Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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TRY plant trait database – enhanced coverage and open access
Kattge, Jens ; Bönisch, Gerhard ; Díaz, Sandra ; Lavorel, Sandra ; Prentice, Iain Colin ; Leadley, Paul ; Tautenhahn, Susanne ; Werner, Gijsbert D.A. ; Aakala, Tuomas ; Abedi, Mehdi ; Acosta, Alicia T.R. ; Adamidis, George C. ; Adamson, Kairi ; Aiba, Masahiro ; Albert, Cécile H. ; Alcántara, Julio M. ; Alcázar C, Carolina ; Aleixo, Izabela ; Ali, Hamada ; Amiaud, Bernard ; Ammer, Christian ; Amoroso, Mariano M. ; Anand, Madhur ; Anderson, Carolyn ; Anten, Niels ; Antos, Joseph ; Apgaua, Deborah Mattos Guimarães ; Ashman, Tia Lynn ; Asmara, Degi Harja ; Asner, Gregory P. ; Aspinwall, Michael ; Atkin, Owen ; Aubin, Isabelle ; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars ; Bahalkeh, Khadijeh ; Bahn, Michael ; Bekker, Renee ; Cromsigt, Joris P.G.M. ; Finegan, Bryan ; Kramer, Koen ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Onoda, Yusuke ; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Prinzing, Andreas ; Robroek, Bjorn ; Slot, Martijn ; Sterck, Frank ; Beest, Mariska te; Bodegom, Peter M. van; Sande, Masha T. van der - \ 2020
Global Change Biology 26 (2020)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 119 - 188.
data coverage - data integration - data representativeness - functional diversity - plant traits - TRY plant trait database

Plant traits—the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants—determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits—almost complete coverage for ‘plant growth form’. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait–environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.

Statement on advancing the assessment of chemical mixtures and their risks for human health and the environment
Drakvik, Elina ; Altenburger, Rolf ; Aoki, Yasunobu ; Backhaus, Thomas ; Bahadori, Tina ; Barouki, Robert ; Brack, Werner ; Cronin, Mark T.D. ; Demeneix, Barbara ; Hougaard Bennekou, Susanne ; Klaveren, Jacob van; Kneuer, Carsten ; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike ; Lebret, Erik ; Posthuma, Leo ; Reiber, Lena ; Rider, Cynthia ; Rüegg, Joëlle ; Testa, Giuseppe ; Burg, Bart van der; Voet, Hilko van der; Warhurst, Michael ; Water, Bob van de; Yamazaki, Kunihiko ; Öberg, Mattias ; Bergman, Åke - \ 2020
Environment International 134 (2020). - ISSN 0160-4120
Chemical mixtures - Combined exposure - Environmental chemicals - Mixture risk assessment - Risk management

The number of anthropogenic chemicals, manufactured, by-products, metabolites and abiotically formed transformation products, counts to hundreds of thousands, at present. Thus, humans and wildlife are exposed to complex mixtures, never one chemical at a time and rarely with only one dominating effect. Hence there is an urgent need to develop strategies on how exposure to multiple hazardous chemicals and the combination of their effects can be assessed. A workshop, “Advancing the Assessment of Chemical Mixtures and their Risks for Human Health and the Environment” was organized in May 2018 together with Joint Research Center in Ispra, EU-funded research projects and Commission Services and relevant EU agencies. This forum for researchers and policy-makers was created to discuss and identify gaps in risk assessment and governance of chemical mixtures as well as to discuss state of the art science and future research needs. Based on the presentations and discussions at this workshop we want to bring forward the following Key Messages: • We are at a turning point: multiple exposures and their combined effects require better management to protect public health and the environment from hazardous chemical mixtures. • Regulatory initiatives should be launched to investigate the opportunities for all relevant regulatory frameworks to include prospective mixture risk assessment and consider combined exposures to (real-life) chemical mixtures to humans and wildlife, across sectors. • Precautionary approaches and intermediate measures (e.g. Mixture Assessment Factor) can already be applied, although, definitive mixture risk assessments cannot be routinely conducted due to significant knowledge and data gaps. • A European strategy needs to be set, through stakeholder engagement, for the governance of combined exposure to multiple chemicals and mixtures. The strategy would include research aimed at scientific advancement in mechanistic understanding and modelling techniques, as well as research to address regulatory and policy needs. Without such a clear strategy, specific objectives and common priorities, research, and policies to address mixtures will likely remain scattered and insufficient.

