de Keizersmantel worden bepaald door het aanbod van waardplanten en door het microklimaat.
    Susceptibility of pollinators to ongoing landscape changes depends on landscape history
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J. ; Biesmeijer, J.C. ; Loon, E. van; Reemer, M. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Carvalheiro, L.G. - \ 2015
    Diversity and Distributions 21 (2015)10. - ISSN 1366-9516 - p. 1129 - 1140.
    Aim Pollinators play an important role in ecosystem functioning, affecting also crop production. Their decline may hence lead to serious ecological and economic impacts, making it essential to understand the processes that drive pollinator shifts in space and time. Land-use changes are thought to be one of the most important drivers of pollinators’ loss, and there is increasing investment on pollinator-friendly landscape management. However, it is still unclear whether landscape history of a given region determines how pollinator communities respond to further landscape modification. Location The Netherlands. Methods Using geographically explicit historical landscape and pollinator data from the Netherlands, we evaluated how species richness changes of three important pollinator groups (bees, hoverflies and butterflies) are affected by landscape changes related to habitat composition, fragmentation and species spillover potential and whether such effects depend on the historical characteristics of the landscape. Results The effect of landscape changes varied between different pollinator groups. While bumblebee richness benefited from increases in edges between managed and natural systems, other bees benefited from increases in landscape heterogeneity and hoverfly richness was fairly resistant to land-use changes. We found that for the majority of the pollinators past landscape characteristics conditioned, the more recent pollinator richness changes. Landscapes that historically had more suitable habitat were more susceptible to display hoverfly declines (caused by drivers not considered in this study). Landscapes that historically had greater spillover potential were more likely to suffer butterfly richness declines and the bumblebee assemblages were more susceptible to the effects of fragmentation. Main conclusions The diversity of responses of the pollinator groups suggest that multispecies approaches that take group-specific responses to land-use change into account are highly valuable. These findings emphasize the limited value of a one-size-fits-all biodiversity conservation measure and highlight the importance of considering landscape history when planning biodiversity conservation actions.
    Impact of nitrogen deposition on larval habitats: the case of the Wall Brown butterfly Lasiommata megera
    Klop, E. ; Omon, B. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2015
    Journal of Insect Conservation 19 (2015)2. - ISSN 1366-638X - p. 393 - 402.
    british butterflies - herbivorous insects - pararge-aegeria - limitation - climate - biodiversity - adaptation - phosphorus - landscape - trends
    Nitrogen deposition is considered as one of the main threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain the detrimental effect of excess nitrogen on butterflies: loss of host plants, deterioration of food plant quality and microclimatic cooling in spring. Here, we investigated whether these mechanisms might explain the dramatic recent decline of the Wall Brown butterfly Lasiommata megera. Monitoring data from the Netherlands indeed show a greater decline at higher critical load exceedance of nitrogen deposition. Loss of host plants is not a likely explanation of the decline for this grass-feeding species. In a greenhouse experiment, we only found beneficial effects of nitrogen fertilization on larval performance, which seems to rule out a nutritional cause; application of a drought treatment did not result in significant effects. Microclimatic conditions at overwintering larval sites of L. megera and the related but increasing Pararge aegeria provided a possible clue. In comparison with larval sites of P. aegeria, those of L. megera showed higher temperatures at the mesoscale and less plant cover and more dead plant material at the microscale. L. megera caterpillars were also found closer to the shelter of vertical structures. The greater dependence on warm microclimates suggests that microclimatic cooling through excess nitrogen contributes to the recent decline of L. megera.
    Defoliation and soil compaction jointly drive large-herbivore grazing effects on plants and soil arthropods on clay soil
    Klink, R. van; Schrama, M. ; Nolte, S. ; Bakker, J.P. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Berg, M.P. - \ 2015
    Ecosystems 18 (2015)4. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 671 - 685.
    salt-marsh - nitrogen mineralization - wadden sea - mountain pastures - grassland - collembola - management - diversity - growth - cow
    In addition to the well-studied impacts of defecation and defoliation, large herbivores also affect plant and arthropod communities through trampling, and the associated soil compaction. Soil compaction can be expected to be particularly important on wet, fine-textured soils. Therefore, we established a full factorial experiment of defoliation (monthly mowing) and soil compaction (using a rammer, annually) on a clay-rich salt marsh at the Dutch coast, aiming to disentangle the importance of these two factors. Additionally, we compared the effects on soil physical properties, plants, and arthropods to those at a nearby cattle-grazed marsh under dry and under waterlogged conditions. Soil physical conditions of the compacted plots were similar to the conditions at cattle-grazed plots, showing decreased soil aeration and increased waterlogging. Soil salinity was doubled by defoliation and quadrupled by combined defoliation and compaction. Cover of the dominant tall grass Elytrigia atherica was decreased by 80% in the defoliated plots, but cover of halophytes only increased under combined defoliation and compaction. Effects on soil micro-arthropods were most severe under waterlogging, showing a fourfold decrease in abundance and a smaller mean body size under compaction. Although the combined treatment of defoliation and trampling indeed proved most similar to the grazed marsh, large discrepancies remained for both plant and soil fauna communities, presumably because of colonization time lags. We conclude that soil compaction and defoliation differently affect plant and arthropod communities in grazed ecosystems, and that the magnitude of their effects depends on herbivore density, productivity, and soil physical properties.
    Effects of large herbivores on grassland arthropod diversity
    Klink, R. van; Plas, F. van der; Noordwijk, C.G.E. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Olff, H. - \ 2015
    Biological Reviews 90 (2015)2. - ISSN 1464-7931 - p. 347 - 366.
    ungrazed chalk grassland - ground beetle coleoptera - plant-species richness - grazing management - phytophagous insects - seminatural grasslands - community structure - tallgrass prairie - long-term - butterfly communities
    Both arthropods and large grazing herbivores are important components and drivers of biodiversity in grassland ecosystems, but a synthesis of how arthropod diversity is affected by large herbivores has been largely missing. To fill this gap, we conducted a literature search, which yielded 141 studies on this topic of which 24 simultaneously investigated plant and arthropod diversity. Using the data from these 24 studies, we compared the responses of plant and arthropod diversity to an increase in grazing intensity. This quantitative assessment showed no overall significant effect of increasing grazing intensity on plant diversity, while arthropod diversity was generally negatively affected. To understand these negative effects, we explored the mechanisms by which large herbivores affect arthropod communities: direct effects, changes in vegetation structure, changes in plant community composition, changes in soil conditions, and cascading effects within the arthropod interaction web. We identify three main factors determining the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity: (i) unintentional predation and increased disturbance, (ii) decreases in total resource abundance for arthropods (biomass) and (iii) changes in plant diversity, vegetation structure and abiotic conditions. In general, heterogeneity in vegetation structure and abiotic conditions increases at intermediate grazing intensity, but declines at both low and high grazing intensity. We conclude that large herbivores can only increase arthropod diversity if they cause an increase in (a)biotic heterogeneity, and then only if this increase is large enough to compensate for the loss of total resource abundance and the increased mortality rate. This is expected to occur only at low herbivore densities or with spatio-temporal variation in herbivore densities. As we demonstrate that arthropod diversity is often more negatively affected by grazing than plant diversity, we strongly recommend considering the specific requirements of arthropods when applying grazing management and to include arthropods in monitoring schemes. Conservation strategies aiming at maximizing heterogeneity, including regulation of herbivore densities (through human interventions or top-down control), maintenance of different types of management in close proximity and rotational grazing regimes, are the most promising options to conserve arthropod diversity.
    Drie decennia dagvlinder - en broedvogelmonitoring in het Nationale Park De Hoge Veluwe
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Sanders, G. - \ 2014
    De Levende Natuur 115 (2014)6. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 277 - 283.
    lepidoptera - broedvogels - fauna - monitoring - nationale parken - veluwe - lepidoptera - breeding birds - fauna - monitoring - national parks - veluwe
    Het Nationale Park De Hoge Veluwe is één van de weinige overgeleven gebieden in Noordwest-Europa waar het heidelandschap zich nog op grote schaal en in zijn ruimtelijke verscheidenheid van stuifzand tot vennen manifesteert. Dankzij een vroeg begin van vlinder- en broedvogelmonitoring in het Park is er veel bekend over de veranderingen in de vlinder- en broedvogelfauna in de laatste drie decennia. Dit artikel vergelijkt de ontwikkelingen in het Park met de landelijke trends.
    Linking species assemblages to environmental change: Moving beyond the specialist-generalist dichotomy
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2014
    Basic and Applied Ecology 15 (2014)4. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 279 - 287.
    british butterflies - habitat fragmentation - biotic homogenization - nitrogen deposition - climate-change - conservation - diversity - responses - richness - traits
    Environmental changes due to land use developments, climate change and nitrogen deposition have profound influences on species assemblages. Investigating the dynamics in species composition as a function of underlying traits may increase our understanding of ecosystem functioning and provide a basis for effective conservation strategies. Here, I use a broad array of species traits for butterflies to identify four main components of associated traits. These reflect the spatial use of the landscape, abiotic vulnerability, developmental rate and phenology, and food specialisation, respectively. The first three trait components each contribute to determine Red List status, but only the developmental rate and phenology component is related to recent population trends. I argue that the latter component reflects the environmental impact of nutrient availability and microclimate, as affected by nitrogen deposition. This perspective sheds a new light on ongoing changes in community composition. Thus, a multidimensional view of trait associations allows us to move beyond the simplistic specialist–generalist dichotomy, renew our view on species-specific studies and help in setting new priorities for conservation.
