Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Divergent evolution of pcf/scr74 effectors in oomycetes is associated with distinct recognition patterns in solanaceous plants
    Lin, Xiao ; Wang, Shumei ; Rond, Laura de; Bertolin, Nicoletta ; Wouters, Roland H.M. ; Wouters, Doret ; Domazakis, Emmanouil ; Bitew, Mulusew Kassa ; Win, Joe ; Dong, Suomeng ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Birch, Paul ; Kamoun, Sophien ; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A. - \ 2020
    mBio 11 (2020)3. - ISSN 2161-2129 - p. 1 - 12.
    Apoplastic effector - MAMP - Phytophthora infestans - Potato late blight - Surface immune receptor

    Plants deploy cell surface receptors known as pattern-recognition re ceptors (PRRs) that recognize non-self molecules from pathogens and microbes to defend against invaders. PRRs typically recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that are usually widely conserved, some even across kingdoms. Here, we report an oomycete-specific family of small secreted cysteine-rich (SCR) proteins that displays divergent patterns of sequence variation in the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. A subclass that includes the conserved effector PcF from Phytophthora cactorum activates immunity in a wide range of plant species. In contrast, the more diverse SCR74 subclass is specific to P. infestans and tends to trigger immune responses only in a limited number of wild potato genotypes. The SCR74 response was recently mapped to a G-type lectin receptor kinase (GLecRK) locus in the wild potato Solanum microdontum subsp. gigantophyllum. The G-LecRK locus displays a high diversity in Solanum host species compared to other solanaceous plants. We propose that the diversification of the SCR74 proteins in P. infestans is driven by a fast coevolutionary arms race with cell surface immune receptors in wild potato, which contrasts the presumed slower dynamics between conserved apoplastic effectors and PRRs. Understanding the molecular determinants of plant immune responses to these divergent molecular patterns in oomycetes is expected to contribute to deploying multiple layers of disease resistance in crop plants. IMPORTANCE Immune receptors at the plant cell surface can recognize invading microbes. The perceived microbial molecules are typically widely conserved and therefore the matching surface receptors can detect a broad spectrum of pathogens. Here we describe a family of Phytophthora small extracellular proteins that consists of conserved subfamilies that are widely recognized by solanaceous plants. Remarkably, one subclass of SCR74 proteins is highly diverse, restricted to the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans and is specifically detected in wild potato plants. The diversification of this subfamily exhibits signatures of a coevolutionary arms race with surface receptors in potato. Insights into the molecular interaction between these potato-specific receptors and the recognized Phytophthora proteins are expected to contribute to disease resistance breeding in potato.

    Blockchain Technology for Agriculture: Applications and Rationale
    Xiong, Hang ; Dalhaus, Tobias ; Wang, P. ; Huang, J. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Blockchain 3 (2020). - ISSN 2624-7852
    The blockchain is a ledger of accounts and transactions that are written and stored by all participants. It promises a reliable source of truth about the state of farms, inventories and contracts in agriculture, where the collection of such information is often incredibly costly. The blockchain technology can track the provenance of food and thus helps create trustworthy food supply chains and build trust between producers and consumers. As a trusted way of storing data, it facilitates the use of data-driven technologies to make farming smarter. In addition, jointly used with smart contracts, it allows timely payments between stakeholders that can be triggered by data changes appearing in the blockchain This article examines the applications of blockchain technology in food supply chains, agricultural insurance, smart farming, transactions of agricultural products for both theoretical and practical perspectives. We also discuss the challenges of recording transactions made by smallholder farmers and creating the ecosystem for utilizing the blockchain technology in the food and agriculture sector.
    Biased-corrected richness estimates for the Amazonian tree flora
    Steege, Hans ter; Prado, Paulo I. ; Lima, Renato A.F. de; Pos, Edwin ; Souza Coelho, Luiz de; Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes de; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Amaral, Iêda Leão ; Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia de; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Guevara, Juan Ernesto ; Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo de; Cárdenas López, Dairon ; Magnusson, William E. ; Wittmann, Florian ; Martins, Maria Pires ; Sabatier, Daniel ; Irume, Mariana Victória ; Silva Guimarães, José Renan da; Molino, Jean François ; Bánki, Olaf S. ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Ramos, José Ferreira ; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel ; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins ; Luize, Bruno Garcia ; Núñez Vargas, Percy ; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire ; Leão Novo, Evlyn Márcia Moraes de; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa ; Terborgh, John ; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto ; Casula, Katia Regina ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Duque, Alvaro ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Castaño Arboleda, Nicolás ; Schöngart, Jochen ; Zartman, Charles Eugene ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Demarchi, Layon O. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Engel, Julien ; Petronelli, Pascal ; Baraloto, Chris ; Assis, Rafael L. ; Castellanos, Hernán ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Quaresma, Adriano ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Rincón, Lorena M. ; Andrade, Ana ; Sousa, Thaiane R. ; Camargo, José Luís ; Schietti, Juliana ; Laurance, William F. ; Queiroz, Helder Lima de; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça ; Lopes, Maria Aparecida ; Sousa Farias, Emanuelle de; Magalhães, José Leonardo Lima ; Brienen, Roel ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Stevenson, Pablo R. ; Feitosa, Yuri Oliveira ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Mogollón, Hugo F. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Lozada, José Rafael ; Comiskey, James A. ; Toledo, José Julio de; Damasco, Gabriel ; Dávila, Nállarett ; Lopes, Aline ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Draper, Freddie ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando ; Lloyd, Jon ; Gomes, Vitor H.F. ; Neill, David ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Maas, Paul ; Baker, Tim R. ; Andel, Tinde R. van; Noronha, Janaína Costa ; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Tirado, Milton ; Wang, Ophelia ; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade ; Flores, Bernardo Monteiro - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, but the estimated species richness is very much debated. Here, we apply an ensemble of parametric estimators and a novel technique that includes conspecific spatial aggregation to an extended database of forest plots with up-to-date taxonomy. We show that the species abundance distribution of Amazonia is best approximated by a logseries with aggregated individuals, where aggregation increases with rarity. By averaging several methods to estimate total richness, we confirm that over 15,000 tree species are expected to occur in Amazonia. We also show that using ten times the number of plots would result in an increase to just ~50% of those 15,000 estimated species. To get a more complete sample of all tree species, rigorous field campaigns may be needed but the number of trees in Amazonia will remain an estimate for years to come.

