Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    GO-FRESH: Valorisatie kansrijke oplossingen voor een robuuste zoetwatervoorziening : Rendabel en duurzaam watergebruik in een zilte omgeving
    Veraart, J.A. ; Oude Essink, G. ; Pauw, P. ; Baaren, E. van; Zuurbier, K. ; Louw, P. de; MacAteer, E. ; Schoot, M. van der; Groot, N. ; Cappon, H. ; Waterloo, M. ; Hu-a-ng, K. ; Groen, M. - \ 2018
    Deltares - 187 p.
    Soil CO2 exchange in seven pristine Amazonian rain forest sites in relation to soil temperature
    Zanchi, Fabrício B. ; Meesters, Antoon G.C.A. ; Waterloo, Maarten J. ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kesselmeier, Jürgen ; Luizão, Flávio J. ; Dolman, Albertus J. - \ 2014
    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 192-193 (2014). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 96 - 107.
    Amazon region - Analytical model - Hysteresis - Soil temperature

    We analysed soil respiration measurements made in seven distinctly different pristine rain forests in Central Amazon, ranging from stunted heath forest (Campina) to tall terra-firme rain forest. The differences in soil respiration fluxes between sites and their causes were investigated, as well as diurnal patterns and their dependency on temperature. Ensemble averages of hourly fluxes were calculated for both wet and dry seasons (as far as these were sampled). These values were processed using an analytical model estimating soil surface temperature from the temperature measured at two depths. The soil CO2 efflux can be viewed as a proxy for forest productivity. The low productive Campina stunted heath forest site (on leached sandy soils and covered by scleromorphic vegetation) has the lowest respiration (<1.5μmolCO2m-2s-1, dry period). Respiration increased in local patches of taller heath forest on finer textured soil to about 4μmolCO2m-2s-1. In the Cuieiras lowland rain forest respiration changed along a toposequence. The lowest value of 2.5μmolCO2m-2s-1 was observed on the plateau (terra-firme rain forest), whereas a maximum of 6.0μmolCO2m-2s-1 was observed in the valley (Campinarana forest). Soil respiration decreased to about 4μmolCO2m-2s-1 close to the river (riparian forest) where soils remained close to saturation. To find the optimum correlation between soil temperature and respiration flux, relationships were derived between the amplitudes and phases of respiration and soil temperatures measured at different depths. Compared to the use of soil temperatures measured at 5cm and 10cm depth, the use of (modelled) soil surface temperatures strongly reduced the hysteresis between respiration and temperature, and improved the coefficient of determination (R2) for the Cuieiras forest sites, whereas the Campina sites still showed time lags of several hours between respiration and soil temperature diurnal patterns. With respect to the surface temperature, Q10 ranged from 1.7 (bare soil, dry season) to 2.0-2.5 (Cuieiras slope and plateau sites, dry season) and 3.3-5.2 (ibidem, wet season) to 5.5-7.7 (Cuieiras Campinarana and valley forests, dry/wet season).

    Soil Co2 efflux in central Amazonia: Environmental and methodological effects
    Zanchi, F.B. ; Waterloo, M.J. ; Kruijt, B. ; Kesselmeier, J. ; Luizao, F.J. ; Manzi, A.O. ; Dolman, A.J. - \ 2012
    Acta Amazonica 42 (2012)2. - ISSN 0044-5967 - p. 173 - 184.
    Soil respiration plays a significant role in the carbon cycle of Amazonian rainforests. Measurements of soil respiration have only been carried out in few places in the Amazon. This study investigated the effects of the method of ring insertion in the soil as well as of rainfall and spatial distribution on CO2 emission in the central Amazon region. The ring insertion effect increased the soil emission about 13-20% for sandy and loamy soils during the firsts 4-7 hours, respectively. After rainfall events below 2 mm, the soil respiration did not change, but for rainfall greater than 3 mm, after 2 hours there was a decrease in soil temperature and respiration of about 10-34% for the loamy and sand soils, with emissions returning to normal after around 15-18 hours. The size of the measurement areas and the spatial distribution of soil respiration were better estimated using the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data. The Campina reserve is a mosaic of bare soil, stunted heath forest-SHF and tall heath forest-THF. The estimated total average CO2 emissions from the area was 3.08±0.8 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The Cuieiras reserve is another mosaic of plateau, slope, Campinarana and riparian forests and the total average emission from the area was 3.82±0.76 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1. We also found that the main control factor of the soil respiration was soil temperature, with 90% explained by regression analysis. Automated soil respiration datasets are a good tool to improve the technique and increase the reliability of measurements to allow a better understanding of all possible factors driven by soil respiration processes.
    Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils
    Berton Zanchi, F. ; Waterloo, M.J. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Groenendijk, M. ; Kruijt, B. - \ 2011
    Revista Ambiente e Agua 6 (2011)1. - ISSN 1980-993X - p. 6 - 29.
    Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and groundwater chemistry and soil CO2 respiration were studied in forests on sandy soils, whereas drought sensitivity of poorly-drained valley soils was investigated in an artificial drainage experiment. Slightly changes in litter decomposition or water chemistry were observed as a consequence of artificial drainage. Riparian plots did experience higher litter decomposition rates than campina forest. In response to a permanent lowering of the groundwater level from 0.1 m to 0.3 m depth in the drainage plot, topsoil carbon and nitrogen contents decreased substantially. Soil CO2 respiration decreased from 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1 before drainage to 2.5±0.2 and 0.8±0.1 µmol m-2 s-1 eight and 11 months after drainage, respectively. Soil respiration in the control plot remained constant at 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1. The above suggests that more frequent droughts may affect topsoil carbon and nitrogen content and soil respiration rates in the riparian ecosystem, and may induce a transition to less diverse campinarana or short-statured campina forest that covers areas with strongly-leached sandy soil.
    The spatial variability of CO2 storage and the interpretation of eddy covariance fluxes in central Amazonia
    Araujo, A.C. de; Dolman, H. ; Waterloo, M.J. ; Gash, J.H.C. ; Kruijt, B. ; Zanchi, F.B. ; Lange, J.M.E. ; Stoevelaar, R. ; Manzi, A.O. ; Nobre, A.D. ; Lootens, R.N. ; Backer, J. - \ 2010
    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150 (2010)2. - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 226 - 237.
    tropical forest - rain-forest - carbon-dioxide - ecosystem respiration - water-vapor - exchange - term - catchment - profiles - accuracy
    The landscape of central Amazonia is composed of plateaus and valleys. Previous observations have shown preferential pooling of CO2 in the valleys, suggesting that the change in CO2 storage in the canopy air space (S) will be spatially variable at the scale of the topography. This may affect the interpretation of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) rates measured on the plateaus if they have used one single atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) vertical profile measurement system. We have measured the diel, spatial and seasonal variation of S along the topography by using a set of automated [CO2] vertical profile measurement systems. In addition, NEE, the above-canopy turbulent exchange of CO2 (F-C) and meteorological variables were also measured on a micrometeorological tower located on the plateau. The nocturnal accumulation of CO2 was larger on the slopes and in the valleys than on the plateau and was larger in the dry period than in the wet period. In addition, the release of this CO2 occurred later in the day on the slopes and in the valleys than on the plateau. Differences in the flow regime above the canopy along the topographical gradient, lateral drainage of respired CO2 downslope, and temporal, spatial, and seasonal variation of soil CO2 efflux (R-soil) are thought to have contributed to this. These conditions cause S to be higher in magnitude on the slopes and in the valleys than on the plateau during midmorning hours. We demonstrate that there is a larger underestimation of R-eco by nighttime eddy covariance (EC) measurements in the dry period than in the wet period. In addition, R-eco - as derived from measurements only on the plateau (F-C + S-P) - does not agree with that derived by an independent method. Yet S fluxes peaked at about 18:00-20:00 on the slopes and in the valleys, following a continuous decrease after this period until reaching a minimum just after dawn. NEE derived from F-C measured on the plateau and S measured on the plateau, slope and valley increased the estimates of R-eco on the plateau by about 30% and 70% in the wet and dry periods, respectively. Particularly for flux-tower sites over complex terrain, we recommend measuring the spatial variability of CO2 at, at least two, more points along the topography to determine to what extent horizontal gradients and storage changes may contribute to tower fluxes. Finally, for sites that present topographical characteristics similar to that described in this study, care must be taken with the use of single in-canopy profiles of [CO2] to correct EC fluxes.