    No evidence of the effect of extreme weather events on annual occurrence of four groups of ectothermic species
    Malinowska, A.H. ; Strien, A.J. van; Verboom, J. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Opdam, P. - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 10 p.
    climate-change - metapopulation dynamics - habitat fragmentation - population-dynamics - occupancy models - european climate - range expansion - dispersal - trends - impact
    Weather extremes may have strong effects on biodiversity, as known from theoretical and modelling studies. Predicted negative effects of increased weather variation are found only for a few species, mostly plants and birds in empirical studies. Therefore, we investigated correlations between weather variability and patterns in occupancy, local colonisations and local extinctions (metapopulation metrics) across four groups of ectotherms: Odonata, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Reptilia. We analysed data of 134 species on a 1×1 km-grid base, collected in the last 20 years from the Netherlands, combining standardised data and opportunistic data. We applied dynamic site-occupancy models and used the results as input for analyses of (i) trends in distribution patterns, (ii) the effect of temperature on colonisation and persistence probability, and (iii) the effect of years with extreme weather on all the three metapopulation metrics. All groups, except butterflies, showed more positive than negative trends in metapopulation metrics. We did not find evidence that the probability of colonisation or persistence increases with temperature nor that extreme weather events are reflected in higher extinction risks. We could not prove that weather extremes have visible and consistent negative effects on ectothermic species in temperate northern hemisphere. These findings do not confirm the general prediction that increased weather variability imperils biodiversity. We conclude that weather extremes might not be ecologically relevant for the majority of species. Populations might be buffered against weather variation (e.g. by habitat heterogeneity), or other factors might be masking the effects (e.g. availability and quality of habitat). Consequently, we postulate that weather extremes have less, or different, impact in real world metapopulations than theory and models suggest.
    Tracking butterflies for effective conservation
    Swaay, C.A.M. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michiel Wallis de Vries; Marcel Dicke. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739988 - 218
    lepidoptera - zoögeografie - biogeografie - populatiedynamica - natuurbescherming - monitoring - nederland - europa - lepidoptera - zoogeography - biogeography - population dynamics - nature conservation - monitoring - netherlands - europe
    Dit proefschrift bestaat uit drie delen: het volgen van veranderingen in de verspreiding van vlinders, het volgen van veranderingen in de populatiegrootte van vlinders en hoe deze kennis te gebruiken voor hun bescherming.
    The impact of large herbivores on woodland–grassland dynamics in fragmented landscapes: The role of spatial configuration and disturbance
    Schippers, P. ; Teeffelen, A.J.A. van; Verboom-Vasiljev, J. ; Vos, C.C. ; Kramer, K. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2014
    Ecological Complexity 17 (2014). - ISSN 1476-945X - p. 20 - 31.
    north temperate forests - red deer - population-dynamics - metapopulation dynamics - habitat fragmentation - distribution patterns - grazing systems - management - regeneration - resilience
    The vegetation structure of natural ecosystems is usually considered independent of their size and their location in the landscape. In this study, we examine the effect of size, spatial configuration and disturbances on the dynamic interactions of large herbivores and vegetation in a patchy environment using a metapopulation model. Simulations indicate that small, isolated or unfenced patches have low herbivore numbers and high tree cover whereas large, well-connected or fenced patches support high herbivore densities and are covered by grassland. Recovery of both herbivore numbers and forest cover in response to disturbance is slow (>100 years). These long recovery times are partly attributable to negative feedbacks between herbivore numbers and tree cover. When the population of large herbivores is disturbed, forest is able to expand, subsequently inhibiting herbivore population recovery. Likewise, forest disturbance allows herbivore population expansion, which inhibits forest recovery. Additionally, infrequent and limited disturbances like hunting and forest removal also affect the vegetation cover in patches of nature. Thus, our work indicates that the location and size of patches, together with disturbances, largely determine the structure of the vegetation in fragmented landscapes
    Evaluating results of the Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation model for classification of dairy cattle welfare at the herd level
    Vries, M. de; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Schaik, G. van; Botreau, R. ; Engel, B. ; Dijkstra, T. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2013
    Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)10. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6264 - 6273.
    animal-welfare - housing systems - water troughs - part 1 - cows - aggregation - behavior - produce
    The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relative importance of single welfare measures for WQ-ME classification of a selected sample of Dutch dairy herds. Seven trained observers quantified 63 welfare measures of the Welfare Quality protocol in 183 loose housed- and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows). First, values of welfare measures were compared among the 4 welfare classes, using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. Second, observed values of single welfare measures were replaced with a fictitious value, which was the median value of herds classified in the next highest class, to see if improvement of a single measure would enable a herd to reach a higher class. Sixteen herds were classified as unacceptable, 85 as acceptable, 78 as enhanced, and none as excellent. Classification could not be calculated for 17 herds because data were missing (15 herds) or data were deemed invalid because the stockperson disturbed behavioral observations (2 herds). Herds classified as unacceptable showed significantly more very lean cows, more severely lame cows, and more often an insufficient number of drinkers than herds classified as acceptable. Herds classified as acceptable showed significantly more cows with high somatic cell count, with lesions, that could not be approached closer than 1 m, colliding with components of the stall while lying down, and lying outside the lying area, and showed fewer cows with diarrhea, more often had an insufficient number of drinkers, and scored lower for the descriptors “relaxed” and “happy” than herds classified as enhanced. Increasing the number of drinkers and reducing the percentage of cows colliding with components of the stall while lying down were the changes most effective in allowing herds classified as unacceptable and acceptable, respectively, to reach a higher class. The WQ-ME model was not very sensitive to improving single measures of good health. We concluded that a limited number of welfare measures had a strong influence on classification of dairy herds. Classification of herds based on the WQ-ME model in its current form might lead to a focus on improving these specific measures and divert attention from improving other welfare measures. The role of expert opinion and the type of algorithmic operator used in this model should be reconsidered.
    Effects of local variation in nitrogen deposition on butterfly trends in The Netherlands
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Swaay, C.A.M. van - \ 2013
    Proceedings of the Netherlands Entomological Society meeting 24 (2013). - ISSN 1874-9542 - p. 25 - 33.
    lepidoptera - fauna - stikstof - ammoniakemissie - nederland - nitrogen - ammonia emission - netherlands
    Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition has been recognized as a factor affecting the dynamics and composition of plant communities. Its impact on insect communities is still largely unknown. Using data from the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, we analyzed the variation in local trends of butterfly abundance in three Natura 2000 habitat types of known sensitivity to nitrogen deposition: coastal dunes (H2130), wet heathlands (H4010A) and species-rich Nardus grassland (H6230). We found evidence of a negative impact of increasing levels of nitrogen deposition on butterfly trends in all three habitat types. Interestingly, species from more nitrogen-rich habitats showed a similar, though less pronounced, response. The results constitute the first evidence of a significant dose-response relationship between nitrogen deposition and declines in insect abundance at a national scale.
    Begrazingsintensiteit en insectenrijkdom in heideterreinen
    Noordijk, J. ; Colijn, E. ; Smit, J. ; Veling, K. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2013
    De Levende Natuur 114 (2013)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 204 - 211.
    insectengemeenschappen - fauna - geleedpotigen - begrazingsbeheer - heidegebieden - begrazingsexperimenten - noord-brabant - insect communities - fauna - arthropods - grazing management - heathlands - grazing experiments - noord-brabant
    Begrazing als beheervorm wordt breed toegepast in heidegebieden om op een betaalbare manier openheid van het landschap en variatie in levensgemeenschappen te handhaven. De wijze van uitvoering luistert daarbij nauw, maar goede inzichten in de effecten van graasdruk op insecten ontbraken tot nu toe. Dit artikel geeft de resultaten van een veldonderzoek naar de invloed van begrazingsintensiteit op de soortenrijkdom van sprinkhanen, Heidecicade, vlinders, zweefvliegen, bijen en mieren in Noord-Brabantse heideterreinen.
    Aandacht voor ongewervelden in het natuurbeleid
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2013
    De Levende Natuur 114 (2013)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 167 - 170.
    lepidoptera - ongewervelde dieren - fauna - natuurbeheer - lepidoptera - invertebrates - fauna - nature management
    In het natuurbeleid is er al lange tijd veel aandacht voor de gewervelde fauna. Om praktische redenen van doelmatigheid en beschikbare kennis over verspreiding en ecologie lijkt dat terecht, maar er zijn goede redenen voor een prominentere plaats voor ongewervelden. Ook op basis van de soortenrijkdom zou je veel meer aandacht voor ongewervelde dieren mogen verwachten. De vraag is wel hoe die moet worden ingevuld. In het kort worden hier de positie en de waarde van ongewervelden in het natuurbeleid uiteen gezet.
    Een beschermingsplan voor de Spaanse vlag in Limburg
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Groenendijk, D. ; Huigens, M.E. - \ 2013
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 102 (2013)8. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 177 - 183.
    lepidoptera - natuurbescherming - beschermingsgebieden - natura 2000 - zuid-limburg - limburg - lepidoptera - nature conservation - conservation areas - natura 2000 - zuid-limburg - limburg
    De nachtvlinder Spaans Vlag (Euplagia quadripunctaria) geniet bescherming volgens de Europese Habitatsrichtlijn. In het kader van Natura 2000 is het lastig gebleken om beschermde gebieden voor de soort aan te wijzen. Als alternatief is door de overheid besloten om een regionaal beschermingsplan voor de soort op te stellen (Wallis de Vries & Groenendijk, 2012). Daarbij is ook aanvullend onderzoek naar de larvale ecologie van deze vlinder uitgevoerd.