    The Stove, Dome, and Umbrella Effects of Atmospheric Aerosol on the Development of the Planetary Boundary Layer in Hazy Regions
    Ma, Yongjing ; Ye, Jianhuai ; Xin, Jinyuan ; Zhang, Wenyu ; Vilà‐Guerau de Arellano, Jordi ; Wang, Shigong ; Zhao, Dandan ; Dai, Lindong ; Ma, Yongxiang ; Wu, Xiaoyan ; Xia, Xiangao ; Tang, Guiqian ; Wang, Yuesi ; Shen, Pengke ; Lei, Yali ; Martin, Scot T. - \ 2020
    Geophysical Research Letters 47 (2020)13. - ISSN 0094-8276
    Atmospheric aerosol plays critical roles in suppressing planetary boundary layer (PBL) and deteriorating air quality. However, comprehensive understanding on how aerosol optical properties (absorption and scattering) affect PBL remains lacking. Utilizing a large‐eddy simulation model incorporated with in situ observations, we demonstrate distinct impacts of absorption aerosol on PBL development when it is present below (stove effect and promotion) or above morning residual layer (dome effect and strong inhibition) and similar inhibition umbrella effects of scattering aerosol on PBL regardless of its vertical locations. There exists a transition height, above which absorption aerosol is more effective in suppressing PBL and below which scattering aerosol dominates the suppression. This height is highly related to the height of morning residual layer. Aerosol stove, dome, and umbrella effects enrich our knowledge on aerosol‐PBL interactions and the latter two can be interpreted as “double inhibitions” in promoting haze episodes in the North China Plain.
    Effect of dietary fiber fermentation on short-chain fatty acid production and microbial composition in vitro
    Bai, Yu ; Zhao, Jin Biao ; Tao, Shi Yu ; Zhou, Xing Jian ; Pi, Yu ; Gerrits, Walter J.J. ; Johnston, Lee J. ; Zhang, Shi Yi ; Yang, Hong Jian ; Liu, Ling ; Zhang, Shuai ; Wang, Jun Jun - \ 2020
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2020). - ISSN 0022-5142
    fiber-rich co-products - gas production - in vitro fermentation - microbial community - short chain fatty acid

    BACKGROUND: The efficient utilization of fiber-rich co-products is important for optimizing feed resource utilization and animal health. This study was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of fiber-rich co-products, which had equal quantities of total dietary fiber (TDF), at different time points using batch in vitro methods. It considered their gas production, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and microbial composition. RESULTS: The fermentation of wheat bran (WB) and oat bran (OB) showed higher and faster (P < 0.05) gas and SCFA production than corn bran (CB), sugar beet pulp (SBP), and soybean hulls (SH). The α-diversity was higher in the CB, SBP, and SH groups than in the WB and OB groups (P < 0.05). At the phylum level, OB and WB fermentation showed lower (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Actinobacteria than the CB, SBP, and SH groups. At the genus level, OB and WB fermentation increased the Enterococcus population in comparison with the CB, SBP, and SH groups, whereas CB and SBP fermentation improved the relative abundance of the Christensenellaceae R-7 group more than the WB, OB, and SH groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Overall, WB and OB were rapidly fermented by fecal microbiota, in contrast with SBP, SH, and CB. Fermentation of different fiber-rich co-products with an equal TDF content gives different responses in terms of microbial composition and SCFA production due to variations in their physicochemical properties and molecular structure.