Assessing the ecological impact of chemical pollution on aquatic ecosystems requires the systematic exploration and evaluation of four lines of evidence
Backhaus, Thomas ; Brack, Werner ; Brink, Paul J. Van den; Deutschmann, Björn ; Hollert, Henner ; Posthuma, Leo ; Segner, Helmut ; Seiler, Thomas Benjamin ; Teodorovic, Ivana ; Focks, Andreas - \ 2019
Environmental Sciences Europe 31 (2019)1. - ISSN 2190-4707
Biological quality elements - Cumulative risks - Ecological assessment - Mixture toxicity - Water pollution - Weight-of-evidence approaches - WFD review

The aim of the European Water Framework Directive is to ensure good ecological status for all European surface waters. However, although current monitoring strategies aim to identify the presence and magnitude of ecological impacts, they provide little information on the causes of an ecosystem impairment. In fact, approaches to establish causal links between chemical pollution and impacts on the ecological status of exposed aquatic systems are largely lacking or poorly described and established. This is, however, crucial for developing and implementing appropriately targeted water management strategies. In order to identify the role of chemical pollution on the ecological status of an aquatic ecosystem, we suggest to systematically combine four lines of evidence (LOEs) that provide complementary evidence on the presence and potential ecological impact of complex chemical pollution: (1) component-based methods that allow a predictive mixture risk modeling; (2) effect-based methods; (3) in situ tests; (4) field-derived species inventories. These LOEs differ systematically in their specificity for chemical pollution, data demands, resources required and ecological relevance. They complement each other and, in their combination, allow to assess the contribution of chemical pollution pressure to impacts on ecological structure and function. Data from all LOEs are not always available and the information they provide is not necessarily consistent. We therefore propose a systematic, robust and transparent approach to combine the information available for a given study, in order to ensure that consensual conclusions are drawn from a given dataset. This allows to identify critical data gaps and needs for future testing and/or options for targeted and efficient water management.

Drivers of above-ground understorey biomass and nutrient stocks in temperate deciduous forests
Landuyt, Dries ; Maes, Sybryn L. ; Depauw, Leen ; Ampoorter, Evy ; Blondeel, Haben ; Perring, Michael P. ; Brūmelis, Guntis ; Brunet, Jörg ; Decocq, Guillaume ; Ouden, Jan den; Härdtle, Werner ; Hédl, Radim ; Heinken, Thilo ; Heinrichs, Steffi ; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan ; Kirby, Keith J. ; Kopecký, Martin ; Máliš, František ; Wulf, Monika ; Verheyen, Kris - \ 2019
Journal of Ecology (2019). - ISSN 0022-0477
ecosystem functioning - ground layer - herb layer - PhytoCalc - piecewise SEM - productivity

The understorey in temperate forests can play an important functional role, depending on its biomass and functional characteristics. While it is known that local soil and stand characteristics largely determine the biomass of the understorey, less is known about the role of global change. Global change can directly affect understorey biomass, but also indirectly by modifying the overstorey, local resource availability and growing conditions at the forest floor. In this observational study across Europe, we aim at disentangling the impact of global-change drivers on understorey biomass and nutrient stocks, from the impact of overstorey characteristics and local site conditions. Using piecewise structural equation modelling, we determine the main drivers of understorey biomass and nutrient stocks in these forests and examine potential direct and indirect effects of global-change drivers. Tree cover, tree litter quality and differences in former land use were the main drivers of understorey biomass and nutrient stocks, via their influence on understorey light and nitrogen availability and soil acidity. Other global-change drivers, including climate and nitrogen deposition, had similar indirect effects, but these were either weak or only affecting nutrient concentrations, not stocks. Synthesis. We found that direct effects of global-change drivers on understorey biomass and nutrient stocks were absent. The indirect effects of global change, through influencing resource availability and growing conditions at the forest floor, were found to be less important than the effects of overstorey cover and composition. These results suggest that understorey biomass and nutrient stocks might respond less to global change in the presence of a dense overstorey, highlighting the buffering role of the overstorey in temperate forests.

Strengthen the European collaborative environmental research to meet European policy goals for achieving a sustainable, non-toxic environment
Brack, Werner ; Ait-Aissa, Selim ; Backhaus, Thomas ; Birk, Sebastian ; Barceló, Damià ; Burgess, Rob ; Cousins, Ian ; Dulio, Valeria ; Escher, Beate I. ; Focks, Andreas ; Gils, Jos van; Ginebreda, Antoni ; Hering, Daniel ; Hewitt, Mark ; Hilscherová, Klára ; Hollender, Juliane ; Hollert, Henner ; Köck, Marianne ; Kortenkamp, Andreas ; Alda, Miren López de; Müller, Christin ; Posthuma, Leo ; Schüürmann, Gerrit ; Schymanski, Emma ; Segner, Helmut ; Sleeuwaert, Frank ; Slobodnik, Jaroslav ; Teodorovic, Ivana ; Umbuzeiro, Gisela ; Voulvoulis, Nick ; Wezel, Annemarie van; Altenburger, Rolf - \ 2019
Environmental Sciences Europe 31 (2019)1. - ISSN 2190-4707

