Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Baby's first bites: a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of vegetable-exposure and sensitive feeding on vegetable acceptance, eating behavior and weight gain in infants and toddlers
    Veek, S.M.C. van der; Graaf, C. de; Vries, J.H.M. de; Jager, G. ; Vereijken, C.M.J.L. ; Weenen, H. ; Winden, N. van; Vliet, M.S. van; Schultink, J.M. ; Wild, V.W.T. de; Janssen, S. ; Mesman, J. - \ 2019
    BMC Pediatrics 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2431 - 1 p.
    Complementary feeding - Infant - Responsive feeding - Self-regulation of energy intake - Toddler - Vegetable exposure - Vegetables

    BACKGROUND: The start of complementary feeding in infancy plays an essential role in promoting healthy eating habits. Evidence shows that it is important what infants are offered during this first introduction of solid foods: e.g. starting exclusively with vegetables is more successful for vegetable acceptance than starting with fruits. How infants are introduced to solid foods also matters: if parents are sensitive and responsive to infant cues during feeding, this may promote self-regulation of energy intake and a healthy weight. However, the effectiveness of the what and the how of complementary feeding has never been experimentally tested in the same study. In the current project the what and how (and their combination) are tested in one study to determine their relative importance for fostering vegetable acceptance and self-regulation of energy intake in infants. METHODS: A four-arm randomized controlled trial (Baby's First Bites (BFB)) was designed for 240 first-time Dutch mothers and their infants, 60 per arm. In this trial, we compare the effectiveness of (a) a vegetable-exposure intervention focusing on the what in complementary feeding; (b) a sensitive feeding intervention focusing on the how in complementary feeding, (c) a combined intervention focusing on the what and how in complementary feeding; (d) an attention-control group. All mothers participate in five sessions spread over the first year of eating solid foods (child age 4-16 months). Primary outcomes are vegetable consumption, vegetable liking and self-regulation of energy intake. Secondary outcomes are child eating behaviors, child anthropometrics and maternal feeding behavior. Outcomes are assessed before, during and directly after the interventions (child age 18 months), and when children are 24 and 36 months old. DISCUSSION: The outcomes are expected to assess the impact of the interventions and provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the development of vegetable acceptance, self-regulation and healthy eating patterns in infants and toddlers, as well as the prevention of overweight. The results may be used to improve current dietary advice given to parents of their young children on complementary feeding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered during inclusion of participants at the Netherlands National Trial Register (identifier NTR6572 ) and at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03348176 ). Protocol issue date: 1 April 2018; version number 1.

    A systematic review of practices to promote vegetable acceptance in the first three years of life
    Barends, Coraline ; Weenen, Hugo ; Warren, Janet ; Hetherington, Marion M. ; Graaf, Cees de; Vries, Jeanne H.M. de - \ 2019
    Appetite 137 (2019). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 174 - 197.
    Infants - Introducing vegetables - Systematic review - Toddlers - Vegetable intake

    Background: Although most children do not meet vegetable intake recommendations no clear universal guidelines exist on the best method of introducing and promoting vegetables in infants. Objective: To identify strategies to promote vegetable acceptance in children from the start of complementary feeding until 3 years of age. Design: A comprehensive search strategy was performed using the databases Scopus and Pubmed. Articles published before March 2018 measuring vegetable intake and/or liking were included. Results: 46 papers, 25 experimental (intervention) studies, and 21 observational studies were included. Intervention studies revealed that repeated exposure increased acceptance of the target vegetable, whereas exposure to variety was found to be particularly effective in increasing acceptance of a new vegetable. Starting complementary feeding with vegetables increased vegetable acceptance, whereas starting with fruits did not. Visual exposure to an unfamiliar vegetable increased the acceptance of that vegetable even without consuming it, while visual exposure to a familiar vegetable did not. A stepwise introduction of vegetables resulted in better initial acceptance of vegetables than introducing vegetables directly. Observational studies showed that vegetable consumption was associated with frequency of exposure, exposure to variety, and modelling. A majority of studies found a positive association between breastfeeding and vegetable acceptance, but only two out of seven studies found an association between age of vegetable introduction and their acceptance. Conclusions: Based on the papers reviewed, we conclude that introducing vegetables at the beginning of complementary feeding, giving a different type of vegetable every day and ensuring repeated exposure to the same vegetable following an interval of a few days are the most promising strategies to promote vegetable intake in children starting complementary feeding until they are 3 years of age.

