Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Hoe overleeft het gentiaanblauwtje klimaatextremen?
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Limpens, J. - \ 2020
    Vlinders 35 (2020)augustus. - ISSN 0923-1846 - p. 4 - 7.
    Aan de vrije val van het gentiaanblauwtje lijkt maar geen einde te komen. Klimaatextremen lijken daar een belangrijke rol in te spelen. De laatste jaren hebben we de invloed daarvan met nieuw onderzoek proberen op te helderen. Het goede nieuws is dat de schade door klimaatverandering kan worden beperkt door aangepast terreinbeheer.
    Biological approach is harmful
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel - \ 2020
    Middellange termijn effecten van chopperen en drukbegrazing als alternatieven voor plaggen op natte heide
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Bobbink, Roland ; Brouwer, Emiel ; Loeb, Roos ; Vogels, J. - \ 2019
    De Levende Natuur 120 (2019)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 172 - 178.
    Herstel van de habitatkwaliteit van natte heide is zowel op nationaal als op Europees niveau een belangrijke opgave. Dit vergt behalve hydrologisch herstel ook een zorgvuldige afweging tussen verschillende maatregelen voor vegetatiebeheer en herstel van buffercapaciteit (Wallis de Vries et al., 2016). Vanwege de ingrijpende invloed van plaggen op bodem, vegetatie en fauna zijn in dit onderzoek chopperen en drukbegrazing, al of niet in combinatie met bekalking, als mogelijke alternatieven onderzocht.
    Distribution trends of European dragonflies under climate change
    Termaat, Tim ; Strien, Arco J. van; Grunsven, Roy H.A. van; Knijf, Geert De; Bjelke, Ulf ; Burbach, Klaus ; Conze, Klaus Jürgen ; Goffart, Philippe ; Hepper, David ; Kalkman, Vincent J. ; Motte, Grégory ; Prins, Marijn D. ; Prunier, Florent ; Sparrow, David ; Top, Gregory G. van den; Vanappelghem, Cédric ; Winterholler, Michael ; Wallis De Vries, Michiel F. - \ 2019
    Diversity and Distributions 25 (2019)6. - ISSN 1366-9516 - p. 936 - 950.
    citizen science data - climate change - Community Temperature Index - Multi-species Indicator - Odonata - Species Temperature Index

    Aim: Poleward range shifts of species are among the most obvious effects of climate change on biodiversity. As a consequence of these range shifts, species communities are predicted to become increasingly composed of warm-dwelling species, but this has only been studied for a limited number of taxa, mainly birds, butterflies and plants. As species groups may vary considerably in their adaptation to climate change, it is desirable to expand these studies to other groups, from different ecosystems. Freshwater macroinvertebrates, such as dragonflies (Odonata), have been ranked among the species groups with highest priority. In this paper, we investigate how the occurrence of dragonflies in Europe has changed in recent decades, and if these changes are in parallel with climate change. Location: Europe. Methods: We use data from 10 European geographical regions to calculate occupancy indices and trends for 99 (69%) of the European species. Next, we combine these regional indices to calculate European indices. To determine if changes in regional dragonfly communities in Europe reflect climatic warming, we calculate Species Temperature Indices (STI), Multi-species Indicators (MSI) and Community Temperature Indices (CTI). Results: 55 of 99 considered species increased in occupancy at European level, 32 species remained stable, and none declined. Trends for 12 species are uncertain. MSI of cold-dwelling and warm-dwelling species differ in some of the regions, but increased at a similar rate at European level. CTI increased in all regions, except Cyprus. The European CTI increased slightly. Main conclusions: European dragonflies, in general, have expanded their distribution in response to climate change, even though their CTI lags behind the increase in temperature. Furthermore, dragonflies proved to be a suitable species group for monitoring changes in communities, both at regional and continental level.

    Versterking van connectiviteit voor soorten van hellingschraallanden
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Nijssen, Marijn ; Ozinga, W.A. - \ 2019
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 108 (2019)4. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 105 - 110.
    Het behoud en herstel van de uitzonderlijk hoge biodiversiteit in het Limburgse Heuvelland
    Karakterisering, uitbreiding en herstel kwaliteit van Veldbies-Beukenbossen
    Hommel, Patrick ; Bijlsma, Rienk-Jan ; Jansman, Hugh ; Ouden, Jan den; Schaminée, Joop ; Waal, Rein de; Wallis de Vries, Michiel - \ 2018
    Driebergen : VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren (OBN rapport 2018/OBN225-HE) - 180
    Versterking van connectiviteit voor soorten van hellingschraallanden
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel F. ; Nijssen, Marijn E. ; Ozinga, Wim A. - \ 2018
    Driebergen : VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren - 109
    Effecten van damherten op dagvlinders in de Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2018
    De Levende Natuur 119 (2018)1. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 12 - 17.
    De populatie damherten in de Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen (AWD) is de
    laatste tientallen jaren sterk toegenomen, en als gevolg daarvan is het aantal
    dagvlinders sterk verminderd. Onderzocht is welke soorten het sterkste in aantal
    zijn achteruitgegaan, en in hoeverre deze achteruitgang kan worden verklaard uit
    veranderingen in de beschikbaarheid van waardplanten en van nectaraanbod.
    Achteruitgang insectenpopulaties in Nederland: trends, oorzaken en kennislacunes
    Kleijn, David ; Bink, Ruud J. ; Braak, Cajo J.F. ter; Grunsven, Roy van; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Roessink, Ivo ; Scheper, Jeroen A. ; Schmidt, Anne M. ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel F. ; Wegman, Ruut ; Zee, Friso F. van der; Zeegers, Th. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2871) - 85
    Kunstlicht nekt nachtvlinders
    Langevelde, F. van; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2018
    Vlinders als graadmeter voor verandering in onze omgeving
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 4 p.
    Position paper voor rondetafelgesprek Biodiversiteit, Tweede kamer, 29november 2017
    Vlinders als indicator voor stikstofdepositie
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2017
    Herstel van de Zuid-Limburgse hellingmoerassen, het Kalkmoeras in het bijzonder
    Mars, Hans de; Possen, Boy ; Delft, Bas van; Weeda, Eddy ; Schaminée, Joop ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel - \ 2017
    Driebergen : VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren (Rapport OBN 213-HE) - 171
    De opzet van het voor u liggende rapport vormt niet louter de verslaglegging van het Fase II onderzoek. Het is eerder de synthese van het uitgevoerde onderzoeksproject, waarbij met oog op de voorliggende kennisvragen ook direct gebruik is gemaakt van een aantal andere studies. Het rapport bestaat daarmee dus ook uit een integratie van de verkregen resultaten van de uitgevoerde veldonderzoeken en literatuur-onderzoek. Aan bod komen een algemene kenschets van Zuid-Limburgse hellingmoerassen, een beknopte historisch ecologische ontwikkeling, de belangrijkste natuurwaarden, standplaatscondities en sleutelprocessen. , Dit alles met specifieke aandacht voor het Kalkmoeras. Afgesloten wordt met een beknopt overzicht van herstelmaatregelen en uitbreidingsmogelijkheden c.q. locaties.
    Butterflies show different functional and species diversity in relationship to vegetation structure and land use
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Marshall, Leon ; Zelfde, Maarten van 't; Villalobos-Arámbula, Alma R. ; Boekelo, Bastiaen ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Franzén, Markus ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. - \ 2017
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 26 (2017)10. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1126 - 1137.