To meet the United Nations (UN) sustainable development goals and the European Union (EU) strategy for a non-toxic environment, water resources and ecosystems management require cost-efficient solutions for prevailing complex contamination and multiple stressor exposures. For the protection of water resources under global change conditions, specific research needs for prediction, monitoring, assessment and abatement of multiple stressors emerge with respect to maintaining human needs, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. Collaborative European research seems an ideal instrument to mobilize the required transdisciplinary scientific support and tackle the large-scale dimension and develop options required for implementation of European policies. Calls for research on minimizing society’s chemical footprints in the water–food–energy–security nexus are required. European research should be complemented with targeted national scientific funding to address specific transformation pathways and support the evaluation, demonstration and implementation of novel approaches on regional scales. The foreseeable pressure developments due to demographic, economic and climate changes require solution-oriented thinking, focusing on the assessment of sustainable abatement options and transformation pathways rather than on status evaluation. Stakeholder involvement is a key success factor in collaborative projects as it allows capturing added value, to address other levels of complexity, and find smarter solutions by synthesizing scientific evidence, integrating governance issues, and addressing transition pathways. This increases the chances of closing the value chain by implementing novel solutions. For the water quality topic, the interacting European collaborative projects SOLUTIONS, MARS and GLOBAQUA and the NORMAN network provide best practice examples for successful applied collaborative research including multi-stakeholder involvement. They provided innovative conceptual, modelling and instrumental options for future monitoring and management of chemical mixtures and multiple stressors in European water resources. Advancement of EU water framework directive-related policies has therefore become an option.

Improved component-based methods for mixture risk assessment are key to characterize complex chemical pollution in surface waters
Posthuma, Leo ; Altenburger, Rolf ; Backhaus, Thomas ; Kortenkamp, Andreas ; Müller, Christin ; Focks, Andreas ; Zwart, Dick de; Brack, Werner - \ 2019
Environmental Sciences Europe 31 (2019)1. - ISSN 2190-4707

The present monitoring and assessment of water quality problems fails to characterize the likelihood that complex mixtures of chemicals affect water quality. The European collaborative project SOLUTIONS suggests that this likelihood can be estimated, amongst other methods, with improved component-based methods (CBMs). The use of CBMs is a well-established practice in the WFD, as one of the lines of evidence to evaluate chemical pollution on a per-chemical basis. However, this is currently limited to a pre-selection of 45 and approximately 300 monitored substances (priority substances and river basin-specific pollutants, respectively), of which only a few actually co-occur in relevant concentrations in real-world mixtures. Advanced CBM practices are therefore needed that consider a broader, realistic spectrum of chemicals and thereby improve the assessment of mixture impacts, diagnose the causes of observed impacts and provide more useful water management information. Various CBMs are described and illustrated, often representing improvements of well-established methods. Given the goals of the WFD and expanding on current guidance for risk assessment, these improved CBMs can be applied to predicted or monitored concentrations of chemical pollutants to provide information for management planning. As shown in various examples, the outcomes of the improved CBMs allow for the evaluation of the current likelihood of impacts, of alternative abatement scenarios as well as the expected consequences of future pollution scenarios. The outputs of the improved CBMs are useful to underpin programmes of measures to protect and improve water quality. The combination of CBMs with effect-based methods (EBMs) might be especially powerful to identify as yet underinvestigated emerging pollutants and their importance in a mixture toxicity context. The present paper has been designed as one in a series of policy briefs to support decisions on water quality protection, monitoring, assessment and management under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD).

Mixtures of chemicals are important drivers of impacts on ecological status in European surface waters
Posthuma, Leo ; Brack, Werner ; Gils, Jos van; Focks, Andreas ; Müller, Christin ; Zwart, Dick de; Birk, Sebastian - \ 2019
Environmental Sciences Europe 31 (2019)1. - ISSN 2190-4707

The ecological status of European surface waters may be affected by multiple stressors including exposure to chemical mixtures. Currently, two different approaches are used separately to inform water quality management: the diagnosis of the deterioration of aquatic ecosystems caused by nutrient loads and habitat quality, and assessment of chemical pollution based on a small set of chemicals. As integrated assessments would improve the basis for sound water quality management, it is recommended to apply a holistic approach to integrated water quality status assessment and management. This allows for estimating the relative contributions of exposure to mixtures of the chemicals present and of other stressors to impaired ecological status of European water bodies. Improved component- and effect-based methods for chemicals are available to support this. By applying those methods, it was shown that a holistic diagnostic approach is feasible, and that chemical pollution acts as a limiting factor for the ecological status of European surface waters. In a case study on Dutch surface waters, the impact on ecological status could be traced back to chemical pollution affecting individual species. The results are also useful as calibration of the outcomes of component-based mixture assessment (risk quotients or mixture toxic pressures) on ecological impacts. These novel findings provide a basis for a causal and integrated analysis of water quality and improved methods for the identification of the most important stressor groups, including chemical mixtures, to support integrated knowledge-guided management decisions on water quality.