    Sensory characteristics of human milk : Association between mothers' diet and milk for bitter taste
    Mastorakou, Dimitra ; Ruark, Angelica ; Weenen, Hugo ; Stahl, Bernd ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
    Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1116 - 1130.
    bitterness - breastfeeding - human milk - maternal diet - sensory perception

    It is unknown how consumption of bitter foods and beverages in the maternal diet influences sensory properties of fresh human milk. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the sensory characteristics of fresh human fore and hind milk, (2) to establish relationships between sensory properties and composition of fresh human milk, and (3) to assess the relationship between bitterness of the maternal diet and human milk. Twenty-two lactating mothers generated sensory terms to describe perception of their milk and received training on sensory attribute intensity rating. Mothers kept a 24-h food diary followed by a sensory self-assessment of their fore and hind milks. The odor of human fresh milk was described as neutral, creamy, and sweet, taste as sweet and bitter, and mouthfeel as thin, watery, smooth, and fatty. Sweetness was equivalent to 1.53 g of sucrose/100 mL and was not significantly different between fore and hind milk. Fore milk was significantly less creamy, less fatty, thinner, more watery, and lower in vanilla flavor intensity than hind milk. Carbohydrate content of human milk was positively correlated with sweetness and glutamic acid content with umami. The bitterness of the diet consumed 24 h before lactation was moderately positively correlated with bitterness of fore milk, but not hind milk. We conclude that the consumption of bitter foods may influence the bitterness of human fore milk, which may be another way for breastfed children to learn to accept bitter vegetables and, hence, develop healthier food preferences.

    Application and validation of the Feeding Infants : Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS) to assess liking and wanting in infants at the time of complementary feeding
    Nekitsing, C. ; Madrelle, J. ; Barends, C. ; Graaf, C. de; Parrott, H. ; Morgan, S. ; Weenen, H. ; Hetherington, M.M. - \ 2016
    Food Quality and Preference 48 (2016)Part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 228 - 237.
    Complementary feeding - Facial expressions - Food refusal - Infant feeding - Like/dislike - Liking - Scale - Wanting - Weaning

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to validate a novel tool developed to measure liking and wanting in infants during the weaning period. The Feeding Infants: Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS; Hetherington et al., in press) is an evidence based video coding tool, consisting of 13 items. There are 6 measures of avoidance/approach behaviours (turns head away, arches back, pushes spoon away, crying/fussy, leaning forward and rate of acceptance) to assess wanting and 7 facial expressions (brow lowered, inner brow raised, squinting, nose wrinkling, lip corners down, upper lip raised and gaping) to assess liking. Lower scores on the total scale indicated greater wanting and/or liking. The tool was applied to a recent randomized control trial (Hetherington et al., 2015). Method: 36 mother-infant dyads took part in the study and were randomised to the intervention or the control group. Infants were filmed on two occasions whilst eating a generally liked vegetable (carrots) and less preferred vegetable (green bean). 72 video extracts were coded by 4 trained researchers with adequate certification scores, each video was coded by at least two coders. Items and scales were tested for discrimination ((1) intervention vs control; (2) liked vs disliked vegetable) and construct validity (correlation with intake and liking assessed by mother and researcher). Results: Very good discrimination (p <0.001) was obtained for carrots vs green bean for the total score and total negative facial expressions and rejection behaviours (p=0.003). Discrimination for the intervention vs control groups was only obtained for the total rejections and the rate of acceptance (p <05). The FIBFECS subscales had good construct validity as these were significantly correlated with intake and liking ratings (p <0.01). Items such as crying/fussy and leaning forward were removed from the scale as well as inner brow raised, squinting and lip corners down, as these do not correlate with other variables. Their removal did not affect the integrity of the scale. The rate of acceptance parameter was found to have potential as a short method to measure wanting in infants. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that the FIBFECS can be used to identify liking and wanting independent of subjective ratings from mothers and researchers, therefore, this tool can be used widely in the study of infant responses to novel foods at the time of weaning. There is potential to develop the tool for infants beyond the period of complementary feeding and to assist in identifying fussy eating in the early stages of development.

    Developing a novel tool to assess liking and wanting in infants at the time of complementary feeding - The Feeding Infants : Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS)
    Hetherington, M.M. ; Madrelle, J. ; Nekitsing, C. ; Barends, C. ; Graaf, C. de; Morgan, S. ; Parrott, H. ; Weenen, H. - \ 2016
    Food Quality and Preference 48 (2016)Part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 238 - 250.