    Aim

    Biodiversity is rapidly disappearing at local and global scales also affecting the functional diversity of ecosystems. We aimed to assess whether functional diversity was correlated with species diversity and whether both were affected by similar land use and vegetation structure drivers. Better understanding of these relationships will allow us to improve our predictions regarding the effects of future changes in land use on ecosystem functions and services.


    Location

    The Netherlands.


    Methods

    We compiled a dataset of c. 3 million observations of 66 out of 106 known Dutch butterfly species collected across 6,075 sampling locations during a period of 7 years, together with very high-resolution maps of land use and countrywide vegetation structure data. Using a mixed-effects modelling framework, we investigated the relationship between functional and species diversity and their main land use and vegetation structure drivers.


    Results

    We found that high species diversity does not translate into high functional diversity, as shown by their different spatial distribution patterns in the landscape. Functional and species diversity are mainly driven by different sets of structural and land use parameters (especially average vegetation height, amount of vegetation between 0.5 and 2 m, natural grassland, sandy soils vegetation, marsh vegetation and urban areas). We showed that it is a combination of both vegetation structural characteristics and land use variables that defines functional and species diversity.


    Main conclusions

    Functional diversity and species diversity of butterflies are not consistently correlated and must therefore be treated separately. High functional diversity levels occurred even in areas with low species diversity. Thus, conservation actions may differ depending on whether the focus is on conservation of high functional diversity or high species diversity. A more integrative analysis of biodiversity at both species and trait levels is needed to infer the full effects of environmental change on ecosystem functioning.
    Data from: Gene flow and effective population sizes of the butterfly Maculinea alcon in a highly fragmented, anthropogenic landscape
    Vanden Broeck, A.H. ; Maes, Dirk ; Kelager, Andreas ; Wynhoff, Irma ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Nash, David R. ; Oostermeijer, J.G.B. ; Dyck, Hans van; Mergeay, Joachim - \ 2017
    Wageningen University & Research
    gene flow - microsatellite data - effective population size - dispersal - sedentary species - Maculinea alcon - Phengaris alcon
    The file Maculinea alcon microsatellite data includes the data from 12 microsatellites for 398 unique genotypes of Maculinea alcon from in total 14 sampling locations located in Belgium and The Netherlands. The data matrix also include the spatial coordinates of each sampled population, given in the two last columns.
    Naar een Actieplan Heischrale graslanden : hoe behouden en herstellen we heischrale graslanden in Nederland?
    Zee, Friso van der; Bobbink, Roland ; Loeb, Roos ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Oostermeijer, Gerard ; Luijten, Sheila ; Graaf, Maaike de - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2812) - 135
    graslanden - graslandbeheer - ecologisch herstel - habitats - grasslands - grassland management - ecological restoration - habitats
    Heischraal grasland is een van oorsprong soortenrijk ecosysteem in het zandlandschap, het heuvellandschap en de duinen. De staat van instandhouding van de habitattypen H6230 en H2130C (waar dit ecosysteem in Nederland wordt verdeeld) is slecht, met name de droge varianten. Dat is extra zorgelijk, omdat het om prioritaire habitattypen gaat, dat wil zeggen dat er extra aandacht moet zijn voor het zo spoedig mogelijk bereiken van een gunstige staat van instandhouding. Er is landelijk gezien nog maar 30-40 ha redelijk ontwikkeld heischraal grasland over. Veel heischrale graslanden, ook die er qua soortensamenstelling nog relatief goed uitzien, zijn sterk verzuurd. Door menselijke aanvoer van eerst zwavel en nu stikstof is de zuurbuffering in de bodem ernstig aangetast, en monitoring van de stikstofbelasting laat zien dat deze nog nauwelijks is verminderd.
    Ecological determinants of butterfly vulnerability across the European continent
    Essens, Tijl ; Langevelde, Frank van; Vos, Rutger A. ; Swaay, Chris A.M. van; Wallis de Vries, Michiel - \ 2017
    Journal of Insect Conservation 21 (2017)3. - ISSN 1366-638X - p. 439 - 450.
    Butterflies - Conservation - Life-history traits - Phylogeny - Red List - Vulnerability

    In drawing up Red Lists, the extinction risks of butterflies and other insects are currently assessed mainly by using information on trends in distribution and abundance. Incorporating information on species traits may increase our ability to predict species responses to environmental change and, hence, their vulnerability. We summarized ecologically relevant life-history and climatic niche traits in principal components, and used these to explain the variation in five vulnerability indicators (Red List status, Endemicity, Range size, Habitat specialisation index, Affinity for natural habitats) for 397 European butterfly species out of 482 species present in Europe. We also evaluated a selection of 238 species to test whether phylogenetic correction affected these relationships. For all but the affinity for natural habitats, climatic niche traits predicted more variation in vulnerability than life-history traits; phylogenetic correction had no relevant influence on the findings. The life-history trait component reflecting mobility, development rate, and overwintering stage, proved the major non-climatic determinant of species vulnerability. We propose that this trait component offers a preferable alternative to the frequently used, but ecologically confusing generalist-specialist continuum. Our analysis contributes to the development of trait-based approaches to prioritise vulnerable species for conservation at a European scale. Further regional scale analyses are recommended to improve our understanding of the biological basis of species vulnerability.

