Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Development of equine intestinal organoid monolayers to study location-specific epithelial responses
Hee, Bart van der; Doorn, David van; Loonen, L.M.P. ; Moolen, Kitty van der; Smidt, H. ; Wells, J.M. - \ 2019
Employing the self-replicative potential of stem cells to generate equine mini guts
0046 - Organoids as models to study probiotics
Hee, B. van der; Loonen, L.M.P. ; Taverne, N. ; Taverne-Thiele, J.J. ; Smidt, H. ; Wells, J.M. - \ 2019
- 1 p.
permeability - intestinal models - organoids - stem-cells - tight-junctions
For decades, scientists have exploited cancer cell lines as models to study host-pathogen interactions and intestinal functions in vitro. Such monotypic cell models have led to important discoveries but have notable limitations. Immortalized cell lines display biological variations such as aneuploidy, chromosome rearrangements or mutations leading to poorly reproducible results, even for the same cell line.
Organoids are gaining considerable interest as alternative models of the intestine due to their close resemblance to structural, cellular and functional complexity found in vivo. However, the three-dimensional geometry of stem-cell derived intestinal organoids limits easy access to the apical epithelium for investigating the influence of probiotics, bioactive and toxic compounds on barrier function and permeability. Here we present a new robust method for generating confluent intestinal cell monolayers from single-cell suspensions of enzymatically-dissociated organoids. Confluent polarised monolayers containing tight-junctions were formed in three days and could be used in experiments for up to two weeks. Multilineage differentiation of the ileal stem cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, and RT-qPCR of cell-specific transcripts. Furthermore, we showed that adult stem-cell derived ileal organoids maintain location-specific transcriptional programs during long-term in vitro culture.
Development of equine intestinal organoid monolayers to study location-specific epithelial responses : Employing the self-replicative potential of stem cells to generate equine mini guts
Hee, B. van der; Doorn, David van; Loonen, L.M.P. ; Moolen, Kitty van der; Smidt, H. ; Wells, J.M. - \ 2019
Equine - Organoids - Monolayer - equine - organoids - monolayer - epithelium - cecum - jejunum - colon - Host-microbe interactions
Preprint - Congruence of location-specific transcriptional programs in intestinal organoids during long-term culture
Hee, B. van der; Madsen, O. ; Smidt, H. ; Wells, J.M. - \ 2019
BioRxiv - 18 p.
Intestinal organoids - spheroids - RNAseq - IPEC-J2 - Transcriptome - Model similarity
The emergence of intestinal organoids, as a stem cell-based self-renewable model system, has led to many studies on intestinal development and cell-cell signaling. However, potential issues regarding the phenotypic stability and reproducibility of the methodology during culture still needs to be addressed for different organoids. Here we investigated the transcriptomes of intestinal organoids derived from the same pig as well as batch-to-batch variation of organoids derived from different pigs over long-term passage. The set of genes expressed in organoids closely resembled that of the tissue of origin, including location specific functions, for at least 17 passages. Minor differences in gene expression were observed between individual organoid cultures. In contrast, most tissue-specific genes were not expressed in the transformed jejunum cell line IPECJ2, which also showed gene expression consistent with cancer phenotypes. We conclude that intestinal organoids provide a robust and stable model for translational research with clear advantages over transformed cells.
Optimización de un sistema de inferencia neuro-fuzzy adaptable para el mapeo del potencial de aguas subterráneas
Termeh, Seyed Vahid Razavi ; Khosravi, Khabat ; Sartaj, Majid ; Keesstra, Saskia Deborah ; Tsai, Frank T.C. ; Dijksma, Roel ; Pham, Binh Thai - \ 2019
Hydrogeology Journal (2019). - ISSN 1431-2174
Bivariate models - Groundwater management - Groundwater potential mapping - Iran - Optimization