The value of using hydrological datasets for water allocation decisions: earth observations, hydrological models, and seasonal forecasts
Kaune Schmidt, Alexander José - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.M.S. de Fraiture, co-promotor(en): M.G.F. Werner. - Leiden : CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9780367429553 - 166
Macrophage-Specific NF-κB Activation Dynamics Can Segregate Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients
Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia ; Burkitt, Michael D. ; Bergey, François ; England, Hazel ; Hough, Rachael ; Schmidt, Lorraine ; Spiller, David G. ; White, Michael H.R. ; Paszek, Pawel ; Jackson, Dean A. ; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A.P. ; Sellge, Gernot ; Pritchard, D.M. ; Campbell, Barry J. ; Müller, Werner ; Probert, Chris S. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-3224 - 11 p.
The heterogeneous nature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents challenges, particularly when choosing therapy. Activation of the NF-κB transcription factor is a highly regulated, dynamic event in IBD pathogenesis. Using a lentivirus approach, NF-κB-regulated luciferase was expressed in patient macrophages, isolated from frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. Following activation, samples could be segregated into three clusters based on the NF-κB-regulated luciferase response. The ulcerative colitis (UC) samples appeared only in the hypo-responsive Cluster 1, and in Cluster 2. Conversely, Crohn's disease (CD) patients appeared in all Clusters with their percentage being higher in the hyper-responsive Cluster 3. A positive correlation was seen between NF-κB-induced luciferase activity and the concentrations of cytokines released into medium from stimulated macrophages, but not with serum or biopsy cytokine levels. Confocal imaging of lentivirally-expressed p65 activation revealed that a higher proportion of macrophages from CD patients responded to endotoxin lipid A compared to controls. In contrast, cells from UC patients exhibited a shorter duration of NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear localization compared to healthy controls, and CD donors. Analysis of macrophage cytokine responses and patient metadata revealed a strong correlation between CD patients who smoked and hyper-activation of p65. These in vitro dynamic assays of NF-κB activation in blood-derived macrophages have the potential to segregate IBD patients into groups with different phenotypes and may therefore help determine response to therapy.
Let us empower the WFD to prevent risks of chemical pollution in European rivers and lakes
Brack, Werner ; Ait-Aissa, Selim ; Altenburger, Rolf ; Cousins, Ian ; Dulio, Valeria ; Escher, Beate ; Focks, Andreas ; Ginebreda, Antoni ; Hering, Daniel ; Hilscherová, Klára ; Hollender, Juliane ; Hollert, Henner ; Kortenkamp, Andreas ; Alda, Miren López de; Posthuma, Leo ; Schymanski, Emma ; Segner, Helmut ; Slobodnik, Jaroslav - \ 2019
Environmental Sciences Europe 31 (2019)1. - ISSN 2190-4707
Author Correction: Climatic controls of decomposition drive the global biogeography of forest-tree symbioses
Steidinger, B.S. ; Crowther, T.W. ; Liang, J. ; Nuland, M.E. Van; Werner, G.D.A. ; Reich, P.B. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; de-Miguel, S. ; Zhou, M. ; Picard, N. ; Herault, B. ; Zhao, X. ; Zhang, C. ; Routh, D. ; Peay, K.G. ; Abegg, Meinrad ; Adou Yao, C.Y. ; Alberti, Giorgio ; Almeyda Zambrano, Angelica ; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban ; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Ammer, Christian ; Antón-Fernández, Clara ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Avitabile, Valerio ; Aymard, Gerardo ; Baker, Timothy ; Bałazy, Radomir ; Banki, Olaf ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastian, Meredith ; Bastin, Jean Francois ; Birigazzi, Luca ; Birnbaum, Philippe ; Bitariho, Robert ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bongers, Frans ; Bouriaud, Olivier ; Brancalion, Pedro H.H.S. ; Decuyper, Mathieu ; Hengeveld, Geerten ; Herold, Martin ; Lu, Huicui ; Parren, Marc ; Poorter, Lourens ; Schelhaas, Mart Jan ; Sheil, Douglas ; Zagt, Roderick - \ 2019
Nature 571 (2019)7765. - ISSN 0028-0836

In this Letter, the middle initial of author G. J. Nabuurs was omitted, and he should have been associated with an additional affiliation: ‘Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands’ (now added as affiliation 182). In addition, the following two statements have been added to the Supplementary Acknowledgements. (1): ‘We would particularly like to thank The French NFI for the work of the many field teams and engineers, who have made extraordinary efforts to make forest inventory data publicly available.’ (1): ‘Sergio de Miguel benefited from a Serra- Húnter Fellowship provided by the Generalitat of Catalonia.’ Finally, the second sentence of the Methods section should have cited the French NFI, which provided a national forestry database used in our analysis, to read as follows: ‘The GFBi database consists of individual-based data that we compiled from all the regional and national GFBi forest-inventory datasets, including the French NFI (IGN—French National Forest Inventory, raw data, annual campaigns 2005 and following,, site accessed on 01 January 2015)’. All of these errors have been corrected online.