    Pathways for the effects of increased nitrogen deposition on fauna
    Nijssen, M.E. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Siepel, H. - \ 2017
    Biological Conservation 212 (2017)pt. B. - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 423 - 431.
    Acidification - Chemical stress - Eutrophication - Food web - Microclimate - Plant stoichiometry imbalance
    Effects of increased N deposition, caused by agricultural practices and combustion of fossil fuels in traffic and industry, have been studied in detail for soil and water chemistry as well as for vegetation and ecosystem functioning. Knowledge on fauna is limited to descriptive and correlative data for a small number of species or communities. Therefore, mechanisms behind effects of N deposition on animal species and diversity remain unclear, which hampers optimisation of nature restoration and conservation measures.The aim of this review is to identify and structure possible different pathways in which fauna is affected by high N deposition. We identify ten pathways leading to six basic potentially negative bottlenecks: (1) chemical stress, (2) a levelled and humid microclimate, (3) decrease in reproductive habitat, (4) changes in food plant quantity, (5) changes in nutritional quality of food plants and (6) changes in availability of prey or host species due to cumulative effects in the food web. Depending on species and habitat type, different pathways play a dominant role and interference between different pathways can strengthen or weaken the net effect of N deposition.Although all identified pathways and bottlenecks are supported by peer reviewed literature, we conclude that scientific evidence on the causal relationship between increased N deposition and effects on fauna in the complete causal chain is still insufficient. We recommend that future research should aim to clarify the causal mechanisms underlying the observed changes in species composition attributed to N deposition. The most severe gaps in knowledge concern subtle changes in plant chemistry and changes in availability of prey and host species to higher trophic levels.
    Historical changes in the importance of climate and land use as determinants of Dutch pollinator distributions
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús ; Kissling, W.D. ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Reemer, Menno ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. - \ 2017
    Journal of Biogeography 44 (2017)3. - ISSN 0305-0270 - p. 696 - 707.
    biodiversity change - climate change - ecological niche models - environmental variable importance - global warming - habitat fragmentation - habitat loss - species distribution models
    Aim: Species distribution models are often used to project species distributions to different environmental conditions. However, most models do not consider whether the importance of abiotic factors may change over time. If they change, this has implications for the assessment of how abiotic changes affect species distributions. Here, we use spatially explicit historical data on species occurrences, climate and land use to test whether the importance of different climatic and land-use drivers as determinants of species distributions has remained constant over a period of > 60 years (1951–2014). Location: The Netherlands. Methods: Using species distribution models and a comprehensive country-wide dataset at 5 × 5 km resolution, we modelled the distribution of a total of 398 pollinator species (bees, butterflies and hoverflies) for three periods (1951–1970, 1971–1990 and 1998–2014). We then evaluated whether the importance of variables related to climate (precipitation, temperature) and land use (landscape composition and habitat fragmentation) in determining pollinator distributions has changed over time. Results: Variables related to landscape composition were highly important in determining pollinator distributions in all periods. Precipitation was generally less important than temperature, and habitat fragmentation less than landscape composition. Land-use variables remained equally important across time for all pollinator groups, except for bees where the importance of habitat fragmentation decreased significantly over time. Among climate variables, the importance of precipitation did not change across time for any pollinator group. However, the importance of temperature increased significantly in recent times for bees and hoverflies. Main conclusions: Determinants of species distributions can change in their importance over time when changes in the magnitude and range of environmental conditions occur. Given future temperature rises, our results imply that species distribution models calibrated with current climatic conditions may not adequately predict the future importance of environmental factors in driving species distributions.
    Gene flow and effective population sizes of the butterfly Maculinea alcon in a highly fragmented, anthropogenic landscape
    Vanden Broeck, An ; Maes, Dirk ; Kelager, Andreas ; Wynhoff, Irma ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Nash, David R. ; Oostermeijer, J.G.B. ; Dyck, Hans van; Mergeay, Joachim - \ 2017
    Biological Conservation 209 (2017). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 89 - 97.
    Butterfly conservation - Dispersal - Effective population size - Gene flow - Sedentary species

    Understanding connectivity among populations in fragmented landscapes is of paramount importance in species conservation because it determines their long-term viability and helps to identify and prioritize populations to conserve. Rare and sedentary species are particularly vulnerable to habitat fragmentation as they occupy narrow niches or restricted habitat ranges. Here, we assess contemporary interpopulation connectedness of the threatened, myrmecophilous butterfly, Maculinea alcon, in a highly fragmented landscape. We inferred dispersal, effective population sizes, genetic diversity and structure based on 14 locations of M. alcon in Belgium and the Netherlands using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Despite the reported sedentary behaviour of M. alcon, we observed moderate levels of contemporary dispersal between patches, but only in landscapes where populations were located within a distance of 3 km from neighbouring populations. Estimates of effective population sizes (Ne) were very low (ranging from 1.6 to 17.6) and bottleneck events occurred in most of the studied populations. We discuss the functional conservation units delineated based on a former mark-release-recapture study, and formulate appropriate conservation strategies to maintain viable (meta)populations in highly fragmented, anthropogenic landscapes.