    Hoe stikstof de vlinders laat stikken
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2013
    Entomologische Berichten 73 (2013)4. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 158 - 163.
    lepidoptera - habitats - depositie - stikstof - natuurgebieden - terrestrische ecologie - milieufactoren - deposition - nitrogen - natural areas - terrestrial ecology - environmental factors
    De verstoring van de stikstofkringloop door de mens, via de productie van kunstmest en via industrie en verkeer, wordt als één van de grootste bedreigingen beschouwd voor de ecologische stabiliteit van de aarde. De atmosferische depositie van stikstof dringt tot ver in de natuurgebieden door. De effecten op de biodiversiteit zijn voor planten al goed onderzocht, maar de doorwerking op de dierenwereld is nog goeddeels onbekend. Dit artikel belicht de invloed op dagvlinders. De meeste soorten daarvan komen in stikstofarme milieus voor. Bij deze groep overheerst de neerwaartse trend, in tegenstelling tot soorten van stikstofrijkere milieus. Ook de afname in aantallen vlinders blijkt sterker te zijn met toenemende stikstofdepositie. Drie mechanismen lijken daarbij een rol te spelen: afname van voedselplanten, afname van voedselkwaliteit en afkoeling van het microklimaat in het voorjaar.
    Grazed vegetation mosaics do not maximize arthropod diversity: Evidence from salt marshes
    Klink, R. van; Rickert, C. ; Vermeulen, R. ; Vorst, O. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Bakker, J.P. - \ 2013
    Biological Conservation 164 (2013). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 150 - 157.
    Light to moderate grazing in grasslands can create vegetation mosaics of short grazed vegetation and tall ungrazed vegetation. These mosaics have been proposed to maximize plant and animal species richness, yet experimental evidence, especially regarding arthropods is scarce. This study compares abundance, richness and species composition of arthropods in grazed mosaics to those of homogeneous short and tall vegetation. We sampled arthropods on three German coastal salt marshes where grazing with three densities (high, moderate and none) was installed in 1989 on previously intensively grazed plots. Stable vegetation mosaics had developed under moderate stocking densities. We collected spiders, beetles, bugs and moth larvae by suction sampling in a stratified random sampling design. Treatments had caused large differences in plant composition after 20 years, which were reflected in the arthropod community. Most species showed a clear preference for either short or tall vegetation, but some species were most abundant in grazed mosaics. Arthropod richness and composition were similar in patches of short vegetation in moderately and highly stocked plots, while patches of tall vegetation were similar to ungrazed plots. Surprisingly, however, grazed mosaics were not richer in species than homogeneous tall vegetation, despite the co-occurrence of species from short, tall and mosaic vegetation. We conclude that, although arthropod richness of salt marshes is greatly enhanced when stocking density is decreased, this cannot substitute ungrazed marshes for conservation of arthropod diversity. However, long term cessation leads to the disappearance of several species, and therefore the possibilities of rotational grazing should be explored.
    Species richness declines and biotic homogenisation have slowed down for NW-European pollinators and plants.
    Carvalheiro, L.G. ; Kunin, W.E. ; Keil, P. ; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J. ; Ellis, W.N. ; Fox, R. ; Groom, Q. ; Hennekens, S. ; Landuyt, W. Van; Maes, D. ; Meutter, F. Van de; Michez, D. ; Rasmont, P. ; Ode, B. ; Potts, S.G. ; Reemer, M. ; Roberts, S.P.M. ; Schaminée, J. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Biesmeijer, J.C. - \ 2013
    Ecology Letters 16 (2013)7. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 870 - 878.
    agri-environment schemes - global biodiversity - british butterflies - diversity - abundance - britain - scale - netherlands - indicators - similarity
    Concern about biodiversity loss has led to increased public investment in conservation. Whereas there is a widespread perception that such initiatives have been unsuccessful, there are few quantitative tests of this perception. Here, we evaluate whether rates of biodiversity change have altered in recent decades in three European countries (Great Britain, Netherlands and Belgium) for plants and flower visiting insects. We compared four 20-year periods, comparing periods of rapid land-use intensification and natural habitat loss (1930–1990) with a period of increased conservation investment (post-1990). We found that extensive species richness loss and biotic homogenisation occurred before 1990, whereas these negative trends became substantially less accentuated during recent decades, being partially reversed for certain taxa (e.g. bees in Great Britain and Netherlands). These results highlight the potential to maintain or even restore current species assemblages (which despite past extinctions are still of great conservation value), at least in regions where large-scale land-use intensification and natural habitat loss has ceased.
    Operationalisering van het begrip 'veerkracht van ecosystemen' : een empirische verkenning voor planten en dagvlinders
    Vos, C.C. ; Pouwels, R. ; Eupen, M. van; Lemaris, T. ; Meeuwsen, H.A.M. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Sterk, M. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 338) - 80
    landschapsecologie - soortensamenstelling - ecologisch herstel - vegetatietypen - landschap - veerkracht van de natuur - natuurwaarde - landscape ecology - species composition - ecological restoration - vegetation types - landscape - resilience of nature - natural value
    Voor het natuurbeleid is het van belang inzicht te krijgen in de meerwaarde van het begrip ecologische veerkracht, mede in het licht van de toename van verstoringen door de klimaatverandering. Er is een analyse uitgevoerd naar de relatie tussen heterogeniteit van het landschap en het voorkomen van eigenschappen van dagvlinders en planten. De heterogeniteit van het landschap is in buffers van 500 m tot 10.000 m beschreven met de Shannon-index, de Contagion-index, slootlengte, lengte bomenrijen en oppervlakte moeras of bos. De eigenschappen van planten en dagvlinders hangen samen met resistentie voor verstoringen, herstelvermogen en tolerantie voor variatie in milieufactoren. Een RLQ-analyse laat zien dat in heterogene gebieden vaker eigenschapswaarden voorkomen, die samenhangen met een groot herstelvermogen na een verstoring of een zekere weerstand tegen verstoringen. Dit zijn eigenschappen die de veerkracht van het ecosysteem bij een toenemende kans op weersextremen ten goede zullen komen
    Host plant-mediated effects of climate change on the occurrence of the Alcon blue butter¿y (Phengaris alcon).
    Cormont, A. ; Wieger Wamelink, G.W. ; Jochem, R. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Wegman, R.M.A. - \ 2013
    Ecological Modelling 250 (2013)2. - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 329 - 337.
    biotic interactions - species distributions - dispersal - conservation - landscapes - birds - biodiversity - temperature - viability - networks
    Among the expected consequences of climate change are shifts in species’ ranges. Most of current methods to predict such shifts in species distributions consider changes in suitability of climatic conditions for existence. With these models, it is possible to indicate the potential distribution of species that would arise under spatial conditions that cause unlimited landscape accessibility and habitat suitability. At the regional scale, however, detailed predictions of changes in species distributions and performance are pivotal for conservation planning. This study aims to predict species occurrences at the regional scale, incorporating demographic processes and dispersal to assess habitat accessibility and suitability in detail. We investigated a system with trophic dependence: the Alcon blue butter¿y (Phengaris alcon) is fully dependent on the occurrence of its host plant species marsh gentian (Gentiana pneumonanthe). We applied a model chain, consisting of a soil and biomass model, a plant species occurrence and dispersal model and a butter¿y metapopulation model. We investigated the effect of future climate change, both under affected and unaffected habitat conditions as determined by host plant occurrence. Our modelled results show that the butter¿ies perform best when habitat conditions remain unaffected by climate change. However, when climate change does affect the occurrence of its host plant species, butter¿y distribution and performance will be deteriorated. This implies that detailed predictions of changes in species distributions and performance should incorporate dispersal, demographic processes and biotic interactions explicitly. Our approach allows for the identi¿cation of locations that are potentially suitable for the measures increasing network robustness for P. alcon.
    Plant quality and local adaptation undermine relocation in a bog specialist butterfly
    Turlure, C. ; Radchuk, V. ; Baguette, M. ; Meijrink, M. ; Burg, A. van den; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Duinen, G.J. - \ 2013
    Ecology and Evolution 3 (2013)2. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 244 - 254.
    nitrogen deposition - phenotypic plasticity - climate-change - reintroduction biology - conservation - habitat - lepidoptera - diversity - selection - dynamics
    The butterfly Boloria aquilonaris is a specialist of oligotrophic ecosystems. Population viability analysis predicted the species to be stable in Belgium and to collapse in the Netherlands with reduced host plant quality expected to drive species decline in the latter. We tested this hypothesis by rearing B. aquilonaris caterpillars from Belgian and Dutch sites on host plants (the cranberry, Vaccinium oxycoccos). Dutch plant quality was lower than Belgian one conferring lower caterpillar growth rate and survival. Reintroduction and/or supplementation may be necessary to ensure the viability of the species in the Netherlands, but some traits may have been selected solely in Dutch caterpillars to cope with gradual changes in host plant quality. To test this hypothesis, the performance of Belgian and Dutch caterpillars fed with plants from both countries were compared. Dutch caterpillars performed well on both plant qualities, whereas Belgian caterpillars could not switch to lower quality plants. This can be considered as an environmentally induced plastic response of caterpillars and/or a local adaptation to plant quality, which precludes the use of Belgian individuals as a unique solution for strengthening Dutch populations. More generally, these results stress that the relevance of local adaptation in selecting source populations for relocation may be as important as restoring habitat quality.