    Complementary feeding - Facial expressions - Food refusal - Infant feeding - Like/dislike - Wanting - Weaning

    Introduction: Consumption of foods is determined in part by how much a food is liked. However, assessing liking in infants is difficult. Research with infants has often relied on indirect measures such as intake or subjective ratings from mothers. Therefore the aim of the present research was to devise a tool adapted from existing techniques which can directly and systematically measure liking in infants during the weaning period. Method: A tool was developed by extracting items from previous studies. In all, 13 items were generated, which included 6 behaviours reflecting avoidance and approach: turning away, arching back, pushing spoon away, crying/fussy, leaning forward and rate of acceptance; also 7 facial expressions thought to reflect affective response; brow lowered, inner brow raised, squinting, nose wrinkling, upper lip raised, lip corners down and gaping. An e-training manual was developed with a certification test to train coders. The coding tool is based on coding the first 9 spoonfuls for each infant. 63 videos were coded by 4 raters, each video was coded by at least 2 different coders. For each spoonful the absence or presence of each item was recorded; for rate of acceptance, a four point scale was used. Results: In the certification test most cues were high in agreement for all coders. Factor analysis indicated two dimensions, one which largely captured gross behaviours and the second featuring a cluster of facial expressions. Internal consistencies of the overall scale and the behaviour and facial expression subscales were acceptable as indicated by Cronbach's alpha >0.7. Intra-class correlation indicated moderate to high inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability for most of the cues. Spearman correlations indicated significant associations of the total number of negative behaviours with rate of acceptance and overall facial expressions. Rejection behaviours corresponded with a low rate of food acceptance and a high rate of negative facial expressions. Two parameters occurred less frequently and did not appear to provide any further discriminatory ability, namely leaning forward and crying/fussiness, these can be removed from the scale for future use. Conclusions: The Feeding Infants: Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS) is structurally valid and reliable for use by trained coders and those who are researching infant eating behaviour. The two factor structure of the tool suggests that the facial expression subscale reflects liking and the behaviour subscale wanting. The tool could also be adapted for mothers and professionals to detect liking and wanting through facial expression and behavioural cues respectively.

    PROP sensitivity reflects sensory discrimination between custard desserts
    Wijk, R.A. de; Dijksterhuis, G. ; Vereijken, P.H. ; Prinz, J.F. ; Weenen, H. - \ 2007
    Food Quality and Preference 18 (2007)4. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 597 - 604.
    taster status - texture - 6-n-propylthiouracil - perception - bitterness - intensity - ptc/prop - liquid - foods
    Sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) for a group of 180 naïve consumers was related to their perception of 16 commercially available vanilla custard desserts. Rated intensities of taste and texture attributes varied moderately and inconsistently with PROP sensitivity. In contrast, discriminative ability increased with PROP sensitivity resulting in higher numbers of significant differences between pairs of custards. In terms of signal/noise theory, the results indicate that PROP sensitivity enhances the separation of the response signals but does not reduce their noise. The naïve consumers were also compared with highly trained panelists to test whether effects of PROP sensitivity resemble the effects of experience and training. Naïve consumers and trained panelists responded similarly with respect to taste and texture sensations such as creaminess and thickness, but were clearly different with respect to others such as heterogeneity and fattiness. Trained panelists demonstrated even stronger discriminative abilities than consumers with high PROP sensitivities for some attributes but weaker abilities for others. A practical implication of these findings is that selection criteria for participation in sensory panels should include PROP sensitivity, if the panel is aimed at maximum discriminative performance.
    Differential retention of emulsion components in the mouth after swallowing
    Jongh, H.H.J. de; Janssen, A.M. ; Weenen, H. - \ 2006
    In: Food lipids : chemistry, flavor and texture / Weenen, H., Shahidi, F., Washington : American Chemical Society (ACS Symposium Series 920) - ISBN 9780841238961 - p. 87 - 94.
    custard desserts - commercial mayonnaises - perception - texture - attributes
    ATR FT-IR spectroscopy was used to investigate the coating that stays behind in the mouth after swallowing mayonnaise samples. Typically, the oil content was found to decrease to an average of 26% (range: 12-40%) of the t=0 value after 2 min, to
    Prediction of creamy mouthfeel based on texture attribute ratings of dairy desserts
    Weenen, H. ; Jellema, R.H. ; Wijk, R.A. de - \ 2006
    In: Food lipids : chemistry, flavor and texture / Weenen, H., Shahidi, F., Washington : American Chemical Society (ACS symposium series 920) - ISBN 9780841238961 - p. 105 - 177.