    Roadmap for naming uncultivated Archaea and Bacteria
    Murray, Alison E. ; Freudenstein, John ; Gribaldo, Simonetta ; Hatzenpichler, Roland ; Hugenholtz, Philip ; Kämpfer, Peter ; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T. ; Lane, Christopher E. ; Papke, R.T. ; Parks, Donovan H. ; Rossello-Mora, Ramon ; Stott, Matthew B. ; Sutcliffe, Iain C. ; Thrash, J.C. ; Venter, Stephanus N. ; Whitman, William B. ; Acinas, Silvia G. ; Amann, Rudolf I. ; Anantharaman, Karthik ; Armengaud, Jean ; Baker, Brett J. ; Barco, Roman A. ; Bode, Helge B. ; Boyd, Eric S. ; Brady, Carrie L. ; Carini, Paul ; Chain, Patrick S.G. ; Colman, Daniel R. ; DeAngelis, Kristen M. ; Rios, Maria Asuncion de los; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina ; Dunlap, Christopher A. ; Eisen, Jonathan A. ; Emerson, David ; Ettema, Thijs J.G. ; Eveillard, Damien ; Girguis, Peter R. ; Hentschel, Ute ; Hollibaugh, James T. ; Hug, Laura A. ; Inskeep, William P. ; Ivanova, Elena P. ; Klenk, Hans Peter ; Li, Wen Jun ; Lloyd, Karen G. ; Löffler, Frank E. ; Makhalanyane, Thulani P. ; Moser, Duane P. ; Nunoura, Takuro ; Palmer, Marike ; Parro, Victor ; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos ; Probst, Alexander J. ; Smits, Theo H.M. ; Steen, Andrew D. ; Steenkamp, Emma T. ; Spang, Anja ; Stewart, Frank J. ; Tiedje, James M. ; Vandamme, Peter ; Wagner, Michael ; Wang, Feng Ping ; Hedlund, Brian P. ; Reysenbach, Anna Louise - \ 2020
    Nature Microbiology (2020). - ISSN 2058-5276

    The assembly of single-amplified genomes (SAGs) and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) has led to a surge in genome-based discoveries of members affiliated with Archaea and Bacteria, bringing with it a need to develop guidelines for nomenclature of uncultivated microorganisms. The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) only recognizes cultures as ‘type material’, thereby preventing the naming of uncultivated organisms. In this Consensus Statement, we propose two potential paths to solve this nomenclatural conundrum. One option is the adoption of previously proposed modifications to the ICNP to recognize DNA sequences as acceptable type material; the other option creates a nomenclatural code for uncultivated Archaea and Bacteria that could eventually be merged with the ICNP in the future. Regardless of the path taken, we believe that action is needed now within the scientific community to develop consistent rules for nomenclature of uncultivated taxa in order to provide clarity and stability, and to effectively communicate microbial diversity.

    Field performance of different maize varieties in growth cores at natural and reduced mycorrhizal colonization : yield gains and possible fertilizer savings in relation to phosphorus application
    Wang, Xin Xin ; Werf, Wopke van der; Yu, Yang ; Hoffland, Ellis ; Feng, Gu ; Kuyper, Thomas W. - \ 2020
    Plant and Soil 450 (2020)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 613 - 624.
    Crop - Genetic variation - In-growth cores - Landrace - Maize - Mycorrhizal colonization - Phosphorus

    Aims: The benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on yield and phosphorus (P) uptake of crops have commonly been studied by inoculating a single mycorrhizal fungal species in pot experiments. Yet, how the native AMF community affects the performance of different maize varieties under field conditions remains obscure. Methods: In-growth cores with and without rotation were used in three soils that differed in P application to assess shoot biomass, P uptake, and mycorrhizal colonization of three maize varietal groups, encompassing four inbred lines, 12 hybrids, and four landraces. Results: Rotating cores drastically reduced mycorrhizal colonization, biomass and P uptake for each varietal group at every P level. Performance of plants at natural mycorrhizal colonization at 30 kg P ha−1 was equal to that of reduced-mycorrhizal plants at 60 kg P ha−1, suggesting the potential for adequate mycorrhizal management to save P fertilizer. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between varietal groups for mycorrhizal responsiveness, confirming that the ability to associate with and benefit from AMF has been maintained in modern breeding. Mycorrhizal plants both exhibited higher P acquisition efficiency and higher P use efficiency than reduced-mycorrhizal plants. Disadvantages of in-growth cores should be duly considered.

    Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
    Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
    Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.

    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.

    MicroRNA-204-5p modulates mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes and associates with oxidative capacity in humans
    Houzelle, Alexandre ; Dahlmans, Dennis ; Nascimento, Emmani B.M. ; Schaart, Gert ; Jörgensen, Johanna A. ; Moonen-Kornips, Esther ; Kersten, Sander ; Wang, Xu ; Hoeks, Joris - \ 2020
    Journal of Cellular Physiology (2020). - ISSN 0021-9541
    C2C12 - microRNA - mitochondria - mitophagy - skeletal muscle

    Using an unbiased high-throughput microRNA (miRNA)-silencing screen combined with functional readouts for mitochondrial oxidative capacity in C2C12 myocytes, we previously identified 19 miRNAs as putative regulators of skeletal muscle mitochondrial metabolism. In the current study, we highlight miRNA-204-5p, identified from this screen, and further studied its role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Following silencing of miRNA-204-5p in C2C12 myotubes, gene and protein expression were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, microarray analysis, and western blot analysis, while morphological changes were studied by confocal microscopy. In addition, miRNA-204-5p expression was quantified in human skeletal muscle biopsies and associated with in vivo mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Transcript levels of PGC-1α (3.71-fold; p <.01), predicted as an miR-204-5p target, as well as mitochondrial DNA copy number (p <.05) and citrate synthase activity (p =.06) were increased upon miRNA-204-5p silencing in C2C12 myotubes. Silencing of miRNA-204-5p further resulted in morphological changes, induced gene expression of autophagy marker light chain 3 protein b (LC3B; q =.05), and reduced expression of the mitophagy marker FUNDC1 (q =.01). Confocal imaging revealed colocalization between the autophagosome marker LC3B and the mitochondrial marker OxPhos upon miRNA-204-5p silencing. Finally, miRNA-204-5p was differentially expressed in human subjects displaying large variation in oxidative capacity and its expression levels associated with in vivo measures of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. In summary, silencing of miRNA-204-5p in C2C12 myotubes stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis, impacted on cellular morphology, and altered expression of markers related to autophagy and mitophagy. The association between miRNA-204-5p and in vivo mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle further identifies miRNA-204-5p as an interesting modulator of skeletal muscle mitochondrial metabolism.

    Improvement in municipal wastewater treatment alters lake nitrogen to phosphorus ratios in populated regions
    Tong, Yindong ; Wang, Mengzhu ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Liu, Xueyan ; Paerl, Hans W. ; Elser, James J. ; Sardans, Jordi ; Couture, Raoul Marie ; Larssen, Thorjørn ; Hu, Hongying ; Dong, Xin ; He, Wei ; Zhang, Wei ; Wang, Xuejun ; Zhang, Yang ; Liu, Yi ; Zeng, Siyu ; Kong, Xiangzhen ; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Lin, Yan - \ 2020
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (2020)21. - ISSN 0027-8424
    Anthropogenic source - Aquatic ecosystem - Nutrient balance - Wastewater treatment - Water quality change

    Large-scale and rapid improvement in wastewater treatment is common practice in developing countries, yet this influence on nutrient regimes in receiving waterbodies is rarely examined at broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we present a study linking decadal nutrient monitoring data in lakes with the corresponding estimates of five major anthropogenic nutrient discharges in their surrounding watersheds over time. Within a continuous monitoring dataset covering the period 2008 to 2017, we find that due to different rates of change in TN and TP concentrations, 24 of 46 lakes, mostly located in China's populated regions, showed increasing TN/TP mass ratios; only 3 lakes showed a decrease. Quantitative relationships between in-lake nutrient concentrations (and their ratios) and anthropogenic nutrient discharges in the surrounding watersheds indicate that increase of lake TN/TP ratios is associated with the rapid improvement in municipal wastewater treatment. Due to the higher removal efficiency of TP compared with TN, TN/TP mass ratios in total municipal wastewater discharge have continued to increase from a median of 10.7 (95% confidence interval, 7.6 to 15.1) in 2008 to 17.7 (95% confidence interval, 13.2 to 27.2) in 2017. Improving municipal wastewater collection and treatment worldwide is an important target within the 17 sustainable development goals set by the United Nations. Given potential ecological impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem function of altered nutrient ratios in wastewater discharge, our results suggest that long-term strategies for domestic wastewater management should not merely focus on total reductions of nutrient discharges but also consider their stoichiometric balance.