    Nitrogen deposition impacts on biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems : Mechanisms and perspectives for restoration
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Bobbink, Roland - \ 2017
    Biological Conservation 212 (2017)pt. B. - ISSN 0006-3207
    A nitrogen index to track changes in butterfly species assemblages under nitrogen deposition
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Swaay, Chris A.M. van - \ 2017
    Biological Conservation 212 (2017)pt. B. - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 448 - 453.
    Biodiversity - Butterflies - Global change - Indicators - Insects - Nitrogen deposition
    The impacts of nitrogen deposition (N) on animal communities are still poorly understood in comparison to plant communities. Long-term monitoring of community changes may contribute to this understanding, complementing experimental studies on underlying mechanisms. Butterflies are particularly suitable for such analyses, because the different species cover a broad gradient of productivity, their ecological traits are well-known, monitoring data are available in a growing number of countries, and the short life history of butterflies ensures a rapid response to changing environmental conditions.Here, we use species-specific nitrogen optima to develop a community nitrogen index (CNI) for butterflies in the Netherlands. Over a 25-year period (1990-2015), data from the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme reveal a significant increase in the CNI in response to high nitrogen deposition levels. However, the rate of increase is declining, in close parallel with reduced nitrogen deposition loads. The continuing increase indicates that nitrogen deposition still exceeds the critical nitrogen load of butterfly communities in the Netherlands. Overall, the relative increase of butterflies from more productive environments reflects the advantage, under high nitrogen availability, of mobile and multivoltine species with high reproductive capacity, rapid larval development and hibernation as pupae or adults. We discuss the perspectives and limitations in applying the CNI at both national and local scales. We propose that, when taking the critical nitrogen load of the examined butterfly community into account, the CNI may prove a valuable tool to track changes of biotic communities in relation to nitrogen deposition.
    Differentiating the effects of climate and land use change on European biodiversity : A scenario analysis
    Vermaat, Jan E. ; Hellmann, Fritz A. ; Teeffelen, Astrid J.A. van; Wallis de Vries, Michiel - \ 2017
    Ambio 46 (2017)3. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 277 - 290.
    Climate envelope modelling - Dry grasslands - Habitat connectivity - Land use change - Species sensitivity database - SRES scenario articulation - Wetlands - 016-3982 - 017-3997
    Current observed as well as projected changes in biodiversity are the result of multiple interacting factors, with land use and climate change often marked as most important drivers. We aimed to disentangle the separate impacts of these two for sets of vascular plant, bird, butterfly and dragonfly species listed as characteristic for European dry grasslands and wetlands, two habitats of high and threatened biodiversity. We combined articulations of the four frequently used SRES climate scenarios and associated land use change projections for 2030, and assessed their impact on population trends in species (i.e. whether they would probably be declining, stable or increasing). We used the BIOSCORE database tool, which allows assessment of the effects of a range of environmental pressures including climate change as well as land use change. We updated the species lists included in this tool for our two habitat types. We projected species change for two spatial scales: the EU27 covering most of Europe, and the more restricted biogeographic region of ‘Continental Europe’. Other environmental pressures modelled for the four scenarios than land use and climate change generally did not explain a significant part of the variance in species richness change. Changes in characteristic bird and dragonfly species were least pronounced. Land use change was the most important driver for vascular plants in both habitats and spatial scales, leading to a decline in 50–100% of the species included, whereas climate change was more important for wetland dragonflies and birds (40–50 %). Patterns of species decline were similar in continental Europe and the EU27 for wetlands but differed for dry grasslands, where a substantially lower proportion of butterflies and birds declined in continental Europe, and 50 % of bird species increased, probably linked to a projected increase in semi-natural vegetation. In line with the literature using climate envelope models, we found little divergence among the four scenarios. Our findings suggest targeted policies depending on habitat and species group. These are, for dry grasslands, to reduce land use change or its effects and to enhance connectivity, and for wetlands to mitigate climate change effects.
    Grazing and biodiversity: from selective foraging to wildlife habitats
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2016
    In: Mountain pastures and livestock farming facing uncertainty: environmental, technical and socio-economic challenges / Casasús, I., Lombardi, G., Zaragoza : Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes (Options Méditerranéennes series A: Mediterranean Seminars 116) - ISBN 9782853525596 - p. 177 - 187.
    016-3959
    Livestock grazing in low-intensity farming systems is a key aspect in the conservation of Europe's biodiversity, which reaches high levels of species richness in semi-natural grasslands. With the demise of traditional grazing systems, the design of viable low-intensity grazing systems for the future requires a good understanding of grazing impacts on biodiversity. Here, I review various scale-dependent aspects of selective grazing and how they may affect biodiversity. Insects such as butterflies are well-suited to elucidate small-scale impacts of grazing intensity. They highlight the importance of viewing grazing impacts in a framework of spatial heterogeneity and successional dynamics. In order to optimise these successional dynamics, grazing management may adopt techniques such as rotational grazing and strategic placement of mineral licks. However, we still lack a good evidence base on the effects of targeted grazing practices on biodiversity. The challenge to solve this gap can be met by a combination of creative field experiments that focus on the mechanisms of biodiversity responses and adaptive management that builds on a continuous feedback from sound monitoring.
    Politiek landschap moet vergroenen
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2016
    016-3979
    De argusvlinder: hoe keren we de afname van een 'gewone vlindersoort'?
    Stip, A. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2016
    De Levende Natuur 117 (2016)2. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 46 - 51.
    016-3723 - 016-3923
    Er zijn momenteel in Nederland maar weinig vlindersoorten die zo hard
    achteruitgaan als de Argusvlinder (Lasiommata megera). In goed twintig
    jaar tijd verdween maar liefst 98% van de populatie in ons land. En dat terwijl
    het tot voor kort een heel ‘gewone’ vlindersoort was in een breed scala aan
    biotopen. Om het tij te keren heeft De Vlinderstichting recent een beschermingsplan voor de Argusvlinder opgesteld. Met de daaruit voortkomende
    maatregelen en onderzoek is nieuwe kennis opgedaan over de ecologie van de Argusvlinder en de problemen waar de soort mee kampt. In dit artikel presenteren we deze kennis. Op basis daarvan geven we richtlijnen voor het beheer van het habitat van de Argusvlinder.
    Beheeroptimalisatie Zuid-Limburgse hellingschraallanden : effecten van gefaseerde begrazing op bodem, vegetatie en fauna
    Nijssen, Marijn ; Bobbink, Roland ; Geertsma, Marten ; Scherpenisse, Miriam ; Huiskes, Rik ; Kuper, Jan ; Smits, Nina ; Bohnen-Verbaarschot, Evi ; Verbeek, Peter ; Versluijs, Remco ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Weijters, Maaike ; Wouters, Bart - \ 2016
    Driebergen : VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren (Rapport / Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren nr. OBN-209-HE) - 183
    Effects of grazing management on biodiversity across trophic levels – The importance of livestock species and stocking density in salt marshes
    Klink, Roel van; Nolte, Stefanie ; Mandema, Freek S. ; Lagendijk, D.D.G. ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Bakker, Jan P. ; Esselink, Peter ; Smit, Christian - \ 2016
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 235 (2016). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 329 - 339.
    Birds - Butterflies - Cattle - Flower-visiting insects - Horses - Plants - Vegetation - Wetland

    European coastal salt marshes are important for the conservation of numerous species of specialist plants, invertebrates, breeding and migratory birds. When these marshes are managed for nature conservation purposes, livestock grazing is often used to counter the dominance of the tall grass Elytrigia atherica, and the subsequent decline in plant species richness. However, it remains unclear what is the optimal choice of livestock species and stocking density to benefit biodiversity of various trophic levels. To fill this knowledge gap, we set up a triplicate, full factorial grazing experiment with cattle and horse grazing at low and high stocking densities (0.5 or 1 animal ha−1) at the mainland coast of the Dutch Wadden Sea. Here, we present the results after 4 years and integrate these with previously published results from the same experiment to assess effects of livestock grazing on various trophic groups. Stocking density affected almost all measured variables: high stocking densities favoured plant species richness and suppression of E. atherica, whereas low stocking densities favoured abundances of voles, pollinators and flowers. Densities of different functional groups of birds showed no significant response to the regimes, but tended to be somewhat higher under 0.5 horse and 1 cattle ha−1. Choice of livestock species had fewer and smaller effects than stocking density. Horse grazing was detrimental to vole density, and showed an interactive effect with stocking density for Asteraceae flower abundance. Multidiversity, a synthetic whole-ecosystem biodiversity measure, did not differ among regimes. These results are discussed in the light of other results from the same experiment. Because of these contrasting effects on different trophic groups, we advise concurrent application of different grazing regimes within a spatial mosaic, with the inclusion of long-term abandonment. High density horse grazing, however, is detrimental to biodiversity.