    A quantitative predictive model for creamy mouthfeel in dairy desserts was developed, using PLS multivariate analysis of texture attributes. Based on 40 experimental custard desserts, a good correlation was obtained between measured and predicted creamy mouthfeel ratings. The model was validated by testing it for commercial custard desserts (r=0.84, p=0.002). Further validation was obtained by applying the model to commercial yoghurts, using a different panel. Again a good correlation was obtained (r=0.90, p
    The role of fats in friction and lubrication
    Prinz, J.F. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Weenen, H. - \ 2006
    In: Food lipids : chemistry, flavor and texture / Weenen, H., Shahidi, F., Washington : American Chemical Society (ACS Symposium Series 920) - ISBN 9780841238961 - p. 95 - 103.
    Dynamic aspects of liking: post-prandial persistence of sensory specific satiety
    Weenen, H. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2005
    Food Quality and Preference 16 (2005)6. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 528 - 535.
    home-use - exposure - foods - variety - pleasantness - consumption - acceptance - preference - ratings - taste
    The time dependence of the liking of foodstuffs was investigated in a study with 25 subjects, consisting of three parts: (1) on day one, a sensory specific satiety study, which was extended until 125 min after consumption; (2) on days two to seven, a repeated in home taste and evaluation study; (3) on day eight, a second sensory specific satiety study as in 1. In parts 1 and 3, subjects were asked to eat either cheese biscuits or pears in light syrup to satiety. The change in liking of both foodstuffs, after eating one of the two foodstuffs to satiety, was followed during 125 min. In part 2, the same subjects were asked to taste and evaluate each product at home, every day for six days. In the sensory specific satiety studies (parts 1 and 3) a significant decrease in liking was observed for the product eaten to satiety, as long as 125 min after consuming that product to satiety. For both products contrast effects were observed: the liking of the uneaten product increased after eating the other product to satiety, while the liking of the eaten product decreased. This contrast effect lasted longer after eating cheese biscuits to satiety, than after eating pears to satiety. In the in home taste and evaluation study, a significant and linear decrease in liking was observed for both products during six days. There was a significant effect (p <0.05) of eating cheese biscuits to satiety in the sensory specific satiety study on day 1, on the liking ratings of the in home consumption study. No such effect was observed for the pears. The results indicate that sensory specific satiety is relatively strong for more than 2 h after consumption and can have effects on liking ratings for more than 24 h. These effects were different for the products tested. Based on these results, we suggest that combining eating a product to satiety and in home evaluation over several days, could possibly be useful as an accelerated method to predict changes in liking upon repeated consumption
    Improved semi-solid food products and methods for their production, based on inhibiting amylase induced starch breakdown
    Weenen, H. ; Hamer, R.J. ; Wijk, R.A. de - \ 2005
    Octrooinummer: WO2005070227, gepubliceerd: 2005-08-04.
    The present invention relates to the field of food production, in particular to methods of producing improved semi-solid food products and to the improved semi-solid food products themselves and their use. In particular, in-mouth salivary amylase induced starch breakdown is inhibited.
    Modeling of thickness for semisolid foods
    Terpstra, M.E.J. ; Janssen, A.M. ; Prinz, J.F. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Weenen, H. ; Linden, E. van der - \ 2005
    Journal of Texture Studies 36 (2005)2. - ISSN 0022-4901 - p. 213 - 233.
    oral perception - fluid-mechanics - alpha-amylase - viscosity - texture - mouth - mayonnaise - tongue
    We investigated the relationship between orally perceived thickness and calculated shear stress on the tongue for mayonnaise and custard. To this end, the applicability of the models of Kokini et al. (1977), describing the mechanical breakdown in the mouth, have been tested. Within a limited range of shear stresses (mayonnaise <150 Pa; custard <30 Pa), there was a linear relationship between shear stress and thickness, in accordance with the work of Kokini et al. (1977). Beyond this range, the linear relationship breaks down and the thickness levels off with shear stress for both mayonnaise and custard. The relationship over the entire range of shear stresses used in this paper can be satisfactorily described by a semilogarithmic (Fechner) relation. For both types of products, the quality of the thickness prediction by the decreasing-height model and the constant-height model of Kokini et al. (1977) is similar. For most mayonnaises, the contribution of the lateral movement of the tongue to the shear stress in the decreasing-height model of Kokini et al. (1977) is orders of magnitude larger than the contribution of the squeezing or compression movement of the tongue towards the palate. This difference in magnitude is affected by the low value measured for the compression force and by the high values for material consistency K. The values for K are high because yield-stress behavior has been neglected when the flow curves were analyzed. For custard, the models of Kokini et al. (1977) are found to be less adequate. It is proposed that this is because the models ignore interactions with saliva. Several routes to improve the modeling by incorporating viscoelastic behavior were unsuccessful. Elongational stress and yield stress were neglected in all tested models.