    Agriculture green development : A model for China and the world
    Shen, Jianbo ; Zhu, Qichao ; Jiao, Xiaoqiang ; Ying, Hao ; Wang, Hongliang ; Wen, Xin ; Xu, Wen ; Li, Tingyu ; Cong, Wenfeng ; Liu, Xuejun ; Hou, Yong ; Cui, Zhenling ; Oenema, Oene ; Davies, William J. ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2020
    Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2095-7505 - p. 5 - 13.
    Agriculture green development - Food security - Interdisciplinary innovations - Resource use efficiency - Sustainable development - Sustainable intensification - Whole industry chain

    Realizing sustainable development has become a global priority. This holds, in particular, for agriculture. Recently, the United Nations launched the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the Nineteenth National People's Congress has delivered a national strategy for sustainable development in China-realizing green development. The overall objective of Agriculture Green Development (AGD) is to coordinate "green" with "development" to realize the transformation of current agriculture with high resource consumption and high environmental costs into a green agriculture and countryside with high productivity, high resource use efficiency and low environmental impact. This is a formidable task, requiring joint efforts of government, farmers, industry, educators and researchers. The innovative concept for AGD will focus on reconstructing the whole crop-animal production and food production-consumption system, with the emphasis on high thresholds for environmental standards and food quality as well as enhanced human well-being. This paper addresses the significance, challenges, framework, pathways and potential solutions for realizing AGD in China, and highlights the potential changes that will lead to a more sustainable agriculture in the future. Proposals include interdisciplinary innovations, whole food chain improvement and regional solutions. The implementation of AGD in China will provide important implications for the countries in developmental transition, and contribute to global sustainable development.

    Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests
    Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
    Science 368 (2020)6493. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 869 - 874.

    The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.

    Effects of climate and land-use changes on fish catches across lakes at a global scale
    Kao, Yu Chun ; Rogers, Mark W. ; Bunnell, David B. ; Cowx, Ian G. ; Qian, Song S. ; Anneville, Orlane ; Beard, T.D. ; Brinker, Alexander ; Britton, J.R. ; Chura-Cruz, René ; Gownaris, Natasha J. ; Jackson, James R. ; Kangur, Külli ; Kolding, Jeppe ; Lukin, Anatoly A. ; Lynch, Abigail J. ; Mercado-Silva, Norman ; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo ; Njaya, Friday J. ; Ostrovsky, Ilia ; Rudstam, Lars G. ; Sandström, Alfred L.E. ; Sato, Yuichi ; Siguayro-Mamani, Humberto ; Thorpe, Andy ; Zwieten, Paul A.M. van; Volta, Pietro ; Wang, Yuyu ; Weiperth, András ; Weyl, Olaf L.F. ; Young, Joelle D. - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    Globally, our knowledge on lake fisheries is still limited despite their importance to food security and livelihoods. Here we show that fish catches can respond either positively or negatively to climate and land-use changes, by analyzing time-series data (1970–2014) for 31 lakes across five continents. We find that effects of a climate or land-use driver (e.g., air temperature) on lake environment could be relatively consistent in directions, but consequential changes in a lake-environmental factor (e.g., water temperature) could result in either increases or decreases in fish catch in a given lake. A subsequent correlation analysis indicates that reductions in fish catch was less likely to occur in response to potential climate and land-use changes if a lake is located in a region with greater access to clean water. This finding suggests that adequate investments for water-quality protection and water-use efficiency can provide additional benefits to lake fisheries and food security.

    Visualizing the invisible : class excursions to ignite children’s enthusiasm for microbes
    McGenity, Terry J. ; Gessesse, Amare ; Hallsworth, John E. ; Garcia Cela, Esther ; Verheecke-Vaessen, Carol ; Wang, Fengping ; Chavarría, Max ; Haggblom, Max M. ; Molin, Søren ; Danchin, Antoine ; Smid, Eddy J. ; Lood, Cédric ; Cockell, Charles S. ; Whitby, Corinne ; Liu, Shuang Jiang ; Keller, Nancy P. ; Stein, Lisa Y. ; Bordenstein, Seth R. ; Lal, Rup ; Nunes, Olga C. ; Gram, Lone ; Singh, Brajesh K. ; Webster, Nicole S. ; Morris, Cindy ; Sivinski, Sharon ; Bindschedler, Saskia ; Junier, Pilar ; Antunes, André ; Baxter, Bonnie K. ; Scavone, Paola ; Timmis, Kenneth - \ 2020
    Microbial Biotechnology (2020). - ISSN 1751-7907