    Operationalisering van het begrip ‘veerkracht’; een empirische verkenning voor dagvlinders en planten; Tussenrapportage 2011
    Vos, C.C. ; Pouwels, R. ; Eupen, M. van; Lemaris, T. ; Meeuwsen, H.A.M. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Sterk, M. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur en Milieu (WOt-interne notitie 18)
    Effecten van hakhoutbeheer op de vlinders van hellingbossen.
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Prick, M.J.M. - \ 2012
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 101 (2012)1. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 1 - 9.
    lepidoptera - habitats - ecologie - hellingen - hakhout - landschapsbeheer - zuid-limburg - lepidoptera - habitats - ecology - slopes - coppice - landscape management - zuid-limburg
    In 2009 vond een verkennend onderzoek plaats naar de invloed van hakhoutbeheer op dag- en nachtvlinders in het Oombos en het Schaelsbergerbos bij Schin op Geul. Hierbij werden gedurende zeven nachten gegevens over nachtvlinders verzameld en op vier dagen gegevens over dagvlinders. Daarbij vertoonden de nachtvlinders een grote soortenrijkdom, maar een laag aantal individuen; bij dagvlinders was dit juist omgekeerd. In totaal werden 20 soorten nachtvlinders van de Rode lijst waargenomen. De jonge bossen leverden de grootste rijkdom op. Met name nachtvlindersoorten die gebonden zijn aan Bosrank bleken behoorlijk talrijk. Aangezien het een verkennend onderzoek is, zijn de resultaten nog niet voldoende om definitieve conclusies te trekken. Het onderzoek zal de komende jaren dan ook gecontinueerd worden.
    Duinparelmoervlinders brengen kleur in de grijze duinen
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2012
    Tussen Duin & Dijk 4 (2012). - ISSN 1570-7261 - p. 35 - 35.
    De duinparelmoervlinder (Argynnis niobe) is tegenwoordig alleen nog in de duinen te vinden en staat landelijk als bedreigde soort op de Rode Lijst. Het is een typische soort voor de grijze duinen die inzicht biedt in de voorwaarden die insecten aan hun leefgebied stellen.
    Een vlindereffect in 'het groen'
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2012
    Groen : vakblad voor groen in stad en landschap 49 (2012)12. - ISSN 0166-3534 - p. 49 - 49.
    Kleine veranderingen kunnen grote gevolgen hebben... Dit fenomeen staat bekend als het vlindereffect. Het ontstond in de meteorologie met het inzicht dat minieme veranderingen als de vleugelslag van een vlinder maanden later het verschil kunnen maken of er duizenden kilometers verderop een orkaan ontstaat of niet. Het is de hoogste tijd om ook in de omgang met onze groene omgeving een vlindereffect op gang te brengen!
    Correspondence: Uncertainty in thermal tolerances and climatic debt
    Devictor, V. ; Swaay, C. van; Brereton, T. ; Brotons, L. ; Chamberlain, D. ; Heliölä, J. ; Herrando, S. ; Julliard, R. ; Kuussaari, M. ; Lindström, A. ; Reif, J. ; Roy, D.B. ; Schweiger, O. ; Settele, J. ; Stefanescu, C. ; Strien, A. van; Turnhout, C. van; Vermouzek, Z. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Wynhoff, I. ; Jiguet, F. - \ 2012
    Nature Climate Change 2 (2012). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 638 - 639.
    Spatially and Financially Explicit Population Viability Analysis of Maculinea alcon in The Netherlands
    Radchuk, V. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Schtickzelle, N. - \ 2012
    PLoS ONE 7 (2012)6. - ISSN 1932-6203
    individual-based model - large blue butterflies - habitat quality - ant nests - metapopulation dynamics - sensitivity-analysis - host-specificity - social parasite - conservation - lepidoptera
    Background The conservation of species structured in metapopulations involves an important dilemma of resource allocation: should investments be directed at restoring/enlarging habitat patches or increasing connectivity. This is still an open question for Maculinea species despite they are among the best studied and emblematic butterfly species, because none of the population dynamics models developed so far included dispersal. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed the first spatially and financially explicit Population Viability Analysis model for Maculinea alcon, using field data from The Netherlands. Implemented using the RAMAS/GIS platform, the model incorporated both local (contest density dependence, environmental and demographic stochasticities), and regional population dynamics (dispersal rates between habitat patches). We selected four habitat patch networks, contrasting in several basic features (number of habitat patches, their quality, connectivity, and occupancy rate) to test how these features are affecting the ability to enhance population viability of four basic management options, designed to incur the same costs: habitat enlargement, habitat quality improvement, creation of new stepping stone habitat patches, and reintroduction of captive-reared butterflies. The PVA model was validated by the close match between its predictions and independent field observations on the patch occupancy pattern. The four patch networks differed in their sensitivity to model parameters, as well as in the ranking of management options. Overall, the best cost-effective option was enlargement of existing habitat patches, followed by either habitat quality improvement or creation of stepping stones depending on the network features. Reintroduction was predicted to generally be inefficient, except in one specific patch network. Conclusions/Significance Our results underline the importance of spatial and regional aspects (dispersal and connectivity) in determining the impact of conservation actions, even for a species previously considered as sedentary. They also illustrate that failure to account for the cost of management scenarios can lead to very different conclusions.
    Changes in nectar supply: A possible cause of widespread butterfly decline
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Swaay, C.A.M. van; Plate, C.L. - \ 2012
    Current Zoology 58 (2012)3. - ISSN 1674-5507 - p. 384 - 391.
    species richness - field margins - agricultural landscapes - conservation - pollination - vegetation - diversity - scale - biodiversity - grasslands
    Recent studies have documented declining trends of various groups of flower-visiting insects, even common butterfly species. Causes of these declines are still unclear but the loss of habitat quality across the wider countryside is thought to be a major factor. Nectar supply constitutes one of the main resources determining habitat quality. Yet, data on changes in nectar abundance are lacking. In this study, we provide the first analysis of changes in floral nectar abundance on a national scale and link these data to trends in butterfly species richness and abundance. We used transect data from the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme to compare two time periods: 1994-1995 and 2007-2008. The results show that butterfly decline can indeed be linked to a substantial decline in overall flower abundance and specific nectar plants, such as thistles. The decline is as severe in reported flower generalists as in flower specialists. We suggest that eutrophication is a main cause of the decline of nectar sources [Current Zoology 58 (3): 384-391, 2012].
    Impact of grazing management on hibernating caterpillars of the butterfly Melitaea cinxia in calcareous grasslands
    Noordwijk, C.G.E. ; Flierman, D.E. ; Remke, E. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Berg, M.P. - \ 2012
    Journal of Insect Conservation 16 (2012)6. - ISSN 1366-638X - p. 909 - 920.
    life-history strategies - restoration management - seminatural grasslands - intraguild predation - phytophagous insects - species-diversity - conservation - intensity - herbivores - vegetation
    Semi-natural grasslands are increasingly grazed by large herbivores for nature conservation purposes. For many insects such grazing is essential for the conservation of their habitat, but at the same time, populations decrease at high grazing intensity. We hypothesised that grazing management may cause increased butterfly mortality, especially for life-stages with low mobility, such as hibernating caterpillars. To test this, we measured the effect of sheep grazing on overwinter larval survival. We used the Glanville fritillary (Melitaea cinxia), which has gregarious caterpillars hibernating in silk nests, as a model species. Caterpillar nests were monitored throughout the hibernating period in calcareous grassland reserves with low and high intensity sheep grazing and in an ungrazed control treatment. After grazing, 64 % of the nests at the high intensity grazing treatment were damaged or missing, compared to 8 and 12 % at the ungrazed and low intensity grazing treatment, respectively. Nest volume and caterpillar survival were 50 % lower at the high intensity grazing treatment compared to both ungrazed and low intensity grazing treatments. Nest damage and increased mortality were mainly caused by incidental ingestion of the caterpillars by the sheep. It is likely that grazing similarly affects other invertebrates, depending on their location within the vegetation and their ability to actively avoid herbivores. This implies that the impact of grazing strongly depends on the timing of this management in relation to the phenology of the species. A greater focus on immature and inactive life-stages in conservation policy in general and particularly in action plans for endangered species is required to effectively preserve invertebrate diversity.
    Differences in the climatic debts of birds and butterflies at a continental scale
    Devictor, V. ; Swaay, C. van; Brereton, T. ; Brotons, L. ; Chamberlain, D. ; Heliölä, J. ; Herrando, S. ; Julliard, R. ; Kuussaari, M. ; Lindström, A. ; Reif, J. ; Roy, D.B. ; Schweiger, O. ; Settele, J. ; Stefanescu, C. ; Strien, A. van; Turnhout, C. van; Vermouzek, Z. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Wynhoff, I. ; Jiguet, F. - \ 2012
    Nature Climate Change 2 (2012). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 121 - 124.
    evolutionary responses - global change - extinction - adaptation
    Climate changes have profound effects on the distribution of numerous plant and animal species(1-3). However, whether and how different taxonomic groups are able to track climate changes at large spatial scales is still unclear. Here, we measure and compare the climatic debt accumulated by bird and butterfly communities at a European scale over two decades (1990-2008). We quantified the yearly change in community composition in response to climate change for 9,490 bird and 2,130 butterfly communities distributed across Europe(4). We show that changes in community composition are rapid but different between birds and butterflies and equivalent to a 37 and 114 km northward shift in bird and butterfly communities, respectively. We further found that, during the same period, the northward shift in temperature in Europe was even faster, so that the climatic debts of birds and butterflies correspond to a 212 and 135 km lag behind climate. Our results indicate both that birds and butterflies do not keep up with temperature increase and the accumulation of different climatic debts for these groups at national and continental scales.