    Sensory sub-attributes of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces
    Weenen, H. ; Jellema, R.H. ; Wijk, R.A. de - \ 2005
    Food Quality and Preference 16 (2005)2. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 163 - 170.
    least-squares regression - semi-solids - texture - creaminess - liquid - perception - acceptance - foods
    The sensory components of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces were determined, using multi-variate analysis of the mean sensory ratings obtained from a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) panel. Creamy is a particularly interesting attribute, as it is generally well correlated with consumer preference. Texture attributes which were found to contribute positively to creamy mouthfeel included thick, airy, smooth and fatty mouth- or afterfeel, negative contributions were found for rough, heterogeneous, grainy and melting mouth- or afterfeel. Odour (assessed before ingestion) and non-texture trigeminal attributes had little or no effect on creamy mouthfeel, taste/flavour attributes (assessed while the product is in the mouth) did affect creamy mouthfeel, in some cases positively (caramel flavour) and in some cases negatively (broth and cheese flavour). The use of noseclips or the addition of a flavouring substance, confirmed that olfactory cues and/or intranasal sensations have an effect on creamy mouthfeel
    Sensory-specific satiety in obese and normal-weight women
    Snoek, H.M. ; Huntjens, L. ; Gemert, L.J. van; Graaf, C. de; Weenen, H. - \ 2004
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80 (2004)4. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 823 - 831.
    affects energy-intake - dietary variety - nonobese women - food-intake - fat - humans - meal - carbohydrate - preferences - preloads
    Background: Sensory-specific satiety has been found to play an important role in food choice and meal termination, and it might be a factor contributing to obesity. Objective: We hypothesized that obese and normal-weight people have different sensitivities to sensory-specific satiety for high-fat foods. Design: Sensory-specific satiety was measured in 21 obese [ body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 33.1] and 23 normal-weight (BMI: 22.8) women who were matched for restrained eating behavior, physical activity, age, and smoking behavior. Food intake, appetite ratings, and liking scores before and after an ad libitum lunch were measured. Products differed in fat content and taste (ie, low-fat sweet, low-fat savory, high-fat sweet, and high-fat savory), and the subjects tested all 4 products. In the first study, sandwiches were tested; in the second study, snacks were tested. Results: Sensory-specific satiety for all products was observed in both subject groups. No significant differences were observed between the obese and normal-weight subjects in either sensory-specific satiety or food intake for any of the products or product categories tested. Taste (sweet or savory) had a significantly (P <0.05) stronger effect on sensory-specific satiety than did fat content. Appetite ratings strongly decreased after lunch, and appetite for a meal or snack after lunch was significantly higher in obese than in normal-weight subjects, whereas scores before lunch did not differ significantly. Conclusions: Obese and normal-weight people do not differ in their sensitivity to sensory-specific satiety, and factors other than fat content have the greatest effect on sensory-specific satiety
    Relative importance of cohesion and adhesion for sensory stickiness of semisolid foods
    Dunnewind, B. ; Janssen, A.M. ; Vliet, T. van; Weenen, H. - \ 2004
    Journal of Texture Studies 35 (2004)6. - ISSN 0022-4901 - p. 603 - 620.
    sugar-rich foods - instrumental measurement - custard desserts - perception - texture
    Sensory stickiness (sticky mouthfeel) was hypothesized to result from the viscoelastic and adhesive properties of a foodstuff. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relative importance of these two properties. Measurements consisted of compression decompression cycles on a texture analyzer, with product, type of surface, the presence or absence of saliva and compression regime as variables. Products included commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and warm sauces, varying in apparent viscosity (at shear rate of 10 s1) between 0.3 and 18.3 Pa.s. Fairly good models were obtained, predicting sensory stickiness with R2 = 0.850.92. The predictive value of the mathematical models did not increase when the surface characteristics approached those of the human tongue (use of porcine lingual mucosa). Different surfaces or the use of saliva resulted in differences in the absolute values of the parameters, but their relative values when comparing different products did not change. The parameters appearing in the predictive models represented product characteristics only. The type of surface was not an important factor in determining differences in sensory stickiness between these samples. For the products used in this study, adhesion was large enough to prevent detachment of the sample from the surfaces, i.e., adhesion was not limiting. Variations in perceived stickiness could be explained with R2 = 0.86, based on only two product characteristics: consistency and 'long behavior' (the extent to which necking occurs during decompression). This was better than the correlation between sensory stickiness and apparent viscosity (R2 = 0.77), confirming the relevance of 'long behavior' for sensory stickiness.