    We have recently argued that, because microbes have pervasive – often vital – influences on our lives, and that therefore their roles must be taken into account in many of the decisions we face, society must become microbiology-literate, through the introduction of relevant microbiology topics in school curricula (Timmis et al. 2019. Environ Microbiol 21: 1513-1528). The current coronavirus pandemic is a stark example of why microbiology literacy is such a crucial enabler of informed policy decisions, particularly those involving preparedness of public-health systems for disease outbreaks and pandemics. However, a significant barrier to attaining widespread appreciation of microbial contributions to our well-being and that of the planet is the fact that microbes are seldom visible: most people are only peripherally aware of them, except when they fall ill with an infection. And it is disease, rather than all of the positive activities mediated by microbes, that colours public perception of ‘germs’ and endows them with their poor image. It is imperative to render microbes visible, to give them life and form for children (and adults), and to counter prevalent misconceptions, through exposure to imagination-capturing images of microbes and examples of their beneficial outputs, accompanied by a balanced narrative. This will engender automatic mental associations between everyday information inputs, as well as visual, olfactory and tactile experiences, on the one hand, and the responsible microbes/microbial communities, on the other hand. Such associations, in turn, will promote awareness of microbes and of the many positive and vital consequences of their actions, and facilitate and encourage incorporation of such consequences into relevant decision-making processes. While teaching microbiology topics in primary and secondary school is key to this objective, a strategic programme to expose children directly and personally to natural and managed microbial processes, and the results of their actions, through carefully planned class excursions to local venues, can be instrumental in bringing microbes to life for children and, collaterally, their families. In order to encourage the embedding of microbiology-centric class excursions in current curricula, we suggest and illustrate here some possibilities relating to the topics of food (a favourite pre-occupation of most children), agriculture (together with horticulture and aquaculture), health and medicine, the environment and biotechnology. And, although not all of the microbially relevant infrastructure will be within reach of schools, there is usually access to a market, local food store, wastewater treatment plant, farm, surface water body, etc., all of which can provide opportunities to explore microbiology in action. If children sometimes consider the present to be mundane, even boring, they are usually excited with both the past and the future so, where possible, visits to local museums (the past) and research institutions advancing knowledge frontiers (the future) are strongly recommended, as is a tapping into the natural enthusiasm of local researchers to leverage the educational value of excursions and virtual excursions. Children are also fascinated by the unknown, so, paradoxically, the invisibility of microbes makes them especially fascinating objects for visualization and exploration. In outlining some of the options for microbiology excursions, providing suggestions for discussion topics and considering their educational value, we strive to extend the vistas of current class excursions and to: (i) inspire teachers and school managers to incorporate more microbiology excursions into curricula; (ii) encourage microbiologists to support school excursions and generally get involved in bringing microbes to life for children; (iii) urge leaders of organizations (biopharma, food industries, universities, etc.) to give school outreach activities a more prominent place in their mission portfolios, and (iv) convey to policymakers the benefits of providing schools with funds, materials and flexibility for educational endeavours beyond the classroom.

    Reproducible molecular networking of untargeted mass spectrometry data using GNPS
    Aron, Allegra T. ; Gentry, Emily C. ; McPhail, Kerry L. ; Nothias, Louis Félix ; Nothias-Esposito, Mélissa ; Bouslimani, Amina ; Petras, Daniel ; Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Sikora, Nicole ; Vargas, Fernando ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Ernst, Madeleine ; Kang, Kyo Bin ; Aceves, Christine M. ; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio ; Koester, Irina ; Weldon, Kelly C. ; Bertrand, Samuel ; Roullier, Catherine ; Sun, Kunyang ; Tehan, Richard M. ; Boya P, Cristopher A. ; Christian, Martin H. ; Gutiérrez, Marcelino ; Ulloa, Aldo Moreno ; Tejeda Mora, Javier Andres ; Mojica-Flores, Randy ; Lakey-Beitia, Johant ; Vásquez-Chaves, Victor ; Zhang, Yilue ; Calderón, Angela I. ; Tayler, Nicole ; Keyzers, Robert A. ; Tugizimana, Fidele ; Ndlovu, Nombuso ; Aksenov, Alexander A. ; Jarmusch, Alan K. ; Schmid, Robin ; Truman, Andrew W. ; Bandeira, Nuno ; Wang, Mingxun ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. - \ 2020
    Nature protocols 15 (2020). - ISSN 1754-2189 - p. 1954 - 1991.