Exome sequences and multi-environment field trials elucidate the genetic basis of adaptation in barley
Bustos-Korts, Daniela ; Dawson, Ian K. ; Russell, Joanne ; Tondelli, Alessandro ; Guerra, Davide ; Ferrandi, Chiara ; Strozzi, Francesco ; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L. ; Molnar-Lang, Marta ; Ozkan, Hakan ; Megyeri, Maria ; Miko, Peter ; Çakır, Esra ; Yakışır, Enes ; Trabanco, Noemi ; Delbono, Stefano ; Kyriakidis, Stylianos ; Booth, Allan ; Cammarano, Davide ; Mascher, Martin ; Werner, Peter ; Cattivelli, Luigi ; Rossini, Laura ; Stein, Nils ; Kilian, Benjamin ; Waugh, Robbie ; Eeuwijk, Fred A. van - \ 2019
The Plant Journal 99 (2019)6. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 1172 - 1191.
adaptation - barley - common garden trials - exome sequence haplotypes - genetic diversity - genotype-by-environment interactions - H. vulgare ssp. vulgare

Broadening the genetic base of crops is crucial for developing varieties to respond to global agricultural challenges such as climate change. Here, we analysed a diverse panel of 371 domesticated lines of the model crop barley to explore the genetics of crop adaptation. We first collected exome sequence data and phenotypes of key life history traits from contrasting multi-environment common garden trials. Then we applied refined statistical methods, including some based on exomic haplotype states, for genotype-by-environment (G×E) modelling. Sub-populations defined from exomic profiles were coincident with barley's biology, geography and history, and explained a high proportion of trial phenotypic variance. Clear G×E interactions indicated adaptation profiles that varied for landraces and cultivars. Exploration of circadian clock-related genes, associated with the environmentally adaptive days to heading trait (crucial for the crop's spread from the Fertile Crescent), illustrated complexities in G×E effect directions, and the importance of latitudinally based genic context in the expression of large-effect alleles. Our analysis supports a gene-level scientific understanding of crop adaption and leads to practical opportunities for crop improvement, allowing the prioritisation of genomic regions and particular sets of lines for breeding efforts seeking to cope with climate change and other stresses.

Simulating the effect of tillage practices with the global ecosystem model LPJmL (version 5.0-tillage)
Lutz, Femke ; Herzfeld, Tobias ; Heinke, Jens ; Rolinski, Susanne ; Schaphoff, Sibyll ; Bloh, Werner Von; Stoorvogel, Jetse J. ; Müller, Christoph - \ 2019
Geoscientific Model Development 12 (2019)6. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 2419 - 2440.

The effects of tillage on soil properties, crop productivity, and global greenhouse gas emissions have been discussed in the last decades. Global ecosystem models have limited capacity to simulate the various effects of tillage. With respect to the decomposition of soil organic matter, they either assume a constant increase due to tillage or they ignore the effects of tillage. Hence, they do not allow for analysing the effects of tillage and cannot evaluate, for example, reduced tillage or no tillage (referred to here as "no-till") practises as mitigation practices for climate change. In this paper, we describe the implementation of tillage-related practices in the global ecosystem model LPJmL. The extended model is evaluated against reported differences between tillage and no-till management on several soil properties. To this end, simulation results are compared with published meta-analyses on tillage effects. In general, the model is able to reproduce observed tillage effects on global, as well as regional, patterns of carbon and water fluxes. However, modelled N fluxes deviate from the literature values and need further study. The addition of the tillage module to LPJmL5 opens up opportunities to assess the impact of agricultural soil management practices under different scenarios with implications for agricultural productivity, carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions, and other environmental indicators.

Can global precipitation datasets benefit the estimation of the area to be cropped in irrigated agriculture?
Kaune, Alexander ; Werner, Micha ; López López, Patricia ; Rodríguez, Erasmo ; Karimi, Poolad ; Fraiture, Charlotte De - \ 2019
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 23 (2019)5. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 2351 - 2368.