The main goal of this study was to optimize an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) using three meta-heuristic optimization algorithms—genetic algorithm (GA), biogeography-based optimization (BBO) and simulated annealing (SA)—to prepare groundwater potential maps. The methodology was applied to the Booshehr plain, Iran. The results of optimized models were compared with ANFIS individually and three bivariate models: frequency ratio (FR), evidential belief function (EBF), and the entropy model. First, 339 wells with groundwater yield higher than 11 m3/h were selected and randomly divided into two groups. In all, 238 wells (70%) were used for training the models and 101 wells (30%) were used for testing and validating the models. Fifteen conditioning factors were selected as input parameters for the modeling. The accuracy of the groundwater potential maps for the study area was determined using root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and standard deviation of error (SD), as well as the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Overall, the results demonstrated that ANFIS-GA had the highest prediction capability (AUC = 0.915) for groundwater potential mapping followed by ANFIS-BBO (0.903), entropy (0.862), FR (0.86), ANFIS-SA (0.83), ANFIS (0.82) and EBF (0.80). According to the entropy model, land-use, soil order and rainfall factors had the highest impact on groundwater potential in the study area. The results of this research show that the ANFIS models combined with meta-heuristic optimization algorithms can be a useful decision-making tool for assessment and management of groundwater resources.

Pathotyping the Zoonotic Pathogen Streptococcus suis: Novel genetic markers to differentiate invasive disease-associated isolates from non-disease-associated isolates from England and Wales
Wileman, Thomas M. ; Weinert, Lucy A. ; Howell, Kate J. ; Wang, Jinhong ; Peters, Sarah E. ; Williamson, Susanna M. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Langford, Paul R. ; Rycroft, Andrew N. ; Wren, Brendan W. ; Maskell, Duncan J. ; Tucker, Alexander W. - \ 2019
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 57 (2019)7. - ISSN 0095-1137
Molecular diagnostics - Pathotyping - Streptococcus suis - Surveillance - Virulence markers

Streptococcus suis is one of the most important zoonotic bacterial pathogens of pigs, causing significant economic losses to the global swine industry. S. suis is also a very successful colonizer of mucosal surfaces, and commensal strains can be found in almost all pig populations worldwide, making detection of the S. suis species in asymptomatic carrier herds of little practical value in predicting the likelihood of future clinical relevance. The value of future molecular tools for surveillance and preventative health management lies in the detection of strains that genetically have increased potential to cause disease in presently healthy animals. Here we describe the use of genome-wide association studies to identify genetic markers associated with the observed clinical phenotypes (i) invasive disease and (ii) asymptomatic carriage on the palatine tonsils of pigs on UK farms. Subsequently, we designed a multiplex PCR to target three genetic markers that differentiated 115 S. suis isolates into disease-associated and non-disease-associated groups, that performed with a sensitivity of 0.91, a specificity of 0.79, a negative predictive value of 0.91, and a positive predictive value of 0.79 in comparison to observed clinical phenotypes. We describe evaluation of our pathotyping tool, using an out-of-sample collection of 50 previously uncharacterized S. suis isolates, in comparison to existing methods used to characterize and subtype S. suis isolates. In doing so, we show our pathotyping approach to be a competitive method to characterize S. suis isolates recovered from pigs on UK farms and one that can easily be updated to incorporate global strain collections.

Governing nature-based tourism mobility in National Park Torres del Paine, Chilean Southern Patagonia
Barrena Ruiz, J.A. ; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Bush, S.R. ; Blanco-Wells, Gustavo - \ 2019
Mobilities (2019). - ISSN 1745-0101 - 17 p.
spatial claims - tourism mobility - protected areas - governance - Patagonia
Nature-based tourism is a mobile activity shaped by the capacity of tourists for displacement and the socio-material infrastructure allowing flows. However, the literature has scarcely addressed aspects of mobility in governing nature-based tourism. Taking the case of the National Park Torres del Paine we explore three aspects of mobility in nature-based tourism using the concepts of routes, frictions, and rhythms. Our findings show that the movement of tourists challenges spatially bounded forms of governance. Instead, we argue, new mobility-sensitive forms of nature-based tourism governance are needed that can complement the use of fixed-boundary conservation enclosures.
Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus suis S10, a Virulent Strain Used in Experimental Pig Infections
Gaiser, R.A. ; Zomer, A.L. ; Wells, J.M. ; Baarlen, P. van - \ 2019
Microbiology Resource Announcements 8 (2019)23. - ISSN 2576-098X - 3 p.
Here, we report the draft whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus suis strain S10, isolated from the tonsils of a healthy pig. S. suis S10 belongs to the highly virulent serotype 2, which includes isolates that cause infectious diseases, including meningitis, in pigs and human. The genome contains a complete prophage that encodes a candidate virulence gene.
Uso de perfiles de temperatura–profundidad en régimen transitorio Para evaluar el flujo vertical de agua subterránea a través de capas semiconfinantes en el sistema acuífero de la llanura costera de Chianan, en el Sur de Taiwán
Chen, Wenfu ; Bense, Victor F. - \ 2019
Hydrogeology Journal 27 (2019)6. - ISSN 1431-2174 - p. 2155 - 2166.
Groundwater flow - Taiwan - Thermal condition