    Landscape complexity and farmland biodiversity: Evaluating the CAPtarget on natural elements
    Cormont, A. ; Siepel, H. ; Clement, J. ; Melman, Th.C.P. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2016
    Journal for Nature Conservation 30 (2016). - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 19 - 26.
    Increasing pressures on natural areas and limited conservation budgets require, particularly in rural landscapes in the Western world, an immediate answer to the question how much natural area is required to provide a sustainable future for wild plant and animal species on farmland. The European Union proposed in its Common Agricultural Policy that 3–7% of EU farmland should be managed as ecological focus area (EFA) in order to halt biodiversity loss. For the first time, we empirically assessed the implications of this policy by evaluating the effects of the density of natural elements in agricultural landscapes on multi-taxon species richness, including vascular plants, breeding birds, butterflies, hoverflies, dragonflies, and grasshoppers for an entire European country. We found that species richness increased either as linear or as a logarithmic function of the proportion of natural elements in the landscape, but not with a sigmoid function as predicted by the ‘intermediate landscape complexity’ hypothesis. Even landscapes with 3–7% of natural elements harboured generally 37–75% of maximum species richness, indicating good potential of implementing the CAP target to preserve farmland biodiversity. However, differences between the 3 and 7% limits were considerable for butterflies, birds, and hoverflies. Also, the shape of the species richness response was shown to differ between landscape types for butterflies. Thus, it may be necessary to develop tailor-made guidelines at regional levels.
    How much Biodiversity is in Natura 2000? : the “Umbrella Effect” of the European Natura 2000 protected area network : technical report
    Sluis, T. van der; Foppen, R. ; Gillings, Simon ; Groen, T.A. ; Henkens, R.J.H.G. ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Huskens, K. ; Noble, David ; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Santini, L. ; Sierdsema, H. ; Kleunen, A. van; Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Swaay, C. van; Toxopeus, Bert ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Jones-Walters, L.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2738) - 147
    biodiversity - habitats directive - birds directive - natura 2000 - statistical analysis - geographical information systems - biodiversiteit - habitatrichtlijn - vogelrichtlijn - natura 2000 - statistische analyse - geografische informatiesystemen
    In order to assess the significance of the presumed “umbrella effect” of Natura 2000 areas the European Commission initiated a study, in 2013, to address the following questions: 1) Which are, amongst the species regularly occurring within the European territory of the EU-28 Member States, those that significantly benefit from the site conservation under the EU Birds and Habitats Directive? 2) What is the percentage of all species occurring in the wild in the EU that benefit significantly from Natura 2000? 3) How significant is the contribution of Natura 2000 in relation to the objective of halting and reversing biodiversity loss? The approach used existing data, and covered the terrestrial mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibian, butterfly and plant species. The analysis is mostly based on statistical distribution models and GIS processing of species distribution data in relation to their presence within protected areas of the Natura 2000 network. The main findings for all species groups were: Animal species for which Natura 2000 areas were not specifically designated occur more frequently inside Natura 2000 than outside (in particular breeding birds and butterflies). These species do, therefore, gain benefit from the protected areas network. The species for which Natura 2000 areas were designated generally occur more frequently within the Natura 2000 site boundaries than the nonannex species; this is in particular the case for birds and butterflies, for amphibians and reptiles the difference is negligible. More specific conclusions and findings, as well as discussion of these results and implications for further studies are included in the report.
    Herstel kwaliteit van natte heide in het zandlandschap
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Bobbink, R. ; Jansen, A.J.M. ; Vogels, J.J. - \ 2016
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 33 (2016)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 110 - 115.
    016-3951 - natuurbeheer - ecologisch herstel - heidegebieden - bodemkwaliteit - flora - vegetatie - fauna - toegepast onderzoek - bodems van waterrijke gebieden - grondwater - nature management - ecological restoration - heathlands - soil quality - flora - vegetation - fauna - applied research - wetland soils - groundwater
    Het verspreidingsgebied van natte heiden is in omvang min of meer gelijk gebleven sinds de laatste ontginningen. De kwaliteit blijft echter een dalende trend vertonen door de inwerking van stikstofdepositie en verdroging. Tegelijkertijd zijn er veelbelovende resultaten geboekt door nieuwe vormen van herstelbeheer. OBN heeft daarvoor de kennisbasis ontwikkeld. In dit artikel worden de daaruit voortvloeiende inzichten uiteen gezet en worden uitdagingen voor de toekomst geschetst.
    Contrasting responses of insect communities to grazing intensity in lowland heathlands
    Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Noordijk, Jinze ; Colijn, Ed O. ; Smit, John T. ; Veling, Kars - \ 2016
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 234 (2016). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 72 - 80.
    Biodiversity - Butterflies - Grasshoppers - Grazing - Heathlands - Insects

    Grazing at low stocking rates is often recommended for the preservation of the characteristic biodiversity of open landscapes. However, the fine-tuning of grazing management still lacks a good evidence base. This is particularly true for insect communities, as available evidence indicates that these are more vulnerable to grazing than plant communities. The outcome, however, may be expected to differ between insect species. Here, we analysed the impact of different grazing intensities on insect communities from lowland heathlands in the Netherlands. Firstly, we use detailed data on butterfly distribution and abundances to analyse population responses of 10 butterfly species to heathland grazing management. Secondly, we investigated species responses to grazing intensity on 16 field locations across a range of insect groups (butterflies, day-active moths, grasshoppers, and ants). We hypothesized that species from early successional stages would benefit from grazing whereas late-successional species would suffer from grazing. Moreover, we expected summer grazing to have less beneficial effects than year-round grazing. Both hypotheses were largely supported by our results. Species responses to grazing contrasted between early and late successional species. Variation in species responses were strongly linked to grazing intensity and soil moisture, reflecting species-specific niches in relation to vegetation structure and microclimate. We conclude that low-intensity year-round cattle grazing or herded sheep grazing may promote insect biodiversity in large, heterogeneous heathlands, whereas targeted or rotational grazing may be advisable in smaller areas.

    Mogelijkheden voor herstelbeheer in hellingbossen op kalkrijke bodem in Zuid-Limburg : resultaten praktijkproeven: omvorming van voormalig middenbos naar gevarieerd opgaand bos
    Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Eichhorn, K.A.O. ; Ouden, J. den; Waal, R.W. de; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Eichhorn, L. ; Goudzwaard, L. ; Heijerman, T. ; Kemmers, R.H. ; Prick, M.J.M. ; Smeets, Floris - \ 2016
    Driebergen : Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren - 155
    Using a phenological network to assess weather influences on first appearance of butterflies in the Netherlands
    Kolk, Henk Jan Van Der; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Vliet, Arnold J.H. Van - \ 2016
    Ecological Indicators 69 (2016). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 205 - 212.
    Anthocharis cardamines - Butterflies - Climate change - Monitoring network - Phenology - Plant-host interaction

    Phenological responses of butterflies to temperature have been demonstrated in several European countries by using data from standardized butterfly monitoring schemes. Recently, phenological networks have enabled volunteers to record phenological observations at project websites. In this study, the quality of the first appearance data of butterflies from the Dutch phenological network 'De Natuurkalender' was examined and these data were then used to analyze trends in butterfly appearance between 2001 and 2013, the effects of climatic factors on appearance of butterflies as well as the phenological interaction of one butterfly species, Anthocharis cardamines, and its two major host plants. Although phenological networks are relatively unstructured, this study shows that data from De Natuurkalender were highly comparable to more standardized data collected by the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. No trend in first appearance of any butterfly species was found during the time period 2001-2013. The first appearance dates of most butterflies showed, however, a clear relationship with spring temperature. Higher temperatures, especially in March and April, advanced the first appearance of butterflies. Therefore, with climatic warming in the future, earlier appearance of butterflies is expected. Although climate warming is a potential threat for phenological mismatches between different trophic levels, this study shows a similar temperature response of A. cardamines and its main host plants in the Netherlands. However, as only few phenological interactions between species are examined, further research including rarer monophagous butterfly species and their host plants is needed.