    Global Natural Product Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) is an interactive online small molecule–focused tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) data curation and analysis infrastructure. It is intended to provide as much chemical insight as possible into an untargeted MS2 dataset and to connect this chemical insight to the user’s underlying biological questions. This can be performed within one liquid chromatography (LC)-MS2 experiment or at the repository scale. GNPS-MassIVE is a public data repository for untargeted MS2 data with sample information (metadata) and annotated MS2 spectra. These publicly accessible data can be annotated and updated with the GNPS infrastructure keeping a continuous record of all changes. This knowledge is disseminated across all public data; it is a living dataset. Molecular networking—one of the main analysis tools used within the GNPS platform—creates a structured data table that reflects the molecular diversity captured in tandem mass spectrometry experiments by computing the relationships of the MS2 spectra as spectral similarity. This protocol provides step-by-step instructions for creating reproducible, high-quality molecular networks. For training purposes, the reader is led through a 90- to 120-min procedure that starts by recalling an example public dataset and its sample information and proceeds to creating and interpreting a molecular network. Each data analysis job can be shared or cloned to disseminate the knowledge gained, thus propagating information that can lead to the discovery of molecules, metabolic pathways, and ecosystem/community interactions.

    Knowledge sharing in inter-organisational teams : the role of the advice network and the substitutive role of the formal network in an R&D alliance
    Wang, Xiao ; Bij, Hans van der; Dolfsma, Wilfred - \ 2020
    Industry and Innovation (2020). - ISSN 1366-2716
    advice network - Coopetitive R&D alliance - formal network - individual work performance - knowledge sharing - tie strength

    Innovation is about individuals collaborating to share existing knowledge and create new knowledge. Increasingly these collaborations cross organisational boundaries, like in R&D alliances. Many of these alliances are coopetitive, partners cooperate, but also compete with each other. Although knowledge sharing in coopetitive settings has been studied on the firm and the unit level, the micro (individual) level is underresearched. We consider individual alliance-related work performance of alliance members in a (moderately) coopetitive R&D alliance, drawing on social network theory and the organisational coordination perspective. We examine the influence of individual alliance members’ position and level of activity in the alliance advice network on their work performance. We also examine the substitutive role of the alliance formal network, representing the official channels of knowledge sharing. We suggest that individuals’ work performance is better explained by their position in the formal network, rather than in the advice network.

    Towards a multiscale crop modelling framework for climate change adaptation assessment
    Peng, Bin ; Guan, Kaiyu ; Tang, Jinyun ; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A. ; Asseng, Senthold ; Bernacchi, Carl J. ; Cooper, Mark ; Delucia, Evan H. ; Elliott, Joshua W. ; Ewert, Frank ; Grant, Robert F. ; Gustafson, David I. ; Hammer, Graeme L. ; Jin, Zhenong ; Jones, James W. ; Kimm, Hyungsuk ; Lawrence, David M. ; Li, Yan ; Lombardozzi, Danica L. ; Marshall-Colon, Amy ; Messina, Carlos D. ; Ort, Donald R. ; Schnable, James C. ; Vallejos, C.E. ; Wu, Alex ; Yin, Xinyou ; Zhou, Wang - \ 2020
    Nature Plants 6 (2020)4. - ISSN 2055-026X - p. 338 - 348.

    Predicting the consequences of manipulating genotype (G) and agronomic management (M) on agricultural ecosystem performances under future environmental (E) conditions remains a challenge. Crop modelling has the potential to enable society to assess the efficacy of G × M technologies to mitigate and adapt crop production systems to climate change. Despite recent achievements, dedicated research to develop and improve modelling capabilities from gene to global scales is needed to provide guidance on designing G × M adaptation strategies with full consideration of their impacts on both crop productivity and ecosystem sustainability under varying climatic conditions. Opportunities to advance the multiscale crop modelling framework include representing crop genetic traits, interfacing crop models with large-scale models, improving the representation of physiological responses to climate change and management practices, closing data gaps and harnessing multisource data to improve model predictability and enable identification of emergent relationships. A fundamental challenge in multiscale prediction is the balance between process details required to assess the intervention and predictability of the system at the scales feasible to measure the impact. An advanced multiscale crop modelling framework will enable a gene-to-farm design of resilient and sustainable crop production systems under a changing climate at regional-to-global scales.