The quantification of vertical groundwater fluxes across semi-confining layers is fundamental to evaluate groundwater recharge and discharge rates to and from aquifer systems. Methods to estimate vertical groundwater fluxes from temperature–depth profiles have been available since the 1960s. While some methodologies assume steady-state conditions, changes in land-surface temperatures as well as hydrogeological conditions can lead to transient heat flow conditions. Indeed, many studies have indicated that transient temperatures in deeper confined aquifers are widespread. A study is presented that uses transient-temperature–depth curves obtained from groundwater observation wells in the Chianan coastal plain in southern Taiwan. In this area, sedimentary aquifer systems consist of a stack of alternating sand and mud layers, over several hundred meters in thickness. Groundwater has been abstracted from these aquifers for decades, resulting in large hydraulic gradients between the shallow and deeper aquifers. Hence, vertical groundwater flow is likely enhanced across finer-grained, semi-confining units. A set of temperature–depth profiles is available from this area. Constrained by these profiles, numerical models of one-dimensional transient heat transfer were used to infer vertical fluxes of 3.3 × 10−8 to 3.9 × 10−8 m/s using thermal data from 2013 to 2016. An analytical solution was also employed that assumes steady-state conditions. Calculated fluxes using the latter approach were lower, at approximately 1.1 × 10−8 to 1.6 × 10−8 m/s. The study suggests that vertical fluxes derived from using Bredehoeft and Papadopulos’s analytical solutions result in underestimates of actual vertical seepage rates across aquitards.

In vivo transcriptomes of Streptococcus suis reveal genes required for niche-specific adaptation and pathogenesis
Arenas, Jesús ; Bossers-de Vries, Ruth ; Harders-Westerveen, José ; Buys, Herma ; Ruuls-van Stalle, Lisette M.F. ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert ; Zaccaria, Edoardo ; Tommassen, Jan ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Smith, Hilde E. ; Greeff, Astrid de - \ 2019
Virulence 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2150-5594 - p. 334 - 351.
infection - infectomics - pathogenesis - transcriptomics - zoonotic pathogen

Streptococcus suis is a Gram-positive bacterium and a zoonotic pathogen residing in the nasopharynx or the gastrointestinal tract of pigs with a potential of causing life-threatening invasive disease. It is endemic in the porcine production industry worldwide, and it is also an emerging human pathogen. After invasion, the pathogen adapts to cause bacteremia and disseminates to different organs including the brain. To gain insights in this process, we infected piglets with a highly virulent strain of S. suis, and bacterial transcriptomes were obtained from blood and different organs (brain, joints, and heart) when animals had severe clinical symptoms of infection. Microarrays were used to determine the genome-wide transcriptional profile at different infection sites and during growth in standard growth medium in vitro. We observed differential expression of around 30% of the Open Reading Frames (ORFs) and infection-site specific patterns of gene expression. Genes with major changes in expression were involved in transcriptional regulation, metabolism, nutrient acquisition, stress defenses, and virulence, amongst others, and results were confirmed for a subset of selected genes using RT-qPCR. Mutants were generated in two selected genes, and the encoded proteins, i.e., NADH oxidase and MetQ, were shown to be important virulence factors in coinfection experiments and in vitro assays. The knowledge derived from this study regarding S. suis gene expression in vivo and identification of virulence factors is important for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to control S. suis disease.