    Effecten van omvorming van hellingbossen naar ongelijkvormig hooghout op de vlinderfauna
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Prick, M.J.M. - \ 2015
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 104 (2015)12. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 243 - 247.
    De Keizersmantel als indicator voor het herstel van lichte en viooltjesrijke hellingbossen
    Omon, B. ; Veling, K. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2015
    De Levende Natuur 116 (2015)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 204 - 207.
    bosgebieden - bossen - soortenrijkdom - fauna - lepidoptera - nymphalidae - waardplanten - ecosystemen - habitats - zuid-limburg - bosbeheer - natuurbeheer - woodlands - forests - species richness - fauna - lepidoptera - nymphalidae - host plants - ecosystems - habitats - zuid-limburg - forest administration - nature management
    Een deel van de soorten die eens kenmerkend waren voor de hellingbossen in Zuid-Limburg is afgenomen of zelfs verdwenen. Het dichtgroeien van de bossen na het beëindigen van hakhoutbeheer zou een verklaring kunnen zijn, maar is dat ook zo? In dit artikel worden de ecologische eisen van de fauna van hellingbossen besproken aan de hand van de Keizersmantel. Ingegaan wordt op de vraag in welke mate de ecologische randvoorwaarden voor de Keizersmantel worden bepaald door het aanbod van waardplanten en door het microklimaat.
    Susceptibility of pollinators to ongoing landscape changes depends on landscape history
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J. ; Biesmeijer, J.C. ; Loon, E. van; Reemer, M. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Carvalheiro, L.G. - \ 2015
    Diversity and Distributions 21 (2015)10. - ISSN 1366-9516 - p. 1129 - 1140.
    Aim Pollinators play an important role in ecosystem functioning, affecting also crop production. Their decline may hence lead to serious ecological and economic impacts, making it essential to understand the processes that drive pollinator shifts in space and time. Land-use changes are thought to be one of the most important drivers of pollinators’ loss, and there is increasing investment on pollinator-friendly landscape management. However, it is still unclear whether landscape history of a given region determines how pollinator communities respond to further landscape modification. Location The Netherlands. Methods Using geographically explicit historical landscape and pollinator data from the Netherlands, we evaluated how species richness changes of three important pollinator groups (bees, hoverflies and butterflies) are affected by landscape changes related to habitat composition, fragmentation and species spillover potential and whether such effects depend on the historical characteristics of the landscape. Results The effect of landscape changes varied between different pollinator groups. While bumblebee richness benefited from increases in edges between managed and natural systems, other bees benefited from increases in landscape heterogeneity and hoverfly richness was fairly resistant to land-use changes. We found that for the majority of the pollinators past landscape characteristics conditioned, the more recent pollinator richness changes. Landscapes that historically had more suitable habitat were more susceptible to display hoverfly declines (caused by drivers not considered in this study). Landscapes that historically had greater spillover potential were more likely to suffer butterfly richness declines and the bumblebee assemblages were more susceptible to the effects of fragmentation. Main conclusions The diversity of responses of the pollinator groups suggest that multispecies approaches that take group-specific responses to land-use change into account are highly valuable. These findings emphasize the limited value of a one-size-fits-all biodiversity conservation measure and highlight the importance of considering landscape history when planning biodiversity conservation actions.
    Impact of nitrogen deposition on larval habitats: the case of the Wall Brown butterfly Lasiommata megera
    Klop, E. ; Omon, B. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2015
    Journal of Insect Conservation 19 (2015)2. - ISSN 1366-638X - p. 393 - 402.
    british butterflies - herbivorous insects - pararge-aegeria - limitation - climate - biodiversity - adaptation - phosphorus - landscape - trends
    Nitrogen deposition is considered as one of the main threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain the detrimental effect of excess nitrogen on butterflies: loss of host plants, deterioration of food plant quality and microclimatic cooling in spring. Here, we investigated whether these mechanisms might explain the dramatic recent decline of the Wall Brown butterfly Lasiommata megera. Monitoring data from the Netherlands indeed show a greater decline at higher critical load exceedance of nitrogen deposition. Loss of host plants is not a likely explanation of the decline for this grass-feeding species. In a greenhouse experiment, we only found beneficial effects of nitrogen fertilization on larval performance, which seems to rule out a nutritional cause; application of a drought treatment did not result in significant effects. Microclimatic conditions at overwintering larval sites of L. megera and the related but increasing Pararge aegeria provided a possible clue. In comparison with larval sites of P. aegeria, those of L. megera showed higher temperatures at the mesoscale and less plant cover and more dead plant material at the microscale. L. megera caterpillars were also found closer to the shelter of vertical structures. The greater dependence on warm microclimates suggests that microclimatic cooling through excess nitrogen contributes to the recent decline of L. megera.
    Defoliation and soil compaction jointly drive large-herbivore grazing effects on plants and soil arthropods on clay soil
    Klink, R. van; Schrama, M. ; Nolte, S. ; Bakker, J.P. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Berg, M.P. - \ 2015
    Ecosystems 18 (2015)4. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 671 - 685.
    salt-marsh - nitrogen mineralization - wadden sea - mountain pastures - grassland - collembola - management - diversity - growth - cow
    In addition to the well-studied impacts of defecation and defoliation, large herbivores also affect plant and arthropod communities through trampling, and the associated soil compaction. Soil compaction can be expected to be particularly important on wet, fine-textured soils. Therefore, we established a full factorial experiment of defoliation (monthly mowing) and soil compaction (using a rammer, annually) on a clay-rich salt marsh at the Dutch coast, aiming to disentangle the importance of these two factors. Additionally, we compared the effects on soil physical properties, plants, and arthropods to those at a nearby cattle-grazed marsh under dry and under waterlogged conditions. Soil physical conditions of the compacted plots were similar to the conditions at cattle-grazed plots, showing decreased soil aeration and increased waterlogging. Soil salinity was doubled by defoliation and quadrupled by combined defoliation and compaction. Cover of the dominant tall grass Elytrigia atherica was decreased by 80% in the defoliated plots, but cover of halophytes only increased under combined defoliation and compaction. Effects on soil micro-arthropods were most severe under waterlogging, showing a fourfold decrease in abundance and a smaller mean body size under compaction. Although the combined treatment of defoliation and trampling indeed proved most similar to the grazed marsh, large discrepancies remained for both plant and soil fauna communities, presumably because of colonization time lags. We conclude that soil compaction and defoliation differently affect plant and arthropod communities in grazed ecosystems, and that the magnitude of their effects depends on herbivore density, productivity, and soil physical properties.
    Effects of large herbivores on grassland arthropod diversity
    Klink, R. van; Plas, F. van der; Noordwijk, C.G.E. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Olff, H. - \ 2015
    Biological Reviews 90 (2015)2. - ISSN 1464-7931 - p. 347 - 366.
    ungrazed chalk grassland - ground beetle coleoptera - plant-species richness - grazing management - phytophagous insects - seminatural grasslands - community structure - tallgrass prairie - long-term - butterfly communities