    Measurements of soil respiration and simple models dependent on moisture and temperature for an Amazonian southwest tropical forest
    Zanchi, F.B. ; Rocha, H.R. Da; Freitas, H.C. De; Kruijt, B. ; Waterloo, M.J. ; Manzi, A.O. - \ 2009
    Biogeosciences Discussions 6 (2009)3. - ISSN 1810-6277 - p. 6147 - 6177.
    Soil respiration plays a significant role in the carbon cycle of Amazonian tropical forests, although in situ measurements have only been poorly reported and the dependence of soil moisture and soil temperature also weakly understood. This work investigates the temporal variability of soil respiration using field measurements, which also included soil moisture, soil temperature and litterfall, from April 2003 to January 2004, in a southwest Brazilian tropical rainforest near Ji-Paraná, Rondônia. The experimental design deployed five automatic (static, semi-opened) soil chambers connected to an infra-red CO2 gas analyzer. The mean half-hourly soil respiration showed a large scattering from 0.6 to 18.9 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 and the average was 8.0±3.4 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Soil respiration varied seasonally, being lower in the dry season and higher in the wet season, which generally responded positively to the variation of soil moisture and temperature year round. The peak was reached in the dry-to-wet season transition (September), this coincided with increasing sunlight, evapotranspiration and ecosystem productivity. Litterfall processes contributed to meet very favorable conditions for biomass decomposition in early wet season, especially the fresh litter on the forest floor accumulated during the dry season. We attempted to fit three models with the data: the exponential Q10 model, the Reichstein model, and the log-soil moisture model. The models do not contradict the scattering of observations, but poorly explain the variance of the half-hourly data, which is improved when the lag-time days averaging is longer. The observations suggested an optimum range of soil moisture, between 0.115
    Estimativa do Índice de Área Foliar (IAF) e Biomassa em pastagem no estado de Rondônia, Brasil
    Zanchi, F.B. ; Waterloo, M.J. ; Randow, C. von; Kruijt, B. ; Cardoso, F.L. ; Manzi, A.O. - \ 2009
    Acta Amazonica 39 (2009)2. - ISSN 0044-5967 - p. 335 - 348.
    Medidas mensais da altura da pastagem, biomassa total, variações de biomassa viva e morta, a área específica foliar (SLA) e o Índice de Área de Folha (IAF) de fevereiro de 1999 a janeiro de 2005 na Fazenda Nossa Senhora (FNS) e em Rolim de Moura (RDM) entre Fevereiro a Março de 1999, Rondônia, Brasil. A pastagem predominante é Urochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich) R. D. Webster (99% na FNS e 76% em RDM), com pequenas manchas de Urochloa humidicula (Rendle). A altura média anual da grama foi de ~0,16 m. Com o pastejo, o mínimo mensal foi de 0,09 m (estação seca) e máximo de 0,3 m sem pastejo (estação úmida). O IAF, biomassa total, material morto, vivo e SLA tiveram valores médios de 2,5 m2 m-2 , 2202 kg ha-1, 2916 kg ha-1 e 19 m2 kg-1 respectivamente. A média mensal da biomassa foi 4224 kg ha-1 em 2002 e 6667 kg ha-1 em 2003. Grande variação sazonal do material vivo e morto, sendo mais alto o vivo durante a estação úmida (3229 contra 2529 kg ha-1), sendo o morto maior durante a seca (2542 contra 1894 kg ha-1). O nível de água no solo variou de -3,1 a -6,5 m durante as estações. Em médias anuais os IAF foram de 1,4 em 2000 a 2,8 em 2003 e o SLA entre 16,3 m2 kg-1 em 1999 e 20,4 m2 kg-1 em 2001. As observações do Albedo variaram de 0,18 para 0,16 em relação aos altos valores de IAF.
    Governing Global Environmental Flows: Ecological Modernization in Technonatural Time/Spaces
    Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2009
    In: Technonatues: Environments, Technologies, Spaces, and Places in the Twenty-first Century / White,, D.F., Wilbert, C., Waterloo, Canada : Wilfrid Laurier University Press - ISBN 9781554581504 - p. 35 - 62.