The area to be cropped in irrigation districts needs to be planned according to the available water resources to avoid agricultural production loss. However, the period of record of local hydro-meteorological data may be short, leading to an incomplete understanding of climate variability and consequent uncertainty in estimating surface water availability for irrigation area planning. In this study we assess the benefit of using global precipitation datasets to improve surface water availability estimates. A reference area that can be irrigated is established using a complete record of 30 years of observed river discharge data. Areas are then determined using simulated river discharges from six local hydrological models forced with in situ and global precipitation datasets (CHIRPS and MSWEP), each calibrated independently with a sample of 5 years extracted from the full 30-year record. The utility of establishing the irrigated area based on simulated river discharge simulations is compared against the reference area through a pooled relative utility value (PRUV). Results show that for all river discharge simulations the benefit of choosing the irrigated area based on the 30 years of simulated data is higher compared to using only 5 years of observed discharge data, as the statistical spread of PRUV using 30 years is smaller. Hence, it is more beneficial to calibrate a hydrological model using 5 years of observed river discharge and then to extend it with global precipitation data of 30 years as this weighs up against the model uncertainty of the model calibration.

Climatic controls of decomposition drive the global biogeography of forest-tree symbioses
Steidinger, B.S. ; Crowther, T.W. ; Liang, J. ; Nuland, M.E. Van; Werner, G.D.A. ; Reich, P.B. ; Nabuurs, G. ; de-Miguel, S. ; Zhou, M. ; Picard, N. ; Herault, B. ; Zhao, X. ; Zhang, C. ; Routh, D. ; Peay, K.G. ; Herold, M. ; Decuyper, M. ; Avitabile, V. ; DeVries, B.R. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Poorter, L. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Bongers, F. - \ 2019
Nature 569 (2019)7756. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 404 - 408.
The identity of the dominant root-associated microbial symbionts in a forest determines the ability of trees to access limiting nutrients from atmospheric or soil pools1,2, sequester carbon3,4 and withstand the effects of climate change5,6. Characterizing the global distribution of these symbioses and identifying the factors that control this distribution are thus integral to understanding the present and future functioning of forest ecosystems. Here we generate a spatially explicit global map of the symbiotic status of forests, using a database of over 1.1 million forest inventory plots that collectively contain over 28,000 tree species. Our analyses indicate that climate variables—in particular, climatically controlled variation in the rate of decomposition—are the primary drivers of the global distribution of major symbioses. We estimate that ectomycorrhizal trees, which represent only 2% of all plant species7, constitute approximately 60% of tree stems on Earth. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis dominates forests in which seasonally cold and dry climates inhibit decomposition, and is the predominant form of symbiosis at high latitudes and elevation. By contrast, arbuscular mycorrhizal trees dominate in aseasonal, warm tropical forests, and occur with ectomycorrhizal trees in temperate biomes in which seasonally warm-and-wet climates enhance decomposition. Continental transitions between forests dominated by ectomycorrhizal or arbuscular mycorrhizal trees occur relatively abruptly along climate-driven decomposition gradients; these transitions are probably caused by positive feedback effects between plants and microorganisms. Symbiotic nitrogen fixers—which are insensitive to climatic controls on decomposition (compared with mycorrhizal fungi)—are most abundant in arid biomes with alkaline soils and high maximum temperatures. The climatically driven global symbiosis gradient that we document provides a spatially explicit quantitative understanding of microbial symbioses at the global scale, and demonstrates the critical role of microbial mutualisms in shaping the distribution of plant species.
The determinants of recent soybean expansion in Mato Grosso, Brazil
Melo Celidonio, Otávio Lemos de; Werner, Liane S. ; Gil, Juliana Dias Bernardes - \ 2019
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 22 (2019)2. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 173 - 191.
Agricultural expansion - Brazil - Land use change - Soybean

Understanding what drives, catalyzes or constraints land use change in the Brazilian agricultural frontier is a condition for effective policy design at the local level, which in turn might have implications for food production, environmental conservation and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. We analyzed the process of agricultural expansion observed in the state of Mato Grosso, the country's largest agricultural producer, by mapping and quantifying the incorporation of new farming areas and the conversion of existing ones into mechanized soybean fields at the farm-level. Through statistical modelling we also investigated the influence of key economic, biophysical, environmental and logistics variables on this process while accounting for recent changes in the Brazilian environmental legislation. We found that the area converted to soybean production increased almost 1.5 million hectares between 2009 and 2013, more than 70% of which in farms that already had some soybean in previous years. By comparing the explanatory power of eight regression models involving different groups of variables, we found that soybean expansion is strongly associated with the presence of other soybean fields and warehouses within 50-100 km. The model with the largest explanatory power suggests that soybean expansion is also likely to occur in areas of high conservation value. Finally, the sensitivity of soybean expansion to soybean prices indicated the potential for further agricultural growth in Mato Grosso while highlighting how crucial smart logistics investments are for regional development with environmental protection.