Exopolysaccharides synthesized by Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis interact with TLR4 in intestinal epithelial cells
Castro-Bravo, Nuria ; Margolles, Abelardo ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia - \ 2019
Anaerobe 56 (2019). - ISSN 1075-9964 - p. 98 - 101.

The toll-like receptors involved in recognition of the exopolysaccharide produced by two isogenic, ropy and non-ropy, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains were investigated. Both strains interact with human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells via TLR2, whereas purified EPSs specifically stimulate TLR4 regardless their molar mass.

Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 as a bile-modifying and immunomodulatory microbe
Ryan, Paul M. ; Stolte, Ellen H. ; London, Lis E.E. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Long, Sarah L. ; Joyce, Susan A. ; Gahan, Cormac G.M. ; Fitzgerald, Gerald F. ; Ross, R.P. ; Caplice, Noel M. ; Stanton, Catherine - \ 2019
BMC Microbiology 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2180
Bile acid - Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) - CVD - Exopolysaccharide - Hypercholesterolaemia

Background: Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 has previously demonstrated potentially cardio-protective properties, in the form of dyslipidaemia and hypercholesterolemia correction in an apolipoprotein-E deficient mouse model. This study aims to characterise the manner in which this microbe may modulate host bile pool composition and immune response, in the context of cardiovascular disease. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was assessed for bile salt hydrolase activity and specificity. The microbe was compared against several other enteric strains of the same species, as well as a confirmed bile salt hydrolase-active strain, Lactobacillus reuteri APC 2587. Results: Quantitative bile salt hydrolase assays revealed that enzymatic extracts from Lactobacillus reuteri APC 2587 and Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 demonstrate the greatest activity in vitro. Bile acid profiling of porcine and murine bile following incubation with Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 confirmed a preference for hydrolysis of glyco-conjugated bile acids. In addition, the purified exopolysaccharide and secretome of Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 were investigated for immunomodulatory capabilities using RAW264.7 macrophages. Gene expression data revealed that both fractions stimulated increases in interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 gene transcription in the murine macrophages, while the entire secretome was necessary to increase CD206 transcription. Moreover, the exopolysaccharide elicited a dose-dependent increase in nitric oxide and interleukin-10 production from RAW264.7 macrophages, concurrent with increased tumour necrosis factor-α secretion at all doses. Conclusions: This study indicates that Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 modulates both bile pool composition and immune system tone in a manner which may contribute significantly to the previously identified cardio-protective phenotype.

Polyphenols and Tryptophan Metabolites Activate the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in an in vitro Model of Colonic Fermentation
Koper, Jonna E.B. ; Loonen, Linda M.P. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Troise, Antonio Dario ; Capuano, Edoardo ; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2019
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 63 (2019)3. - ISSN 1613-4125
aryl hydrocarbon receptor - luteolin - microbiota - SHIME - tryptophan

Scope: Many dietary phytochemicals have been reported to promote gut health. Specific dietary phytochemicals, such as luteolin, as well as specific microbial metabolites of tryptophan are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which plays a role in immunity and homeostasis of the gut barrier. Here, the fate of luteolin during colonic fermentation and the contribution of tryptophan metabolites to AhR activity in different parts of the colon are investigated. Methods and results: Several polyphenols are screened for AhR activation and oregano, containing the ligand luteolin, is added to batch cultures of human microbiota from the distal colon. Luteolin is rapidly metabolized, with no measurable increase in AhR activity. In the second experiment, using the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME), not all luteolin is metabolized in the ascending colon, but disappear rapidly in the transverse colon. The greatest AhR activity is due to microbiota-derived metabolites of tryptophan, particularly in the descending colon. Conclusions: Luteolin in food is rapidly metabolized in the transverse colon. Tryptophan metabolism by the microbiota in the colon contributes substantially to the pool of lumen metabolites that can activate the AhR.