    Environmentalism and social sciences appear to be in a period of disorientation and perhaps transition. In this innovative collection, leading international thinkers explore the notion that one explanation for the current malaise of the ¿politics of ecology¿ is that we increasingly find ourselves negotiating ¿technonatural¿ space/times. International contributors map the political ecologies of our technonatural present and indicate possible paths for technonatural futures. The term ¿technonatures¿ is in debt to a long line of environmental cultural theory from Raymond Williams onwards, problematizing the idea that a politics of the environment can be usefully grounded in terms of the rhetoric of defending the pure, the authentic, or an idealized past solely in terms of the ecological or the natural. In using the term ¿technonatures¿ as an organizing myth and metaphor for thinking about the politics of nature in contemporary times, this collection seeks to explore one increasingly pronounced dimension of the social natures discussion. Technonatures highlights a growing range of voices considering the claim that we are not only inhabiting diverse social natures but that within such natures our knowledge of our worlds is ever more technologically mediated, produced, enacted, and contested
    Implications of CO2 pooling on d13C of ecosystem respiration and leaves in Amazonian forest
    Araujo, A.C. de; Ometto, J.P.H.B. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Kruijt, B. ; Waterloo, M.J. ; Ehleringer, J.R. - \ 2008
    Biogeosciences 5 (2008)3. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 779 - 795.
    carbon-isotope discrimination - rain-forest - tropical forest - water availability - natural-abundance - deciduous forest - cycle research - use efficiency - boreal forest - french-guiana
    The carbon isotope of a leaf (d13Cleaf) is generally more negative in riparian zones than in areas with low soil moisture content or rainfall input. In Central Amazonia, the small-scale topography is composed of plateaus and valleys, with plateaus generally having a lower soil moisture status than the valley edges in the dry season. Yet in the dry season, the nocturnal accumulation of CO2 is higher in the valleys than on the plateaus. Samples of sunlit leaves and atmospheric air were collected along a topographical gradient in the dry season to test whether the d13Cleaf of sunlit leaves and the carbon isotope ratio of ecosystem respired CO2 (d13CReco) may be more negative in the valley than those on the plateau. The d13Cleaf was significantly more negative in the valley than on the plateau. Factors considered to be driving the observed variability in d13Cleaf were: leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf mass per unit area (LMA), soil moisture availability, more negative carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 (d13Ca) in the valleys during daytime hours, and leaf discrimination (¿leaf). The observed pattern of d13Cleaf might suggest that water-use efficiency (WUE) is higher on the plateaus than in the valleys. However, there was no full supporting evidence for this because it remains unclear how much of the difference in d13Cleaf was driven by physiology or &delta13Ca. The d13CReco was more negative in the valleys than on the plateaus on some nights, whereas in others it was not. It is likely that lateral drainage of CO2 enriched in 13C from upslope areas might have happened when the nights were less stable. Biotic factors such as soil CO2 efflux (Rsoil) and the responses of plants to environmental variables such as vapor pressure deficit (D) may also play a role. The preferential pooling of CO2 in the low-lying areas of this landscape may confound the interpretation of d13Cleaf and d13CReco.
    Nocturnal accumulation of CO2 underneath a tropical forest canopy along a tropographical gradient
    Araújo, A.C. de; Kruijt, B. ; Nobre, A.D. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Waterloo, M.J. ; Moors, E.J. ; Souza, J. de - \ 2008
    Ecological Applications 18 (2008)6. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 1406 - 1419.