Forest decision support systems for the analysis of ecosystem services provisioning at the landscape scale under global climate and market change scenarios
Nordström, Eva-Maria ; Nieuwenhuis, Maarten ; Başkent, Emin Zeki ; Biber, Peter ; Black, Kevin ; Borges, Jose G. ; Bugalho, Miguel N. ; Corradini, Giulia ; Corrigan, Edwin ; Eriksson, Ljusk Ola ; Felton, Adam ; Forsell, Nicklas ; Hengeveld, Geerten ; Hoogstra-Klein, Marjanke ; Korosuo, Anu ; Lindbladh, Matts ; Lodin, Isak ; Lundholm, Anders ; Marto, Marco ; Masiero, Mauro ; Mozgeris, Gintautas ; Pettenella, Davide ; Poschenrieder, Werner ; Sedmak, Robert ; Tucek, Jan ; Zoccatelli, Davide - \ 2019
European Journal of Forest Research 138 (2019)4. - ISSN 1612-4669 - p. 561 - 581.
Sustainable forest management is driving the development of forest decision support systems (DSSs) to include models and methods concerned with climate change, biodiversity and various ecosystem services (ESs). The future development of forest landscapes is very much dependent on how forest owners act and what goes on in the wider world; thus, models are needed that incorporate these aspects. The objective of this study is to assess how nine European state-of-the-art forest DSSs cope with these issues. The assessment focuses on the ability of these DSSs to generate landscape-level scenarios to explore the output of current and alternative forest management models (FMMs) in terms of a range of ESs and the robustness of these FMMs in the face of increased risks and uncertainty. Results show that all DSSs assessed in this study can be used to quantify the impacts of both stand- and landscape-level FMMs on the provision of a range of ESs over a typical planning horizon. DSSs can be used to assess how timber price trends may impact that provision over time. The inclusion of forest owner behavior as reflected by the adoption of specific FMMs seems to be also in the reach of all DSSs. Nevertheless, some DSSs need more data and development of models to estimate the impacts of climate change on biomass production and other ESs. Spatial analysis functionality needs to be further developed for a more accurate assessment of the landscape-level output of ESs from both current and alternative FMMs.
Future water quality monitoring : improving the balance between exposure and toxicity assessments of real-world pollutant mixtures
Altenburger, Rolf ; Brack, Werner ; Burgess, Robert M. ; Busch, Wibke ; Escher, Beate I. ; Focks, Andreas ; Mark Hewitt, L. ; Jacobsen, Bo N. ; Alda, Miren López de; Ait-Aissa, Selim ; Backhaus, Thomas ; Ginebreda, Antoni ; Hilscherová, Klára ; Hollender, Juliane ; Hollert, Henner ; Neale, Peta A. ; Schulze, Tobias ; Schymanski, Emma L. ; Teodorovic, Ivana ; Tindall, Andrew J. ; Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela de; Vrana, Branislav ; Zonja, Bozo ; Krauss, Martin - \ 2019
Environmental Sciences Europe 31 (2019)1. - ISSN 2190-4707
Bioanalysis - Chemical and ecological status - Ecological assessment - Mixture toxicity - Water framework directive - Water monitoring

Environmental water quality monitoring aims to provide the data required for safeguarding the environment against adverse biological effects from multiple chemical contamination arising from anthropogenic diffuse emissions and point sources. Here, we integrate the experience of the international EU-funded project SOLUTIONS to shift the focus of water monitoring from a few legacy chemicals to complex chemical mixtures, and to identify relevant drivers of toxic effects. Monitoring serves a range of purposes, from control of chemical and ecological status compliance to safeguarding specific water uses, such as drinking water abstraction. Various water sampling techniques, chemical target, suspect and non-target analyses as well as an array of in vitro, in vivo and in situ bioanalytical methods were advanced to improve monitoring of water contamination. Major improvements for broader applicability include tailored sampling techniques, screening and identification techniques for a broader and more diverse set of chemicals, higher detection sensitivity, standardized protocols for chemical, toxicological, and ecological assessments combined with systematic evidence evaluation techniques. No single method or combination of methods is able to meet all divergent monitoring purposes. Current monitoring approaches tend to emphasize either targeted exposure or effect detection. Here, we argue that, irrespective of the specific purpose, assessment of monitoring results would benefit substantially from obtaining and linking information on the occurrence of both chemicals and potentially adverse biological effects. In this paper, we specify the information required to: (1) identify relevant contaminants, (2) assess the impact of contamination in aquatic ecosystems, or (3) quantify cause–effect relationships between contaminants and adverse effects. Specific strategies to link chemical and bioanalytical information are outlined for each of these distinct goals. These strategies have been developed and explored using case studies in the Danube and Rhine river basins as well as for rivers of the Iberian Peninsula. Current water quality assessment suffers from biases resulting from differences in approaches and associated uncertainty analyses. While exposure approaches tend to ignore data gaps (i.e., missing contaminants), effect-based approaches penalize data gaps with increased uncertainty factors. This integrated work suggests systematic ways to deal with mixture exposures and combined effects in a more balanced way, and thus provides guidance for future tailored environmental monitoring.