Age-associated Impairment of the Mucus Barrier Function is Associated with Profound Changes in Microbiota and Immunity
Sovran, Bruno ; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Elderman, Marlies ; Beek, Adriaan A. Van; Graversen, Katrine ; Huijskes, Myrte ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Vos, Paul De; Dekker, Jan ; Wells, Jerry M. - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Aging significantly increases the vulnerability to gastrointestinal (GI) disorders but there are few studies investigating the key factors in aging that affect the GI tract. To address this knowledge gap, we used 10-week- and 19-month-old litter-mate mice to investigate microbiota and host gene expression changes in association with ageing. In aged mice the thickness of the colonic mucus layer was reduced about 6-fold relative to young mice, and more easily penetrable by luminal bacteria. This was linked to increased apoptosis of goblet cells in the upper part of the crypts. The barrier function of the small intestinal mucus was also compromised and the microbiota were frequently observed in contact with the villus epithelium. Antimicrobial Paneth cell factors Ang4 and lysozyme were expressed in significantly reduced amounts. These barrier defects were accompanied by major changes in the faecal microbiota and significantly decreased abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila which is strongly and negatively affected by old age in humans. Transcriptomics revealed age-associated decreases in the expression of immunity and other genes in intestinal mucosal tissue, including decreased T cell-specific transcripts and T cell signalling pathways. The physiological and immunological changes we observed in the intestine in old age, could have major consequences beyond the gut.

Risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in Gouda cheese
Wemmenhove, Ellen - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.H. Zwietering; A.C.M. van Hooijdonk, co-promotor(en): M.H.J. Wells-Bennik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435628 - 197
Heat resistance of spores of 18 strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and impact of culturing conditions
Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J. ; Janssen, Patrick W.M. ; Klaus, Verena ; Yang, Chi ; Zwietering, Marcel H. ; Besten, Heidy M.W. Den - \ 2019
International Journal of Food Microbiology 291 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 161 - 172.
Enumeration - Germination - Inactivation - Modelling - Sporulation - Variability

In this study, different methods were evaluated for enumeration of spores of G. stearothermophilus, different sporulation methods were assessed for yields and wet heat resistances of obtained spores, and subsequently, the variation in heat resistances of spores was determined. Overall, tryptone soya agar (TSA) was the most suitable medium for enumeration of spores of this thermophilic bacterium. Sporulation on different media both at 55 and at 61 °C led to considerable variation in spore heat resistance. The heat resistance of spores was highest upon sporulation on medium supplemented with free ions of calcium, potassium, magnesium and manganese (CaKMgMn). For 18 different G. stearothermophilus strains that were isolated from various sources, spores were subsequently produced on nutrient agar supplemented with CaKMgMn at 55 °C. Strain ATCC 12980T, also known as 9A20, which is commonly used in steam sterilization tests was included. The survival of spores of all strains was assessed at 125 °C and 130 °C using two independent spore batches per strain. The mean D125°C for spores of the 18 strains was 1.1 min (95% PI 0.48–2.3 min) and the mean D130°C was 0.37 min (95% PI 0.17–0.82 min). For spore inactivation of these 18 strains, a z-value of 11.1 °C was estimated, resulting in an estimated D-value of 2.4 min (95% PI 1.1–5.2) at the reference temperature 121.1 °C. Based on the data sets obtained in this study, it was found that the variability in spore heat resistance could largely be attributed to strain variability and conditions used during sporulation (especially the sporulation medium); reproduction and experimental variabilities were much smaller. The established variabilities were compared with the overall variability in spore heat resistance of G. stearothermophilus based on a meta-analysis of reported D-values. The data presented indicate that strain variability and history of sporulation each account for approximately half of the overall variability observed with respect to the heat resistance of spores of G. stearothermophilus. The findings presented in this study allow for optimal recovery of G. stearothermophilus spores from foods and a better understanding of factors that determine the heat resistance properties of spores of G. stearothermophilus. Moreover, this study once more underlines the limited effects of heat treatments used in the food industry on inactivation of spores of this bacterium.