    Metamorfose : vlinders in een veranderend landschap
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461733269 - 27
    lepidoptera - natuurbescherming - ecologie - openbare redes - lepidoptera - nature conservation - ecology - public speeches
    Rede bij aanvaarding buitengewoon hoogleraarschap in Ecologie en Bescherming van Insecten. Gezien de belangrijke ecosysteemdiensten die insecten leveren is het verrassend hoe weinig aandacht er voor bescherming van insecten bestaat.
    Eerste eileg van broedvogels nu te voorspellen
    Vliet, A.J.H. van; Bron, W.A. ; Vermeulen, L.C. ; Hallmann, C. ; Turnhout, C. van; Foppen, R. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Venema, M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Nature Today
    Can phenological shifts compensate for adverse effects of climate change on butterfly metapopulation viability?
    Cormont, A. ; Jochem, R. ; Malinowska, A.H. ; Verboom, J. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Opdam, P.F.M. - \ 2012
    Ecological Modelling 227 (2012). - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 72 - 81.
    habitat fragmentation - extinction thresholds - british butterflies - extreme weather - change impacts - range margins - models - populations - landscapes - dynamics
    The interaction between climate change and habitat fragmentation has been presented as a deadly anthropogenic cocktail. We cannot stop climate change, but it is within our circle of influence as ecologists to suggest landscape adaptation. Detailed population models that take into account climate change are considerably needed. We explore a detailed individual-based spatially explicit metapopulation model of a univoltine butterfly species where all processes are affected by daily weather, using historical daily weather data and future daily projections as input, in order to examine responses of a butterfly population in landscapes under various states of fragmentation and two climate change scenarios. This tool is used to investigate how landscapes could be adapted to compensate for possible negative impacts of climate change on population performance. We find that our model butterfly metapopulation was not only able to escape adverse conditions in summer by phenological shifts, but even to benefit from climatic warming. Varying either the amount of suitable habitat or patch size revealed a sharp threshold in population viability. In this particular case, however, the threshold was not affected by climate change and climate-dependent landscape adaptation was not required. The model presented here can be adapted for other species and applied to investigate scenarios for landscape adaptation
    Urgente maatregelen voor Habitatrichtlijn : behoud van urgent bedreigde typische soorten en vegetatietypen
    Klimkowska, A. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Keizer-Vlek, H.E. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Schotman, A.G.M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2278) - 239
    vegetatietypen - natura 2000 - verdroging - ecologisch herstel - biodiversiteit - natuurbeleid - vegetation types - natura 2000 - desiccation - ecological restoration - biodiversity - nature conservation policy
    Om een gunstige staat van instandhouding van habitattypen te handhaven of te bereiken is het noodzakelijk dat er geen vegetatietypen en typische soorten van die habitattypen verdwijnen. Sommige van deze vegetatietypen en typische soorten staan echter op het punt om uit Nederland te verdwijnen, en herstelmaatregelen zijn dan een urgente noodzaak. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van alle maatregelen die denkbaar zijn om deze typen en soorten te behouden.
    Agrarische natuur voor meeste soorten ongeschikt
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2011
    Nature Today
    Conservation where people work: A role for business districts and industrial areas in enhancing endangered butterfly populations?
    Snep, R.P.H. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Opdam, P. - \ 2011
    Landscape and Urban Planning 103 (2011). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 94 - 101.
    habitat restoration - species richness - urban landscape - se finland - biodiversity - diversity - urbanization - vegetation - reserves - insects
    Urbanization is often identified as a primary cause of species decline. Yet little is known about biodiversity conservation in human settlements, the ‘places where people live and work’. In this study, conducted in the densely populated Netherlands, our main objective was to explore new conservation planning strategies to strengthen metapopulations in urbanized landscapes. We focused on a rarely studied part of the city: business sites, the places where people work. We selected eight endangered butterfly species, all habitat specialists of low-productive, early-successional vegetation. Potentially, vacant lots, lawns and green roofs at business sites could offer habitat patches for these butterflies. Our analysis combined national distribution data on both butterflies and business sites. We explored the extent to which the creation of additional habitat at business sites within dispersal distance of adjoining populations could enhance the sustainability of the entire population network. We found that for four endangered butterfly species (Aricia agestis, Hipparchia semele, Issoria lathonia and Ochlodes sylvanus), additional habitat developed at nearby business sites could support a substantial proportion (19–33%) of the currently vulnerable populations in the Netherlands. Moreover, in numerous occasions the business sites could offer sufficient habitat to upgrade vulnerable butterfly populations into viable metapopulations. The present study illustrates that – even for habitat specialists such as the selected butterfly species – urbanized areas may provide yet unexplored conservation opportunities.
    Hoogveen en klimaatverandering in Nederland
    Bijlsma, R.J. ; Jansen, A.J.M. ; Limpens, J. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Witte, J.P.M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2225)
    hoogveengebieden - wateraanvoer - hydrologie - neerslag - klimaatverandering - ecohydrologie - natura 2000 - moorlands - water advance - hydrology - precipitation - climatic change - ecohydrology - natura 2000
    Voor de instandhouding en ontwikkeling van hoogveen zijn het neerslagoverschot, de temperatuur en de positie in het landschap belangrijk. Gunstige ontwikkelingen doen zich voor in gebieden waar het (actieve) hoogveen water uit zijn omgeving ontvangt. De landelijke instandhoudingsdoelen voor Natura 2000-habitattype Actieve hoogvenen kunnen waarschijnlijk ook onder het klimaatscenario W+ worden gerealiseerd: behoud van kwaliteit en oppervlakte zijn kansrijk en verbetering van kwaliteit en uitbreiding van oppervlakte zijn mogelijk. Voorwaarden hierbij zijn een optimale waterhuishouding. Dat wil zeggen voldoende hoge grondwaterstanden in de zandondergrond en de veenbasis in combinatie met een waterondoorlatende (veen)laag en/of de toevoer van lokaal grondwater. Om hoogvenen op de lange termijn in Nederland te behouden onder het W+- scenario zijn waterhuishoudkundige maatregelen nodig, zoals de aanleg en inrichting van bufferzones en compartimenten en/of door het bevorderen van kwel.
    Klimaatopwarming ook zaak voor natuurbescherming
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2011
    Trouw (2011).
    Beyond climate envelopes: effects of weather on regional population trends in butterflies
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Baxter, W. ; Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2011
    Oecologia 167 (2011)2. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 559 - 571.
    extreme weather - habitat fragmentation - range expansion - insect - distributions - responses - impacts - models - temperature - performance
    Although the effects of climate change on biodiversity are increasingly evident by the shifts in species ranges across taxonomical groups, the underlying mechanisms affecting individual species are still poorly understood. The power of climate envelopes to predict future ranges has been seriously questioned in recent studies. Amongst others, an improved understanding of the effects of current weather on population trends is required. We analysed the relation between butterfly abundance and the weather experienced during the life cycle for successive years using data collected within the framework of the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme for 40 species over a 15-year period and corresponding climate data. Both average and extreme temperature and precipitation events were identified, and multiple regression was applied to explain annual changes in population indices. Significant weather effects were obtained for 39 species, with the most frequent effects associated with temperature. However, positive density-dependence suggested climatic independent trends in at least 12 species. Validation of the short-term predictions revealed a good potential for climate-based predictions of population trends in 20 species. Nevertheless, data from the warm and dry year of 2003 indicate that negative effects of climatic extremes are generally underestimated for habitat specialists in drought-susceptible habitats, whereas generalists remain unaffected. Further climatic warming is expected to influence the trends of 13 species, leading to an improvement for nine species, but a continued decline in the majority of species. Expectations from climate envelope models overestimate the positive effects of climate change in northwestern Europe. Our results underline the challenge to include population trends in predicting range shifts in response to climate change
    De actuele gevolgen van de uitzonderlijke droogte voor natuur
    Creemers, R. ; Dijksman, M. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Crispijn, R. ; Slikke, W. van der; Bragt, P.H. van; Mulder, S. ; Gassner, F. ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Bron, W.A. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Nature Today
    Paddentrek staat voor de deur
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Nature Today
    Effect of spectral composition of artificial light on the attraction of moths
    Langevelde, F. van; Ettema, J.A. ; Donners, M. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Groenendijk, D. - \ 2011
    Biological Conservation 144 (2011)9. - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 2274 - 2281.
    lepidoptera - bats - pollination - trap - conservation - populations - resolution - predation - pollution - ecology
    During the last decades, artificial night lighting has increased globally, which largely affected many plant and animal species. So far, current research highlights the importance of artificial light with smaller wavelengths in attracting moths, yet the effect of the spectral composition of artificial light on species richness and abundance of moths has not been studied systematically. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that (1) higher species richness and higher abundances of moths are attracted to artificial light with smaller wavelengths than to light with larger wavelengths, and (2) this attraction is correlated with morphological characteristics of moths, especially their eye size. We indeed found higher species richness and abundances of moths in traps with lamps that emit light with smaller wavelengths. These lamps attracted moths with on average larger body mass, larger wing dimensions and larger eyes. Cascading effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, e.g. pollination, can be expected when larger moth species are attracted to these lights. Predatory species with a diet of mainly larger moth species and plant species pollinated by larger moth species might then decline. Moreover, our results indicate a size-bias in trapping moths, resulting in an overrepresentation of larger moth species in lamps with small wavelengths. Our study indicates the potential use of lamps with larger wavelengths to effectively reduce the negative effect of light pollution on moth population dynamics and communities where moths play an important role.