    The role of alpha-amylase in the perception of oral texture and flavour in custards
    Wijk, R.A. de; Prinz, J.F. ; Engelen, L. ; Weenen, H. - \ 2004
    Physiology and Behavior 83 (2004)1.. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 81 - 91.
    salivary flow-rate - attributes - desserts - release - taste - ph
    The role of salivary a-amylase in odour, flavour, and oral texture sensations was investigated in two studies in which the activity of salivary amylase present in the mouth of human subjects was either increased by presenting custards with added alpha-amylase or decreased by presenting custards with added acarbose, an amylase inhibitor. For starch-based vanilla custard desserts, amylase resulted in increased melting and decreased thickness sensations, whereas acarbose had the opposite effect, i.e., decreased melting and increased thickness. Other affected attributes included creamy mouth feel, creamy after feel, and fatty after feel. Creaminess, which is considered to be a highly desirable food quality, decreased by as much as 25% with added amylase and increased by as much as 59% with added acarbose. Neither additional amylase nor acarbose affected sensations for a nonstarch-based carboxy methylcellulose (CMC) vanilla custard dessert. This indicates that the effects of amylase on viscosity-related sensations of starch-based custards, such as perceived melting and thickness, are caused by amylase-induced breakdown of starch. Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis indicated that the effects of amylase and acarbose on perceived creaminess are not only driven by their effects on perceived melting and thickness, but also by their effects on perceived flavour. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations
    Wijk, R.A. de; Engelen, L. ; Prinz, J.F. ; Weenen, H. - \ 2003
    Journal of Sensory Studies 18 (2003)5. - ISSN 0887-8250 - p. 423 - 435.
    sensory-specific satiety - human skin - spatial summation - creamy perception
    The influence of bite size on sensory mouth- and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 ml (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In single bites, size affected perception of thickness, temperature, astringency, and creaminess. With multiple bites creaminess sensations were increased, but other sensations were unaffected. Switching to a second series of bites from another vanilla custard dessert affected astringency sensations especially, but sensations of thickness and fatty afterfeel were affected as well. The results are discussed in terms of the food properties that are possibly involved in oral texture sensations.
    Determination of in-mouth sensory properties of foodstuffs
    Paques, M. ; Weenen, H. ; Engelen, L. ; Riel, J.A.M. van; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2003
    Octrooinummer: WO03001199, gepubliceerd: 2003-01-02.
    The present invention is concerned with a method of predicting in-mouth sensory properties of water-continuous foodstuffs that contain a dispersed lipid phase. The present method may advantageously be employed in product development and quality control. More particularly the invention relates to a method of predicting in-mouth sensory properties of water-continuous foodstuffs that contain a dispersed lipid phase, said method comprising the following consecutive steps: i) subjecting a sample of the foodstuff to in-mouth mastication or to conditions similar to those prevailing in the mouth during consumption of such a foodstuff, ii) collecting at least a fraction of the sample for analysis, iii) analysing the spatial distribution of the dispersed lipid phase within the collected fraction, iv) determining from said analysis the extent to which the dispersed phase has migrated to the surface of the foodstuff as a result of step i) and v) translating the results of the determination into predicted in-mouth sensory properties of the foodstuff.
    Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods : commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces
    Weenen, H. ; Gemert, L.J. van; Doorn, J.M. van; Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Wijk, R.A. de - \ 2003
    Journal of Texture Studies 34 (2003)2. - ISSN 0022-4901 - p. 159 - 179.
    descriptive analysis - fat-content - aroma
    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were generated and used by the sensory panel. These were related to: viscosity, surface feel, bulk homogeneity, adhesion/cohesion, wetness-dryness and fat. Two groups of nontextural mouthfeel attributes were found to be relevant, which were related to perceived temperature and oral irritation. The importance of the attributes for each product category is discussed.
    Salivary mixing und structure breakdown
    Janssen, A.M. ; Terpstra, M.E.J. ; Weenen, H. - \ 2003
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