Neither modern nor traditional : Farmer-led irrigation development in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania
Bont, Chris de; Komakech, Hans C. ; Veldwisch, Gert Jan - \ 2019
World Development 116 (2019). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 15 - 27.
Agrarian differentiation - Farmer-led irrigation development - Groundwater irrigation - Shallow wells - Sub-Saharan Africa - Tanzania

The debate around what kind of irrigation, large- or small-scale, modern or traditional, best contributes to food security and rural development continues to shape irrigation policies and development in the Global South. In Tanzania, the irrigation categories of ‘modern’ and ‘traditional’ are dominating irrigation policies and are shaping interventions. In this paper, we explore what these concepts really entail in the Tanzanian context and how they relate to a case of farmer-led groundwater irrigation development in Kahe ward, Kilimanjaro Region. For our analysis, we rely on three months of qualitative fieldwork in 2016, a household questionnaire, secondary data such as policy documents and the results of a mapping exercise in 2014–2015. In the early 2000s, smallholders in Kahe started developing groundwater. This has led to a new, differentiated landscape in which different forms of agricultural production co-exist. The same set of groundwater irrigation technologies has facilitated the emergence of different classes of farmers, ranging from those engaging with subsistence farming to those doing capitalist farming. The level of inputs and integration with markets vary, as does crop choice. As such, some farms emulate the ‘modern’ ideal of commercial farming promoted by the government, while others do not, or to a lesser extent. We also find that national policy discourses on irrigation are not necessarily repeated at the local level, where interventions are strongly driven by prioritization based on conflict and funding. We conclude that the policy concepts of traditional and modern irrigation do not do justice to the complexity of actual irrigation development in the Kahe case, and obfuscate its contribution to rural development and food security. We argue that a single irrigation technology does not lead to a single agricultural mode of production, and that irrigation policies and interventions should take into account the differentiation among irrigators.

Sigma B stress response in the genus Bacillus - Stressosome proteins, RsbK signalling pathways and predicted regulons
Yeak, K.Y. ; Boekhorst, Jos ; Abee, T. ; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J. - \ 2018
Intestinal stem-cell organoids as experimental models to investigate feed efficiency
Ellen, E.D. ; Taverne, N. ; Taverne-Thiele, J.J. ; Madsen, O. ; Woelders, H. ; Bergsma, R. ; Knol, Egbert F. ; Kar, S.K. ; Haas, Y. de; Groenen, M. ; Wells, J.M. - \ 2018
In: Book of Abstracts of the 69th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen Academic Publishers (Book of Abstracts ) - ISBN 9789086863235 - p. 478 - 478.
Structure dependent-immunomodulation by sugar beet arabinans via a SYK tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling pathway
Meijerink, Marjolein ; Rösch, Christiane ; Taverne, Nico ; Venema, Koen ; Gruppen, Harry ; Schols, Henk A. ; Wells, Jerry M. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Immunology 9 (2018)OCT. - ISSN 1664-3224
Arabinans - C-Type lectin receptors - Dietary fiber - Immunomodulation - Pectin - Structure-function relationship

There is much interest in the immunomodulatory properties of dietary fibers but their activity may be influenced by contamination with microbial-Associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acids, which are difficult to remove completely from biological samples. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from TLR2x4 double-KO mice were shown to be a reliable approach to analyse the immunomodulatory properties of a diverse range of dietary fibers, by avoiding immune cell activation due to contaminating MAMPs. Several of the 44 tested dietary fiber preparations induced cytokine responses in BMDCs from TLR2x4 double-KO mice. The particulate fractions of linear arabinan (LA) and branched arabinan (BA) from sugar beet pectin were shown to be strongly immune stimulatory with LA being more immune stimulatory than BA. Enzymatic debranching of BA increased its immune stimulatory activity, possibly due to increased particle formation by the alignment of debranched linear arabinan. Mechanistic studies showed that the immunostimulatory activity of LA and BA was independent of the Dectin-1 recognition but Syk kinase-dependent.

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