    Perspectieven voor hoogveenherstel in Nederland : samenvatting onderzoek en handleiding hoogveenherstel 1998-2010
    Duinen, G.J. ; Tomassen, H. ; Limpens, J. ; Smolders, F. ; Schaaf, S. van der; Verberk, W. ; Groenendijk, D. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Roelofs, J. - \ 2011
    Nijmegen [etc.] : Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Onderzoekcentrum B-WARE [etc.] (Rapport / DKI nr. 2011/OBN150-NZ) - 76
    hoogveengebieden - hydrologie - ecologie - ecologisch herstel - zure depositie - stikstof - natura 2000 - moorlands - hydrology - ecology - ecological restoration - acid deposition - nitrogen - natura 2000
    Het hoogveenareaal in Nederland is door ontginning, turfwinning, boekweitbrandcultuur en verdroging sterk gereduceerd. De water- en nutriëntenhuishouding van de hoogvenen zijn sterk verstoord door deze aantastingen en bovendien door de neerslag van atmosferisch stikstof (N). Verder is door deze aantastingen de variatie in terreincondities die aanwezig is in intacte hoogveenlandschappen, met name gradiënten van de zure, mineraalarme hoogveenkern naar de gebufferde, mineraalrijkere omgeving, afgenomen. Herstelmaatregelen in de hoogveenrestanten hadden wisselend succes: soms herstelden of ontwikkelden zich vegetaties met bultvormende veenmossen, meestal ontstond een drijvende laag Waterveenmos (Sphagnum cuspidatum) of een zure waterplas. Verder bleef Pijpenstrootje (Molinia caerulea) over grote oppervlakten de vegetatie domineren en vestigden zich Berken (Betula spec.). In het kader van het kennisnetwerk ‘Ontwikkeling en Beheer Natuurkwaliteit’ (OBN) is onderzoek gedaan naar de perspectieven voor hoogveenherstel in Nederland. Twee vragen stonden daarbij centraal: 1. Is hoogveenherstel mogelijk bij de huidige hoge atmosferische N-depositie? 2. Onder welke voorwaarden is succesvol herstel van de karakteristieke flora en fauna mogelijk? De belangrijkste conclusies uit dit onderzoek worden in dit rapport beschreven.
    Effect of local weather on butterfly flight behaviour, movement, and colonization: significance for dispersal under climate change
    Cormont, A. ; Malinowska, A.H. ; Kostenko, O. ; Radchuk, V. ; Hemerik, L. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Verboom, J. - \ 2011
    Biodiversity and Conservation 20 (2011)3. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 483 - 503.
    klimaatverandering - weersgegevens - diergedrag - vliegen - lepidoptera - migratie - dispersie - climatic change - weather data - animal behaviour - flight - lepidoptera - migration - dispersion - british butterflies - range margins - habitat - landscapes - metapopulations - temperature - responses - search - models - wind
    Recent climate change is recognized as a main cause of shifts in geographical distributions of species. The impacts of climate change may be aggravated by habitat fragmentation, causing regional or large scale extinctions. However, we propose that climate change also may diminish the effects of fragmentation by enhancing flight behaviour and dispersal of ectothermic species like butterflies. We show that under weather conditions associated with anticipated climate change, behavioural components of dispersal of butterflies are enhanced, and colonization frequencies increase. In a field study, we recorded flight behaviour and mobility of four butterfly species: two habitat generalists (Coenonympha pamphilus; Maniola jurtina) and two specialists (Melitaea athalia; Plebejus argus), under different weather conditions. Flying bout duration generally increased with temperature and decreased with cloudiness. Proportion of time spent flying decreased with cloudiness. Net displacement generally increased with temperature. When butterflies fly longer, start flying more readily and fly over longer distances, we expect dispersal propensity to increase. Monitoring data showed that colonization frequencies moreover increased with temperature and radiation and decreased with cloudiness. Increased dispersal propensity at local scale might therefore lower the impact of habitat fragmentation on the distribution at a regional scale. Synergetic effects of climate change and habitat fragmentation on population dynamics and species distributions might therefore appear to be more complex than previously assumed
    Mogelijkheden voor herstelbeheer in hellingbossen op kalkrijke bodem in Zuid-Limburg : resultaten eerste onderzoekfase
    Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Eichhorn, K.A.O. ; Kemmers, R.H. ; Ouden, J. den; Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Waal, R.W. de; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Willers, B.J.C. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra - 118
    bossen - ecologisch herstel - hellingen - bodemchemie - kalkrijke gronden - terrestrische ecologie - zuid-limburg - natura 2000 - forests - ecological restoration - slopes - soil chemistry - calcareous soils - terrestrial ecology - zuid-limburg - natura 2000
    Het doel van het OBN-onderzoek naar de Zuid-Limburgse hellingbossen is het aangeven van concrete opties voor de beheerder waarmee de oorspronkelijke diversiteit aan planten- en diersoorten van deze bossen behouden dan wel hersteld kan worden. Uitgangspunt hierbij is dat er sprake moet zijn van een gedifferentieerd beheer, waarbij rekening wordt gehouden met de – grotendeels geologisch bepaalde – landschappelijke context, waarbij niet alleen verschillende regio’s (löss-, mergel en vuursteengebied) maar binnen elke regio ook verschillende hellingzones met hun specifieke waarden worden onderscheiden
    Verbanden tussen de achteruitgang van dagvlinders en bloemenrijkdom
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Swaay, C. van; Plate, C. - \ 2010
    De Levende Natuur 111 (2010)3. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 125 - 129.
    lepidoptera - plantengemeenschappen - bloemen - bijenweide - monitoring - insect-plant relaties - lepidoptera - plant communities - flowers - honey bee forage - monitoring - insect plant relations
    De achteruitgang van de vlinderstand in Nederland is voor een belangrijk deel te wijten aan de intensivering van het landgebruik. Zowel de achteruitgang van de waardplanten voor de rupsen als de nectarplanten voor de vlinders kunnen daarbij van belang zijn. Is het aantal bloemen voor vlinders daadwerkelijk verminderd en hoe reageren de vlinders daarop? Resultaten van onderzoek vanuit de Vlinderstichting
    Uitdagingen voor het beheer van lijnvormige elementen in het Heuvelland
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2010
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 99 (2010)1. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 6 - 11.
    landschap - biodiversiteit - landschapselementen - zuid-limburg - landscape - biodiversity - landscape elements - zuid-limburg
    Soortenrijke graften, bermen en holle wegen vormen belangrijke verbindende elementen in het Zuid-Limburgse heuvelland. Die functie dreigt verloren te gaan doordat bij hun beheer weinig rekening wordt gehouden met natuurwaarden. Hierdoor loopt ook het behoud van soortenrijke kalkgraslanden gevaar. Deze kunnen hun biodiversiteit alleen behouden bij de gratie van verbindingen met andere natuurgebieden. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op het belang van deze lijnvormige elementen en worden zeven locaties beschreven waar deze elementen de natuurwaarden bij uitstek kunnen versterken. De basis voor dit artikel werd gelegd in het OBN deskundigenteam heuvelland
    Mogelijkheden voor herstelbeheer in hellingbossen op kalkrijke bodem in Zuid-Limburg. : Resultaten eerste onderzoekfase
    Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Eichhorn, K. ; Kemmers, R.H. ; Ouden, J. den; Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Waal, R.W. de; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Willers, B. - \ 2010
    Ede : Directie Kennis en Innovatie, Ministerie van Landbouw (Rapport DKI nr. 2010/dk 140-O) - 90
    heuvels - bossen - bodem - herstel - krijtgronden - nederland - diversiteit - soortendiversiteit - herstelbeheer - bodem-plant relaties - zuid-limburg - natura 2000 - hill land - forests - soil - rehabilitation - chalk soils - netherlands - diversity - species diversity - restoration management - soil plant relationships - zuid-limburg - natura 2000
    De Zuid-Limburgse hellingbossen zijn van oudsher opvallend rijk aan bijzondere planten- en diersoorten, en bij velen bekend om hun uitbundige voorjaarsflora. Het gaat hierbij zowel om bossoorten als om soorten van bosranden en kapvlakten. Het meest befaamd zijn de bossen op ondiepe kalkrijke bodem, waarin – vooral in de struweelfase na periodieke kap – een aantal in ons land zeer zeldzame orchideeënsoorten voorkomt. Dergelijke situaties zijn, gegeven de geologie, slechts lokaal in een deel van het Zuid-Limburgse heuvelland aanwezig, waarbij ze deel uitmaken van een gecompliceerde hellinggradiënt
    Urgent bedreigde typische soorten en vegetatietypen van Natura 2000-habitattypen
    Epe, M.J. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Bouwma, I.M. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Kuipers, H. ; Keizer-Vlek, H.E. ; Niemeijer, C.M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1909) - 70
    vegetatietypen - bedreigde soorten - natura 2000 - habitats - vegetatiebeheer - nederland - vegetation types - endangered species - natura 2000 - habitats - vegetation management - netherlands
    Dit rapport is de weerslag van een onderzoek naar de urgent bedreigde en potentieel urgent bedreigde typische soorten en de urgent bedreigde en potentieel urgent bedreigde vegetatietypen van de habitattypen van de Natura 2000-gebieden. In totaal zijn 67 typische soorten als Urgent Bedreigd gecategoriseerd; nog eens 26 soorten zijn gecategoriseerd als Potentieel Urgent Bedreigd. Voor de vegetatietypen geldt dat er 15 (sub)associaties Urgent bedreigd zijn. Op een bijbehorende cdrom wordt voor al deze soorten en vegetaties de huidige verspreiding gegeven, of herstel binnen of buiten Natura 2000 zou moeten plaatsvinden, wat de knelpunten hierbij zijn en waar de beste herstellocaties gelegen zijn.