    Effects of nitrogen addition on soil methane uptake in global forest biomes
    Xia, Nan ; Du, Enzai ; Wu, Xinhui ; Tang, Yang ; Wang, Yang ; Vries, Wim de - \ 2020
    Environmental Pollution 264 (2020). - ISSN 0269-7491
    Forest - Nitrogen addition - Nitrogen deposition - Soil methane uptake

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has been conventionally thought to decrease forest soil methane (CH4) uptake, while the biome specific and dose dependent effect is poorly understood. Based on a meta-analysis of 63 N addition trials from 7 boreal forests, 8 temperate forests, 13 subtropical and 4 tropical forests, we evaluated the effects of N addition on soil CH4 uptake fluxes across global forest biomes. When combining all N addition levels, soil CH4 uptake was insignificantly decreased by 7% in boreal forests, while N addition significantly decreased soil CH4 uptake by 39% in temperate forests and by 21% in subtropical and tropical forests, respectively. Meta-regression analyses, however, indicated a shift from a positive to a negative effect on soil CH4 uptake with increasing N additions both in boreal forests (threshold = 48 kg N ha−1 yr−1) and temperate forests (threshold = 27 kg N ha−1 yr−1), while no such shift was found in subtropical and tropical forests. Considering that current N deposition to most boreal and temperate forests is below the abovementioned thresholds, N deposition likely exerts a positive to neutral effect on soil CH4 uptake in both forest biomes. Our results provide new insights on the biome specific and dose dependent effect of N addition on soil CH4 sink in global forests and suggest that the current understanding that N deposition decreases forest soil CH4 uptake is flawed by high levels of experimental N addition.

    A DMP-triggered in vivo maternal haploid induction system in the dicotyledonous Arabidopsis
    Zhong, Yu ; Chen, Baojian ; Li, Mengran ; Wang, Dong ; Jiao, Yanyan ; Qi, Xiaolong ; Wang, Min ; Liu, Zongkai ; Chen, Chen ; Wang, Yuwen ; Chen, Ming ; Li, Jinlong ; Xiao, Zijian ; Cheng, Dehe ; Liu, Wenxin ; Boutilier, K.A. ; Liu, Chenxu ; Chen, Shaojiang - \ 2020
    Nature Plants 6 (2020). - ISSN 2055-026X - p. 466 - 472.
    Doubled haploid technology using inducer lines carrying mutations in ZmPLA1/MTL/NLD and ZmDMP1–4 has revolutionized traditional maize breeding. ZmPLA1/MTL/NLD is conserved in monocots and has been used to extend the system from maize to other monocots5–7, but no functional orthologue has been identified in dicots, while ZmDMP-like genes exist in both monocots and dicots4,8,9. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana ZmDMP-like genes AtDMP8 and AtDMP9 induce maternal haploids, with an average haploid induction rate of 2.1 ± 1.1%. In addition, to facilitate haploid seed identification in dicots, we established an efficient FAST-Red fluorescent marker-based haploid identification system that enables the identification of haploid seeds with >90% accuracy. These results show that mutations in DMP genes also trigger haploid induction in dicots. The conserved expression patterns and amino acid sequences of ZmDMP-like genes in dicots suggest that DMP mutations could be used to develop in vivo haploid induction systems in dicots.
    Corncob cellulose nanosphere as an eco-friendly detergent
    Liu, Bin ; Li, Tao ; Wang, Wenya ; Sagis, Leonard M.C. ; Yuan, Qipeng ; Lei, Xingen ; Cohen Stuart, Martien A. ; Li, Dan ; Bao, Cheng ; Bai, Jie ; Yu, Zhengquan ; Ren, Fazheng ; Li, Yuan - \ 2020
    Nature Sustainability (2020). - ISSN 2398-9629

    The daily use of synthetic detergents at a global scale is responsible for substantial environmental impacts but managerial and policy strategies to address them are largely inadequate. More sustainable and eco-friendly detergents are an appealing solution to reduce environmental impacts. Here, we developed a detergent based on cellulose nanospheres (CNSs) from agricultural waste corncob, an overlooked abundant and cheap natural source that is often discarded. Compared with conventional surfactants, CNSs stabilize at oil–water interfaces and form Pickering emulsions with enhanced stability and antiredeposition properties. CNSs show higher cleaning efficiency in removing stains from various surfaces compared with powder and liquid commercial detergents. In contrast to high toxicity of commercial detergents, CNSs are non-toxic to several mammalian cell lines, zebrafish and hydroponic lettuce. Overall, our results demonstrated the feasibility of using agriculturally derived waste CNSs as a safer, more cost-effective and sustainable alternative to commercial synthetic detergents.

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