    tropische bossen - kroondak - kooldioxide - amazonia - tropical forests - canopy - carbon dioxide - amazonia - amazonian rain-forest - carbon-dioxide exchange - eddy covariance - mixed forest - water-vapor - respiration - atmosphere - advection - soil - ecosystem
    Flux measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor above tropical rain forests are often difficult to interpret because the terrain is usually complex. This complexity induces heterogeneity in the surface but also affects lateral movement of carbon dioxide (CO2) not readily detected by the eddy covariance systems. This study describes such variability using measurements of CO2 along vertical profiles and along a toposequence in a tropical rain forest near Manaus, Brazil. Seasonal and diurnal variation was recorded, with atmospheric CO2 concentration maxima around dawn, generally higher CO2 build-up in the dry season and stronger daytime CO2 drawdown in the wet season. This variation was reflected all along the toposequence, but the slope and valley bottom accumulated clearly more CO2 than the plateaus, depending on atmospheric stability. Particularly during stable nights, accumulation was along lines of equal altitude, suggesting that large amounts of CO2 are stored in the valleys of the landscape. Flushing of this store only occurs during mid-morning, when stored CO2 may well be partly transported back to the plateaus. It is clear that, for proper interpretation of tower fluxes in such complex and actively respiring terrain, the horizontal variability of storage needs to be taken into account not only during the night but also during the mornings.
    Export of organic carbon in run-off from an Amazonian rainforest blackwater catchment
    Waterloo, M.J. ; Oliveira, S.M. ; Drucker, D.P. ; Nobre, A.D. ; Cuartas, L.A. ; Hodnett, M.G. ; Langedijk, I. ; Jans, W.W.P. ; Tomasella, J. ; Araújo, A.C. de; Pimentel, T.P. ; Múnera Estrada, J.C. - \ 2006
    Hydrological Processes 20 (2006)12. - ISSN 0885-6087 - p. 2581 - 2597.
    tropical forests - rio-negro - fluxes - river - matter - basin - dioxide - brazil - deforestation - variability
    Rainfall, run-off and dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations were measured to investigate the hydrological export of organic carbon out of the blackwater Igarape Asu rainforest catchment over a two-year period. Annual rainfall was above average (2442 mm) at 2976 mm in 2002 and below average at 2054 mm in 2003. Surface run-off dominated the flow out of the catchment, with groundwater outflow being negligible. Streamflow totals amounted to 1362 mm in 2002 and 780 mm in 2003. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in rainfall were similar to those measured in rainfall elsewhere in the Amazon Basin at 1-2 mg l(-1), leading to atmospheric DOC deposition estimates of 3.5 g m(-2) in 2002 and 2.4 g m(-2) in 2003. Daily average DOC concentrations in run-off ranged from 8 mg l(-1) under low flow conditions to 27 mg l(-1) during large quickflow events. Suspended sediment (10-2000-mu m size fraction) consisted for 28% of carbon and had a median concentration of 4.1 mg l(-1). Daily run-off varied between 1.2-2.5 mm day(-1) during dry periods with corresponding organic carbon exports of 0.009-0.031 g m(-2) day(-1). Exports associated with large storms were much higher, reaching a daily maximum of 1.02 g m(-2) day(-1) for a discharge event of 38.4 mm. Export of carbon during the wet seasons amounted to 70% of the total. Annual exports in river water were different between the years because of differences in run-off, varying between 26.2 g C m(-2) in 2002 and 11.7 g C m(-2) in 2003. Organic carbon exports were dominated by DOC, with exports in sediment constituting 6-8% of the total. Net carbon export, corrected for rainfall inputs, amounted to 22.7 and 9.3 g m(-2) in 2002 and 2003, respectively. The present study indicates that accounting for exports of organic carbon in stream runoff (averaging 19.0 g m(-2) year(-1) over the 2 years) would reduce the rainforest sink strength, estimated at 300-400 g m(-2) year(-1) from eddy covariance measurements, by 5-6% for this blackwater catchment.
    How resilient may the Amazon rain forest carbon balance be to climate change?
    Kruijt, B. ; Luizão, F. ; Nobre, A. ; Tomasella, J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Waterloo, M. ; Nobre, C.A. ; Verburg, P.H. ; Câmara, G. ; Kok, K. ; Berton Zanchi, F. ; Cássia da Silva, R. de; Souza Soler, L. de; Escada, I. - \ 2006
    In: Integrated land ecosystem-atmosphere processes study; proceedings of the 1st iLEAPS science conference, Helsinki (Finland), Janauary 21-26, 2006. - Helsinki (Finland) : Yliopistopaino - ISBN 9789525027662 - p. 80 - 81.