    Verkenning LARCH: omgaan met kwaliteit binnen ecologische netwerken
    Pouwels, R. ; Foppen, R.P.B. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Jochem, R. ; Reijnen, M.J.S.M. ; Kleunen, A. van - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 165) - 88
    lepidoptera - vogels - ecologie - modellen - computer software - kwalitatieve analyse - kwaliteit - nederland - ecologische beoordeling - ecologische modellering - ecologische hoofdstructuur - lepidoptera - birds - ecology - models - computer software - qualitative analysis - quality - netherlands - ecological assessment - ecological modeling - ecological network
    Vanuit de taak van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) is er een grote behoefte om de realisatie van beleidsdoelen te meten en te toetsen. In het bouwwerk van de graadmeter Natuurwaarde worden zowel meetnetten als modellen gebruikt. De meetnetten worden gebruikt om inzicht te krijgen in de actuele situatie van de natuur. De modellen worden veelal gebruikt om toekomstscenario’s te beoordelen. LARCH is als kennissysteem/model voor fauna onderdeel van dit samenhangend systeem. Het blijkt dat bij de ontwikkeling en het gebruik van LARCH geen eenduidige lijn is gevolgd met betrekking tot het te modelleren resultaat. Het PBL is daarom op zoek naar een scherpe visie voor LARCH, van waaruit nieuwe modellen ontwikkeld kunnen worden of onderbouwende studies aangestuurd kunnen worden. Om te komen tot een kennissysteem waarbinnen de nieuwe modellijn goed functioneert, zijn een aantal technische aanpassingen, een aantal onderbouwende studies en kwaliteitsborging belangrijk. Voor 25 vlindersoorten en 38 vogelsoorten en alle Vogel- en Habitrichtlijnsoorten zullen de critical loads bepaald moeten worden. Vervolgens zal van alle soorten nagegaan moeten worden in hoeverre het eindresultaat een goede weergave van potentiële leefgebieden geeft. Wanneer alle soortmodellen gereed zijn, moet een gevoeligheidsanalyse en een onzekerheidsanalyse worden uitgevoerd. Aldus is verwoord in het onderzoek van Alterra, SOVON en Wageningen Universiteit (Entomologie)
    Grasslands as habitats for butterflies in Europe
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Swaay, C.A.M. van - \ 2009
    In: Grasslands in Europe – of high nature value / Veen, P., Jefferson, R., De Smidt, J., van der Straaten, J., Utrecht : KNNV Publishing - ISBN 9789050113168 - p. 27 - 34.
    Dagvlinders en natuurontwikkeling: meer vlinders door ontgronding?
    Bekker, R.M. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2009
    De Levende Natuur 110 (2009)1. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 28 - 32.
    fauna - lepidoptera - populatiedynamica - zandgronden - natuurontwikkeling - grondverzet - fauna - lepidoptera - population dynamics - sandy soils - nature development - earth moving
    In 2006 en 2007 zijn natuurontwikkelingsprojecten op zandgronden, waarbij speciaal voor dit doel ontgronding plaatsvond, onderzocht op hun vegetatieontwikkeling, bodemeigenschappen en structuur. Voor de evaluatie van de ingreep is ook gekeken naar vestiging en geschiktheid voor fauna na de ingreep. Dit artikel beschrijft de effecten op dagvlinders aan de hand van kolonisatie en vestiging van dagvlinderrs in ruim 60 ontgronde gebieden op zandgrond in het Pleistocene deel van Nederland. Een bijdrage vanuit Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en de Vlinderstichting
    Hoe het Gentiaanblauwtje verdween uit Limburg
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Vossen, H. - \ 2009
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 98 (2009)9. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 173 - 177.
    lepidoptera - populatiedynamica - limburg - lepidoptera - population dynamics - limburg
    Sinds 1990 neemt het aantal populaties van het Gentiaanblauwtje in een onveranderd hoog tempo af. Wanneer deze trend voortzet is de soort voor 2020 uit heel Nederland verdwenen. In Limburg is het Gentiaanblauwtje voor het laatst in 2005 in De Zoom bij Nederweert gezien. Ondanks zorgvuldig beheer werd een ongelukkige samenloop van omstandigheden de vlinder hier fataal. De reconstructie van de teloorgang illustreert het probleem van het beheer van kleine populaties en het belang van een ecologische hoofdstructuur.
    Aandacht voor de duinparelmoervlinder in Kennemerland
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2009
    Vlinders 24 (2009)2. - ISSN 0923-1846 - p. 4 - 6.
    lepidoptera - nymphalidae - populatie-ecologie - duingebieden - bedreigde soorten - inventarisaties - monitoring - habitats - waardplanten - herstelbeheer - kennemerland - lepidoptera - nymphalidae - population ecology - duneland - endangered species - inventories - monitoring - habitats - host plants - restoration management - kennemerland
    De duinparelmoervlinder dreigt bij voortzetting van de huidige trend binnen twintig jaar uit Nederland te verdwijnen. In 2008 is het voorkomen van de duinparelmoervlinder met hulp van vrijwilligers onderzocht. Het Noord-Hollands duinreservaat telt nu vermoedelijk de grootste landelijke populatie. In Zuid-Kennemerland is het voorkomen nog maar zeer lokaal. Herstel van duingrasland met viooltjes en nectarbronnen in de omgeving is dringend noodzakelijk.
    The synergistic effect of combining woodlands and green veining for biodiversity
    Grashof-Bokdam, C.J. ; Chardon, J.P. ; Vos, C.C. ; Foppen, R. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Veen, M. van der; Meeuwsen, H.A.M. - \ 2009
    Landscape Ecology 24 (2009)8. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 1105 - 1121.
    agri-environment schemes - agricultural landscapes - fragmented landscapes - habitat fragmentation - interpatch movements - red squirrel - matrix - connectivity - populations - dispersal
    Combining nature reserves with small semi-natural elements (green veining) may improve the persistence of plant and animal species in fragmented landscapes. A better understanding of this synergy is essential to improve species diversity in the European Natura 2000 sites and in green veining elements. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between the occurrence of 40 forest plant and animal species in 1,000 km grid cells in the Netherlands and the spatial cohesion of the surrounding large woodlands and small woody elements. Two types of synergy were found. First, nine species were more often present if there was more cohesion of large elements; small elements enhanced this effect. Second, 11 other species were more often present when there was more cohesion of small elements; large elements enhanced this effect. Eight species showed both effects, indicating two-way synergy. The remaining 12 species preferred landscapes dominated by either large or small elements, or displayed no positive relationship whatsoever to woody elements. Species showing synergy often had a low dispersal capacity; the type of synergy seemed to be related to their habitat preference. These results imply that species diversity could be improved by integrating different policy instruments used for nature reserves and green veining. Using a zoning principle where green veins surround and connect nature reserves, the different spatial and habitat preferences of species can be secured. In this way a coherent network could become reality
    Preadvies Beekdalen Heuvellandschap
    Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Aggenbach, C.A. ; Crombaghs, B. ; Haan, M. de; Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Smolders, A. ; Verberk, W. ; Waal, R.W. de; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Weeda, E.J. - \ 2009
    Ede : Ministerie van LNV, Directie Kennis (Rapport DK nr. 2009/dk108-O) - 110
    flora - fauna - natuurbescherming - bodem - nederland - bodem-plant relaties - beekdalen - zuid-limburg - natura 2000 - flora - fauna - nature conservation - soil - netherlands - soil plant relationships - brook valleys - zuid-limburg - natura 2000
    Het Heuvelland neemt door zijn afwijkende geologie en bodemgesteldheid in ons land een bijzondere positie in. Hierdoor heeft het gebied meer gemeen met het aansluitende Midden-Europese heuvellandschap dan met de rest van ons land. Het Zuid-Limburgse Heuvellandschap kent dan ook voor ons land bijzondere soorten flora en fauna. Deze komen voor in: kalkgraslanden, hellingbossen, beekdalhooilanden, kalkmoerassen, bronnen en beekbegeleidende bossen. De grote betekenis van de Zuid-Limburgse beekdalen komt tot uitdrukking in de aanmelding van een 6 tal Natura gebieden in het beekdallandschap. In het kader van OBN is aan het Zuid-Limburgse Heuvelland een 'status aparte' verleend. In dit rapport komen achtereenvolgens aan bod: De Zuid-Limburgse beekdalen in historisch perspectief; Sleutelfactoren en sleutelprocessen in de beekdalen van het Heuvelland; Natuurwaarden in de beekdalen in het Heuvelland; Aantastingen en bedreigingen (verdroging, eutrofiëring, toxische stoffen, veranderingen in de hydrodynamiek, veranderend landgebruik en versnippering)
    Water-, milieu- en ruimtecondities fauna: implementatie in LARCH
    Pouwels, R. ; Reijnen, M.J.S.M. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Kleunen, A. van; Kuipers, H. ; Greft-van Rossum, J.G.M. van der - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 98) - 40