Environmental drivers interactively affect individual tree growth across temperate European forests
Maes, Sybryn L. ; Perring, Michael P. ; Vanhellemont, Margot ; Depauw, Leen ; Bulcke, Jan Van den; Brūmelis, Guntis ; Brunet, Jörg ; Decocq, Guillaume ; Ouden, Jan den; Härdtle, Werner ; Hédl, Radim ; Heinken, Thilo ; Heinrichs, Steffi ; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan ; Kopecký, Martin ; Máliš, František ; Wulf, Monika ; Verheyen, Kris - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 201 - 217.
basal area increment - climate change - Fagus - Fraxinus - historical ecology - nitrogen deposition - Quercus - tree-ring analysis

Forecasting the growth of tree species to future environmental changes requires a better understanding of its determinants. Tree growth is known to respond to global-change drivers such as climate change or atmospheric deposition, as well as to local land-use drivers such as forest management. Yet, large geographical scale studies examining interactive growth responses to multiple global-change drivers are relatively scarce and rarely consider management effects. Here, we assessed the interactive effects of three global-change drivers (temperature, precipitation and nitrogen deposition) on individual tree growth of three study species (Quercus robur/petraea, Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior). We sampled trees along spatial environmental gradients across Europe and accounted for the effects of management for Quercus. We collected increment cores from 267 trees distributed over 151 plots in 19 forest regions and characterized their neighbouring environment to take into account potentially confounding factors such as tree size, competition, soil conditions and elevation. We demonstrate that growth responds interactively to global-change drivers, with species-specific sensitivities to the combined factors. Simultaneously high levels of precipitation and deposition benefited Fraxinus, but negatively affected Quercus’ growth, highlighting species-specific interactive tree growth responses to combined drivers. For Fagus, a stronger growth response to higher temperatures was found when precipitation was also higher, illustrating the potential negative effects of drought stress under warming for this species. Furthermore, we show that past forest management can modulate the effects of changing temperatures on Quercus’ growth; individuals in plots with a coppicing history showed stronger growth responses to higher temperatures. Overall, our findings highlight how tree growth can be interactively determined by global-change drivers, and how these growth responses might be modulated by past forest management. By showing future growth changes for scenarios of environmental change, we stress the importance of considering multiple drivers, including past management and their interactions, when predicting tree growth.

LPJmL4 model output for the publications in GMD: LPJmL4 - a dynamic global vegetation model with managed land: Part I – Model description and Part II – Model evaluation
Schaphoff, Sibyll ; Bloh, Werner von; Rammig, Anja ; Thonicke, Kirsten ; Biemans, H. ; Forkel, Matthias ; Gerten, Dieter ; Heinke, Jens ; Jägermeyr, Jonas ; Knauer, Jürgen ; Langerwisch, Fanny ; Lucht, Wolfgang ; Müller, Christoph ; Rolinski, Susanne ; Waha, Katharina - \ 2018
soil carbon - vegetation carbon - global carbon balance - permafrost distribution - discharge - fractional burned area - crop yields - global dynamic vegetation model - vegetation dynamics
LPJmL4 is a process-based model that simulates climate and land-use change impacts on the terrestrial biosphere, the water and carbon cycle and on agricultural production. The LPJmL4 model combines plant physiological relations, generalized empirically established functions and plant trait parameters. The model incorporates dynamic land use at the global scale and is also able to simulate the production of woody and herbaceous short-rotation bio-energy plantations. Grid cells may contain one or several types of natural or agricultural vegetation. A comprehensive description of the model is given by Schaphoff et al. (2017a, The data presented here represent some standard LPJmL4 model results for the land surface described in Schaphoff et al. (2017a,). Additionally, these results are evaluated in the companion paper of Schaphoff et al. (2017b, The data collection includes some key output variables made with different model setups described by Schaphoff et al. (2017b). The data cover the entire globe with a spatial resolution of 0.5° and temporal coverage from 1901-2011 on an annual basis for soil, vegetation, aboveground and litter carbon as well as for vegetation distribution, crop yields, sowing dates, maximum thawing depth, and fire carbon emissions. Vegetation distribution is given for each plant functional type (PFT), crop yields, and sowing dates are given for each crop functional type (CFT), respectively. Monthly data are provided for the carbon fluxes (net primary production, gross primary production, soil respiration) and the water fluxes (transpiration, evaporation, interception, runoff, and discharge) and for absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) and albedo.
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