    Net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and water of far eastern Siberian larch (Larix cajanderii) on permafrost
    Dolman, A.J. ; Maximov, T.C. ; Moors, E.J. ; Maximov, A.P. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Kononov, A.V. ; Waterloo, M.J. ; Molen, M.K. van der - \ 2004
    Biogeosciences 1 (2004)2. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 133 - 146.
    anemometer (co)sine response - flux measurement - pine forest - balance - productivity - vegetation - energy - taiga - soil
    Observations of the net ecosystem exchange of water and CO2 were made during two seasons in 2000 and 2001 above a Larch forest in Far East Siberia (Yakutsk). The measurements were obtained by eddy correlation. There is a very sharply pronounced growing season of 100 days when the forest is leaved. Maximum half hourly uptake rates are 18 µmol m-2 s-1; maximum respiration rates are 5 µmol m-2 s-1. Net annual sequestration of carbon was estimated at 160 gCm-2 in 2001. Applying no correction for low friction velocities added 60 g C m-2. The net carbon exchange of the forest was extremely sensitive to small changes in weather that may switch the forest easily from a sink to a source, even in summer. June was the month with highest uptake in 2001. The average evaporation rate of the forest approached 1.46 mm day-1 during the growing season, with peak values of 3 mm day-1 with an estimated annual evaporation of 213 mm, closely approaching the average annual rainfall amount. 2001 was a drier year than 2000 and this is reflected in lower evaporation rates in 2001 than in 2000 The surface conductance of the forest shows a marked response to increasing atmospheric humidity deficits. This affects the CO2 uptake and evaporation in a different manner, with the CO2 uptake being more affected. There appears to be no change in the relation between surface conductance and net ecosystem uptake normalized by the atmospheric humidity deficit at the monthly time scale. The response to atmospheric humidity deficit is an efficient mechanism to prevent severe water loss during the short intense growing season. The associated cost to the sequestration of carbon may be another explanation for the slow growth of these forests in this environment.
    Comparative measurements and seasonal variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest and pasture in South West Amazonia
    Randow, C. von; Manzi, A.O. ; Kruijt, B. ; Oliveira, P.J. de; Zanchi, F.B. ; Silva, R.L. ; Hodnett, M.G. ; Gash, J.H.C. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Waterloo, M.J. ; Cardoso, F.L. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2004
    Theoretical and Applied Climatology 78 (2004)1-3. - ISSN 0177-798X - p. 5 - 26.
    surface-air exchange - rain-forest - land-surface - micrometeorological observations - tall vegetation - dioxide - water - flux - climate - towers
    Comparative measurements of radiation flux components and turbulent fluxes of energy and CO2 are made at two sites in South West Amazonia: one in a tropical forest reserve and one in a pasture. The data were collected from February 1999 to September 2002, as part of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). During the dry seasons, although precipitation and specific humidity are greatly reduced, the soil moisture storage profiles down to 3.4m indicate that the forest vegetation continues to withdraw water from deep layers in the soil. For this reason, seasonal changes observed in the energy partition and CO2 fluxes in the forest are small, compared to the large reductions in evaporation and photosynthesis observed in the pasture. For the radiation balance, the reflected short wave radiation increases by about 55% when changing from forest to pasture. Combined with an increase of 4.7% in long wave radiation loss, this causes an average reduction of 13.3% in net radiation in the pasture, compared to the forest. In the wet season, the evaporative fraction (E/Rn) at the pasture is 17% lower than at the forest. This difference increases to 24% during the dry season. Daytime CO2 fluxes are 20¿28% lower (in absolute values) in the pasture compared to the forest. The night-time respiration in the pasture is also reduced compared to the forest, with averages 44% and 57% lower in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. As the reduction in the nocturnal respiration is larger than the reduction in the daytime uptake, the combined effect is a 19-67% higher daily uptake of CO2 in the pasture, compared to the forest. This high uptake of CO2 in the pasture site is not surprising, since the growth of the vegetation is constantly renewed, as the cattle remove the biomass.
    Regional adaptation strategies
    Cohen, S. ; Bass, B. ; Etkin, D. ; Jones, B. ; Lacroix, J. ; Mills, B. ; Mortsch, L. ; Scott, D. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2004
    In: Hard Choices: climate change in Canada / Coward, H., Weaver, A., Waterloo, Canada : Wilfrid Laurier University Press - ISBN 9780889204423 - 248 p.