    ecosystemen - lepidoptera - vogels - habitats - monitoring - modellen - ecologische hoofdstructuur - ecosystems - lepidoptera - birds - habitats - monitoring - models - ecological network
    Voor de ecologische beoordeling van de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur (EHS) worden verschillende graadmeters gebruikt. Het kennissysteem LARCH wordt gebruikt bij de beoordeling van de graadmeter ‘milieu- en ruimtecondities’. In deze studie zijn de milieu-, water- en ruimtecondities samengevoegd om doelsoorten uit de soortgroepen vlinders en vogels te beoordelen. Per soort is beoordeeld in hoeverre de EHS voldoende potentiële leefgebieden, met voldoende kwaliteit, biedt om landelijk duurzaam voor te kunnen komen. Hierbij is gebruik gemaakt van expertkennis en kennis over de gevoeligheid van natuurdoeltypen voor water- en milieucondities, omdat er weinig kwantitatieve gegevens voorhanden zijn Het blijkt dat slechts 35% van de onderzochte faunasoorten voldoende hebben aan de huidige EHS om duurzaam voor te kunnen komen in Nederland. Voor de ontwikkeling van het kennissysteem LARCH wordt aanbevolen om de expertkennis verder te onderbouwen, plantensoorten toe te voegen aan het kennissysteem en de invoerbestanden te verbeteren. Ook wordt aanbevolen om beheer toe te voegen als factor, omdat beheer de negatieve effecten van milieu- en watercondities op het voorkomen van soorten kan tegengaan. Trefwoorden: EHS, duurzaamheid, vogels, vlinders, kennissysteem
    Realisatie landelijke doelen Vogel- en Habitatrichtlijn : een onderzoek naar de noodzaak voor aanvullende beleidsmaatregelen ter realisatie van de landelijke doelen van de Vogel- en Habitatrichtlijn
    Bouwma, I.M. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Kuipers, H. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Niemeijer, C.M. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Pouwels, R. ; Sanders, M.E. ; Epe, M.J. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1835) - 85
    soorten - flora - fauna - inventarisaties - natuurbeleid - species - flora - fauna - inventories - nature conservation policy
    Nederland heeft voor de soorten en habitattypen van de VHR landelijke doelstellingen geformuleerd. Dit onderzoek analyseert voor welke soorten en habitattypen de realisatie van de landelijke doelen afdoende geborgd is via het bestaand natuurbeleid (Natura 2000, EHS, Programma Beheer, soortenbeleid, gedragscodes, leefgebiedenbenadering) en voor welke niet. Onderzoek in samenwerking met Particulier Gegevensbeherende Organisaties (PGO), namelijk EIS, FLORON, SOVON, VZZ, BLWG, RAVON en Vlinderstichting
    Verkenning herstel kleinschalige lijnvormige infrastructuur Heuvelland
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Boesveld, A. ; Bosman, W. ; Reemer, M. ; Regelink, J. ; Rossenaar, A.J. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Veling, K. - \ 2009
    Ede : Directie Kennis, Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit (Rapport DK nr. 2009/dk110-O) - 82
    kalkgraslanden - bossen - landschap - herstel - heuvels - hellingen - flora - fauna - heggen - natuurwaarde - natuurbeheer - ecologisch herstel - zuid-limburg - houtwallen - natura 2000 - chalk grasslands - forests - landscape - rehabilitation - hill land - slopes - flora - fauna - hedges - natural value - nature management - ecological restoration - zuid-limburg - hedgerows - natura 2000
    Kalkgraslanden en hellingbossen zijn voorbeelden van soortenrijke natuur in het Limburgse Heuvelland. In het kader van OBN is een verkennend overzicht van natuurwaarden van lijnvormige elementen gemaakt, met een visie op mogelijk herstel van natuur in bermen, heggen en houtwallen. Deze inventarisatie is tot stand gekomen dankzij de inzet van: RAVON, Vlinderstichting, Stichting Anemoon, Floron, Zoogdierenvereniging VZZ, EIS Nederland, en Alterra
    Caroussel met presentaties van Wageningen UR, Ruimtelijk verbinden van EHS en cultuurlandschap levert meer natuurkwaliteit
    Grashof, C.J. ; Chardon, J.P. ; Vos, C.C. ; Foppen, R.P.B. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Veen, M. van der; Meeuwsen, H.A.M. - \ 2008
    In: Congres Kennisbasis Groene en Blauwe Ruimte, Landschap, Mens en Groene Gebiedsontwikkeling, Wageningen, 3 september, 2008. - Wageningen : Alterra - p. 10 - 11.
    Waarheen stuurt het weer de vlinderstand?
    Swaay, Chr. van; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Baxter, W. ; Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2006
    De Levende Natuur 107 (2006)6. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 265 - 269.
    lepidoptera - zoögeografie - fenologie - fauna - migratie - klimaatverandering - weer - lepidoptera - zoogeography - phenology - fauna - migration - climatic change - weather
    Uit de data van het Landelijk Meetnet Vlinders (van Vlinderstichting en CBS) zijn jaarlijkse trends berekend. De veranderingen in populatiegrootte zijn vergeleken met weersfactoren; behalve gemiddelde wwersomstandigheden zijn voor het eerst ook extreme weersomstandigheden meegerekend. Met behulp van modellen is vervolgens nagegaan welk effect de verwachte klimaatsverandering op de Nederlandse vlinderstand zou kunnen hebben
    Hotspots dagvlinder biodiversiteit
    Swaay, C.A.M. van; Mensing, V. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 31) - 42
    lepidoptera - inventarisaties - karteringen - biodiversiteit - zoögeografie - vegetatietypen - nederland - lepidoptera - inventories - surveys - biodiversity - zoogeography - vegetation types - netherlands
    Voor een betrouwbare en verifieerbare voorspelling van de verandering van de natuurwaarde voor flora en fauna zijn ruimtelijk gedetailleerde gegevens en rekenmodellen nodig. In deze studie van Vlinderstichting en WOT Natuur & Milieu wordt een modelopzet gemaakt voor kaarten met de hotspots voor dagvlinder diversiteit op een schaalniveau van 250bij 250 meter
    How peri-urban areas can strengthen animal populations within cities: a modeling approach
    Snep, R.P.H. ; Opdam, P.F.M. ; Baveco, J.M. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Timmermans, W. ; Kwak, R.G.M. ; Kuypers, V.H.M. - \ 2006
    Biological Conservation 127 (2006)2. - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 345 - 355.
    correlated random-walk - cabbage butterflies - insect movement - pieris-rapae - dispersal - conservation - habitat - landscape - ecology - metapopulation
    We explore the extent to which inner-city fauna can be enhanced by source areas in peri-urban zones as a response to a decreasing quality and size of green habitats within cities. The objectives were to get a better understanding of the interaction between animal populations of urban and peri-urban areas, and the role of urban green structures within this relationship, and to find out the extent to which peri-urban areas can contribute to urban animal populations. We illustrate the idea of peri-urban support by using a simulation model for individual animal movement, applied in a particular case-study with butterflies as model species. Results show differences in accessibility of inner-city areas between model butterfly species that differ in mobility. The impact of peri-urban individuals on populations of inner-city habitats differed among several peri-urban source-scenarios: the enlargement of the inner-city butterfly population by peri-urban individuals was determined as 7¿36% for `moderate dispersers¿ and 19¿56% for `good dispersers¿. Results also show that well-connected habitat patches within existing urban green structures were more likely to be visited by peri-urban individuals than isolated habitat patches. We conclude that peri-urban nature areas, if large enough, can have a potentially positive influence on the presence of fauna in inner-city neighborhoods. In addition, results suggest that connectivity between inner-city and peri-urban habitat patches enhances contribution of peri-urban migrants to inner-city populations. By providing a range of different habitats, from inner-city up to peri-urban area, moderately mobile habitat specialists could better compete against the small set of successful habitat generalists that are increasing in urban environments all over the world.
    Er zit te weinig beweging in de ecologische hoofdstructuur
    Bakker, J.P. ; Bekker, R.M. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2003
    De Levende Natuur 104 (2003)6. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 261 - 266.
    habitats - territorium - herstel - ecosystemen - ecologische hoofdstructuur - habitats - territory - ecosystems - rehabilitation - ecological network
    Ingegaan wordt op relevante ruimtelijke dimensies in relatie tot diversiteit van soorten, de verbindingen tussen habitats en het herstel, en problemen in abiotische condities
    Peri-urban areas act as source for nature quality in cities: using a spatial simulation model to explore ecological urban-rural relations
    Snep, R.P.H. ; Opdam, P.F.M. ; Baveco, J.M. ; Wallis de Vries, M. ; Timmermans, W. - \ 2002
    In: Collaborative planning for the metropolitan landscape; regional strategies for smart growth: when city and country collide. S.l., ISOMUL / Western Washington University, 2002, p. 120 + cd-rom / Haaland, K., Smith, B.,
    landschapsecologie - natuurontwikkeling - simulatiemodel - stedelijke ecologie - verstedelijking
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