    Both arthropods and large grazing herbivores are important components and drivers of biodiversity in grassland ecosystems, but a synthesis of how arthropod diversity is affected by large herbivores has been largely missing. To fill this gap, we conducted a literature search, which yielded 141 studies on this topic of which 24 simultaneously investigated plant and arthropod diversity. Using the data from these 24 studies, we compared the responses of plant and arthropod diversity to an increase in grazing intensity. This quantitative assessment showed no overall significant effect of increasing grazing intensity on plant diversity, while arthropod diversity was generally negatively affected. To understand these negative effects, we explored the mechanisms by which large herbivores affect arthropod communities: direct effects, changes in vegetation structure, changes in plant community composition, changes in soil conditions, and cascading effects within the arthropod interaction web. We identify three main factors determining the effects of large herbivores on arthropod diversity: (i) unintentional predation and increased disturbance, (ii) decreases in total resource abundance for arthropods (biomass) and (iii) changes in plant diversity, vegetation structure and abiotic conditions. In general, heterogeneity in vegetation structure and abiotic conditions increases at intermediate grazing intensity, but declines at both low and high grazing intensity. We conclude that large herbivores can only increase arthropod diversity if they cause an increase in (a)biotic heterogeneity, and then only if this increase is large enough to compensate for the loss of total resource abundance and the increased mortality rate. This is expected to occur only at low herbivore densities or with spatio-temporal variation in herbivore densities. As we demonstrate that arthropod diversity is often more negatively affected by grazing than plant diversity, we strongly recommend considering the specific requirements of arthropods when applying grazing management and to include arthropods in monitoring schemes. Conservation strategies aiming at maximizing heterogeneity, including regulation of herbivore densities (through human interventions or top-down control), maintenance of different types of management in close proximity and rotational grazing regimes, are the most promising options to conserve arthropod diversity.
    Drie decennia dagvlinder - en broedvogelmonitoring in het Nationale Park De Hoge Veluwe
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Sanders, G. - \ 2014
    De Levende Natuur 115 (2014)6. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 277 - 283.
    lepidoptera - broedvogels - fauna - monitoring - nationale parken - veluwe - lepidoptera - breeding birds - fauna - monitoring - national parks - veluwe
    Het Nationale Park De Hoge Veluwe is één van de weinige overgeleven gebieden in Noordwest-Europa waar het heidelandschap zich nog op grote schaal en in zijn ruimtelijke verscheidenheid van stuifzand tot vennen manifesteert. Dankzij een vroeg begin van vlinder- en broedvogelmonitoring in het Park is er veel bekend over de veranderingen in de vlinder- en broedvogelfauna in de laatste drie decennia. Dit artikel vergelijkt de ontwikkelingen in het Park met de landelijke trends.
    Linking species assemblages to environmental change: Moving beyond the specialist-generalist dichotomy
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2014
    Basic and Applied Ecology 15 (2014)4. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 279 - 287.
    british butterflies - habitat fragmentation - biotic homogenization - nitrogen deposition - climate-change - conservation - diversity - responses - richness - traits
    Environmental changes due to land use developments, climate change and nitrogen deposition have profound influences on species assemblages. Investigating the dynamics in species composition as a function of underlying traits may increase our understanding of ecosystem functioning and provide a basis for effective conservation strategies. Here, I use a broad array of species traits for butterflies to identify four main components of associated traits. These reflect the spatial use of the landscape, abiotic vulnerability, developmental rate and phenology, and food specialisation, respectively. The first three trait components each contribute to determine Red List status, but only the developmental rate and phenology component is related to recent population trends. I argue that the latter component reflects the environmental impact of nutrient availability and microclimate, as affected by nitrogen deposition. This perspective sheds a new light on ongoing changes in community composition. Thus, a multidimensional view of trait associations allows us to move beyond the simplistic specialist–generalist dichotomy, renew our view on species-specific studies and help in setting new priorities for conservation.
    No evidence of the effect of extreme weather events on annual occurrence of four groups of ectothermic species
    Malinowska, A.H. ; Strien, A.J. van; Verboom, J. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Opdam, P. - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 10 p.
    climate-change - metapopulation dynamics - habitat fragmentation - population-dynamics - occupancy models - european climate - range expansion - dispersal - trends - impact
    Weather extremes may have strong effects on biodiversity, as known from theoretical and modelling studies. Predicted negative effects of increased weather variation are found only for a few species, mostly plants and birds in empirical studies. Therefore, we investigated correlations between weather variability and patterns in occupancy, local colonisations and local extinctions (metapopulation metrics) across four groups of ectotherms: Odonata, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Reptilia. We analysed data of 134 species on a 1×1 km-grid base, collected in the last 20 years from the Netherlands, combining standardised data and opportunistic data. We applied dynamic site-occupancy models and used the results as input for analyses of (i) trends in distribution patterns, (ii) the effect of temperature on colonisation and persistence probability, and (iii) the effect of years with extreme weather on all the three metapopulation metrics. All groups, except butterflies, showed more positive than negative trends in metapopulation metrics. We did not find evidence that the probability of colonisation or persistence increases with temperature nor that extreme weather events are reflected in higher extinction risks. We could not prove that weather extremes have visible and consistent negative effects on ectothermic species in temperate northern hemisphere. These findings do not confirm the general prediction that increased weather variability imperils biodiversity. We conclude that weather extremes might not be ecologically relevant for the majority of species. Populations might be buffered against weather variation (e.g. by habitat heterogeneity), or other factors might be masking the effects (e.g. availability and quality of habitat). Consequently, we postulate that weather extremes have less, or different, impact in real world metapopulations than theory and models suggest.
    Tracking butterflies for effective conservation
    Swaay, C.A.M. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michiel Wallis de Vries; Marcel Dicke. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739988 - 218
    lepidoptera - zoögeografie - biogeografie - populatiedynamica - natuurbescherming - monitoring - nederland - europa - lepidoptera - zoogeography - biogeography - population dynamics - nature conservation - monitoring - netherlands - europe
    Dit proefschrift bestaat uit drie delen: het volgen van veranderingen in de verspreiding van vlinders, het volgen van veranderingen in de populatiegrootte van vlinders en hoe deze kennis te gebruiken voor hun bescherming.
    The impact of large herbivores on woodland–grassland dynamics in fragmented landscapes: The role of spatial configuration and disturbance
    Schippers, P. ; Teeffelen, A.J.A. van; Verboom-Vasiljev, J. ; Vos, C.C. ; Kramer, K. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2014
    Ecological Complexity 17 (2014). - ISSN 1476-945X - p. 20 - 31.