    This new collection of essays by leading Canadian scientists, engineers, social scientists, and humanists offers an overview and assessment of climate change and its impacts on Canada from physical, social, technological, economic, political, and ethical / religious perspectives. Interpreting and summarizing the large and complex literatures from each of these disciplines, the book offers a multidisciplinary approach to the challenges we face in Canada. Special attention is given to Canada's response to the Kyoto Protocol, as well as an assessment of the overall adequacy of Kyoto as a response to the global challenge of climate change.
    Terrestrial carbon sinks and climate mitigation
    Livingston, N.J. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2004
    In: Hard Choices: climate change in Canada / Coward, H., Weaver, A., Waterloo, Canada : Wilfrid Laurier University Press - ISBN 9780889204423 - 248 p.
    This new collection of essays by leading Canadian scientists, engineers, social scientists, and humanists offers an overview and assessment of climate change and its impacts on Canada from physical, social, technological, economic, political, and ethical / religious perspectives. Interpreting and summarizing the large and complex literatures from each of these disciplines, the book offers a multidisciplinary approach to the challenges we face in Canada. Special attention is given to Canada's response to the Kyoto Protocol, as well as an assessment of the overall adequacy of Kyoto as a response to the global challenge of climate change.
    Economic aspects
    Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2004
    In: Hard Choices: Climate change in Canada / Coward, H., Weaver, A., Waterloo, Canada : Wilfrid Laurier University Press - ISBN 9780889204423 - 248 p.
    This new collection of essays by leading Canadian scientists, engineers, social scientists, and humanists offers an overview and assessment of climate change and its impacts on Canada from physical, social, technological, economic, political, and ethical / religious perspectives. Interpreting and summarizing the large and complex literatures from each of these disciplines, the book offers a multidisciplinary approach to the challenges we face in Canada. Special attention is given to Canada's response to the Kyoto Protocol, as well as an assessment of the overall adequacy of Kyoto as a response to the global challenge of climate change.
    Criteria, potentials and costs of forestry activities to sequester carbon within the framework of the clean development mechanism
    Waterloo, M.J. ; Spiertz, P.H. ; Diemont, W.H. ; Emmer, I. ; Aalders, E. ; Wichink Kruit, R.J. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 777) - 136
    koolstof - kooldioxide - fixatie - emissie - bossen - bebossing - ontbossing - klimaatverandering - kostenanalyse - sociale economie - opslag - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bosbedrijfsvoering - koolstofvastlegging - carbon - carbon dioxide - fixation - emission - forests - afforestation - deforestation - climatic change - cost analysis - socioeconomics - storage - sustainability - forest management - carbon sequestration
    Forest activities in developing countries can be used to sequester carbon for gaining emission reductions within the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. This study has assessed the potentials and costs for carbon sequestration through afforestation, reforestation and deforestation activities and how these are affected when certain criteria for eligibility are applied. The criteria address issues of additionality, permanence, socio-economic and environmental sustainability, compliance and verification, which are of major importance for the successful implementation of forestry projects in the Clean Development Mechanism. Application of the criteria results in a substantial decrease in the carbon sequestration potential and an increase in the project costs.
    Scientific and technical issues in the clean development mechanism
    Grace, J. ; Kruijt, B. ; Freibauer, A. ; Benndorf, R. ; Carr, R. ; Dutschke, M. ; Federici, S. ; Mollicone, D. ; Sanz, M.J. ; Schlamadinger, B. ; Sezzi, E. ; Waterloo, M.J. ; Valentini, R. ; Verhagen, A. ; Putten, B. van - \ 2003
    Viterbo (Italy) : University of Tuscia (Specific Study 10) - 47 p.
    A. Waterloo of Utility Liberalization? How great deregulation expectations were dashed by the Dutch water industry in the 1990s'
    Wubben, E.F.M. ; Hulsink, W. - \ 2003
    In: On creating competition and strategic restructuring: regulatory reform in public utilities / Wubben, E.F.M., Hulsink, W., [S.l] : Edward Elgar Publishing - ISBN 9781843763710 - p. 185 - 215.
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