    north temperate forests - red deer - population-dynamics - metapopulation dynamics - habitat fragmentation - distribution patterns - grazing systems - management - regeneration - resilience
    The vegetation structure of natural ecosystems is usually considered independent of their size and their location in the landscape. In this study, we examine the effect of size, spatial configuration and disturbances on the dynamic interactions of large herbivores and vegetation in a patchy environment using a metapopulation model. Simulations indicate that small, isolated or unfenced patches have low herbivore numbers and high tree cover whereas large, well-connected or fenced patches support high herbivore densities and are covered by grassland. Recovery of both herbivore numbers and forest cover in response to disturbance is slow (>100 years). These long recovery times are partly attributable to negative feedbacks between herbivore numbers and tree cover. When the population of large herbivores is disturbed, forest is able to expand, subsequently inhibiting herbivore population recovery. Likewise, forest disturbance allows herbivore population expansion, which inhibits forest recovery. Additionally, infrequent and limited disturbances like hunting and forest removal also affect the vegetation cover in patches of nature. Thus, our work indicates that the location and size of patches, together with disturbances, largely determine the structure of the vegetation in fragmented landscapes
    Evaluating results of the Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation model for classification of dairy cattle welfare at the herd level
    Vries, M. de; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Schaik, G. van; Botreau, R. ; Engel, B. ; Dijkstra, T. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2013
    Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)10. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6264 - 6273.
    animal-welfare - housing systems - water troughs - part 1 - cows - aggregation - behavior - produce
    The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relative importance of single welfare measures for WQ-ME classification of a selected sample of Dutch dairy herds. Seven trained observers quantified 63 welfare measures of the Welfare Quality protocol in 183 loose housed- and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows). First, values of welfare measures were compared among the 4 welfare classes, using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. Second, observed values of single welfare measures were replaced with a fictitious value, which was the median value of herds classified in the next highest class, to see if improvement of a single measure would enable a herd to reach a higher class. Sixteen herds were classified as unacceptable, 85 as acceptable, 78 as enhanced, and none as excellent. Classification could not be calculated for 17 herds because data were missing (15 herds) or data were deemed invalid because the stockperson disturbed behavioral observations (2 herds). Herds classified as unacceptable showed significantly more very lean cows, more severely lame cows, and more often an insufficient number of drinkers than herds classified as acceptable. Herds classified as acceptable showed significantly more cows with high somatic cell count, with lesions, that could not be approached closer than 1 m, colliding with components of the stall while lying down, and lying outside the lying area, and showed fewer cows with diarrhea, more often had an insufficient number of drinkers, and scored lower for the descriptors “relaxed” and “happy” than herds classified as enhanced. Increasing the number of drinkers and reducing the percentage of cows colliding with components of the stall while lying down were the changes most effective in allowing herds classified as unacceptable and acceptable, respectively, to reach a higher class. The WQ-ME model was not very sensitive to improving single measures of good health. We concluded that a limited number of welfare measures had a strong influence on classification of dairy herds. Classification of herds based on the WQ-ME model in its current form might lead to a focus on improving these specific measures and divert attention from improving other welfare measures. The role of expert opinion and the type of algorithmic operator used in this model should be reconsidered.
    Effects of local variation in nitrogen deposition on butterfly trends in The Netherlands
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Swaay, C.A.M. van - \ 2013
    Proceedings of the Netherlands Entomological Society meeting 24 (2013). - ISSN 1874-9542 - p. 25 - 33.
    lepidoptera - fauna - stikstof - ammoniakemissie - nederland - nitrogen - ammonia emission - netherlands
    Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition has been recognized as a factor affecting the dynamics and composition of plant communities. Its impact on insect communities is still largely unknown. Using data from the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, we analyzed the variation in local trends of butterfly abundance in three Natura 2000 habitat types of known sensitivity to nitrogen deposition: coastal dunes (H2130), wet heathlands (H4010A) and species-rich Nardus grassland (H6230). We found evidence of a negative impact of increasing levels of nitrogen deposition on butterfly trends in all three habitat types. Interestingly, species from more nitrogen-rich habitats showed a similar, though less pronounced, response. The results constitute the first evidence of a significant dose-response relationship between nitrogen deposition and declines in insect abundance at a national scale.
    Begrazingsintensiteit en insectenrijkdom in heideterreinen
    Noordijk, J. ; Colijn, E. ; Smit, J. ; Veling, K. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2013
    De Levende Natuur 114 (2013)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 204 - 211.
    insectengemeenschappen - fauna - geleedpotigen - begrazingsbeheer - heidegebieden - begrazingsexperimenten - noord-brabant - insect communities - fauna - arthropods - grazing management - heathlands - grazing experiments - noord-brabant
    Begrazing als beheervorm wordt breed toegepast in heidegebieden om op een betaalbare manier openheid van het landschap en variatie in levensgemeenschappen te handhaven. De wijze van uitvoering luistert daarbij nauw, maar goede inzichten in de effecten van graasdruk op insecten ontbraken tot nu toe. Dit artikel geeft de resultaten van een veldonderzoek naar de invloed van begrazingsintensiteit op de soortenrijkdom van sprinkhanen, Heidecicade, vlinders, zweefvliegen, bijen en mieren in Noord-Brabantse heideterreinen.
    Aandacht voor ongewervelden in het natuurbeleid
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2013
    De Levende Natuur 114 (2013)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 167 - 170.
    lepidoptera - ongewervelde dieren - fauna - natuurbeheer - lepidoptera - invertebrates - fauna - nature management
    In het natuurbeleid is er al lange tijd veel aandacht voor de gewervelde fauna. Om praktische redenen van doelmatigheid en beschikbare kennis over verspreiding en ecologie lijkt dat terecht, maar er zijn goede redenen voor een prominentere plaats voor ongewervelden. Ook op basis van de soortenrijkdom zou je veel meer aandacht voor ongewervelde dieren mogen verwachten. De vraag is wel hoe die moet worden ingevuld. In het kort worden hier de positie en de waarde van ongewervelden in het natuurbeleid uiteen gezet.
    Een beschermingsplan voor de Spaanse vlag in Limburg
    Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Groenendijk, D. ; Huigens, M.E. - \ 2013
    Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 102 (2013)8. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 177 - 183.
    lepidoptera - natuurbescherming - beschermingsgebieden - natura 2000 - zuid-limburg - limburg - lepidoptera - nature conservation - conservation areas - natura 2000 - zuid-limburg - limburg
    De nachtvlinder Spaans Vlag (Euplagia quadripunctaria) geniet bescherming volgens de Europese Habitatsrichtlijn. In het kader van Natura 2000 is het lastig gebleken om beschermde gebieden voor de soort aan te wijzen. Als alternatief is door de overheid besloten om een regionaal beschermingsplan voor de soort op te stellen (Wallis de Vries & Groenendijk, 2012). Daarbij is ook aanvullend onderzoek naar de larvale ecologie van deze vlinder uitgevoerd.
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