Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Responsible Water Reuse Needs an Interdisciplinary Approach to Balance Risks and Benefits
    Dingemans, Milou M.I. ; Smeets, Patrick W.M.H. ; Medema, Gertjan ; Frijns, Jos ; Raat, Klaasjan J. ; Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Bartholomeus, Ruud P. - \ 2020
    Water 12 (2020)5. - ISSN 2073-4441
    Freshwater is a precious resource, and shortages can lead to water stress, impacting agriculture, industry, and other sectors. Wastewater reuse is increasingly considered as an opportunity to meet the freshwater demand. Legislative frameworks are under development to support the responsible reuse of wastewater, i.e., to balance benefits and risks. In an evaluation of the proposed European regulation for water reuse, we concluded that the proposed regulation is not practically feasible, as the water provider alone is responsible for the risk assessment and management, even beyond their span of control. The required knowledge and resources are extensive. Therefore, without clear guidance for implementation, the regulation would hinder implementation of reuse programs. As a consequence, the current practice of uncontrolled, unintentional, and indirect reuse continues, including related risks and inefficiency. Therefore, we provide an outline of the interdisciplinary approach required to design and achieve safe, responsible water reuse. Responsible water reuse requires knowledge of water demand and availability, quality and health, technology, and governance for the various types of application. Through this paper we want to provide a starting point for an interdisciplinary agenda to compile and generate knowledge (databases), approaches, guidelines, case examples, codes of practice, and legislation to help bring responsible water reuse into practice.
    A multi-method approach for the integrative assessment of soil functions : Application on a coastal mountainous site of the Philippines
    Dingkuhn, Elsa L. ; Wezel, Alexander ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Wagner, Adrian ; Yap, Helen T. ; Schulte, Rogier P.O. - \ 2020
    Journal of Environmental Management 264 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4797

    The projected increase of the world's population and the sustainability challenges the agricultural sector is facing, call for the enhancement of multi-functionality in agriculture in order to simultaneously provide food while meeting environmental targets. Here, we use the Functional Land Management (FLM) framework to assess the supply of and the demand for soil functions to inform agri-environmental policy for Udalo, a mountainous site in the Philippines. As many emerging communities in developing nations, Udalo is on the cusp of rapid development due to the construction of a major road increasing its accessibility and attractiveness for land investment. We assessed the supply of four soil functions in relation to six land-use types and four slope categories. The function “productivity” was assessed by interviews with 128 farmers, “habitat for biodiversity” by a vegetation survey, and “soil conservation” and “water conservation” via a literature review. The demand for functions was first assessed from the “top-down” policy perspective via interviews and reviews of policy targets, then complemented by integrating the local “bottom-up” demands for functions. These were assessed by applying a Q methodology, providing insights in the prioritisation of functions from the perspective of 22 local actors. Maps of supply and demands were generated for each function: supply maps by overlaying land use and slope category, top-down demand maps from administrative zoning/land-use plans, and bottom-up demand maps from local actors designation of geomorphological areas. Our results revealed contrasting demands for functions, as well as a heterogeneous spatial distribution of supply and demands. Discrepancies emerged (i) between supply and demand, (ii) between bottom-up (local) demands and the top-down (policy driven) demand, and (iii) among local actors perspectives. Our study indicates that discrepancies are not necessarily conflicting, but can uncover pathways for defining compromises, representing attainable policy entry points. Not one single development model can meet the needs of every stakeholder; however, a combination of land uses and management strategies can meet divergent interests and allow for optimisation of functions. This integrative approach of FLM provides a socially embedded biophysical analysis and is a valuable tool for the design of customized land-use and agri-environmental policies.

    Zeer veel elzenpollen tijdens afgelopen lentedagen
    Weger, L.A. de; Koenders, Mieke ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Wezel, Jaco van - \ 2019
    Nature Today
    De recente mooie lentedagen zijn gepaard gegaan met bijzonder hoge concentraties elzenpollen zeer vroeg in het jaar. De pollentelstations van het Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum, Elkerliek Ziekenhuis in Helmond en Philips in Drachten telden ook zeer hazelaarpollen. Veel mensen die gevoelig zijn voor boompollen hebben deze dagen flinke hooikoortsklachten gehad.
    Berkenpollenseizoen piekt
    Wezel, Jaco van; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Weger, L.A. de - \ 2019
    Nature Today
    Mensen met een berkenpollenallergie kunnen komende tijd veel klachten verwachten. Dit melden Weeronline, Wageningen University en het LUMC. Het berkenpollenseizoen piekt momenteel en bovendien blijft het vanaf vandaag voorlopig overwegend droog. Hierdoor neemt de hoeveelheid pollen in de lucht komende week flink toe. De kans op hooikoorts door berkenpollen is dan ook groot.
    Piek hooikoortsseizoen komt eraan
    Wezel, Jaco van; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Weger, L.A. de - \ 2019
    Nature Today
    Voor mensen die allergisch zijn voor graspollen breekt een zware periode aan. Volgens de verwachting van Weeronline, Wageningen University en het Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum begint rond 25 mei de piekperiode van het graspollenseizoen. Tot eind juni is de kans op hooikoortsklachten zeer groot. Daarna neemt de overlast langzaam af, maar tot ver in de zomer zijn er bloeiende grassen.
    Komende week hooikoortsklachten door bijvoetpollen en hitte
    Vliet, A.J.H. van; Weger, L.A. de; Wezel, Jaco van - \ 2019
    Nature Today
    Komende dagen komt bijvoet in bloei. Voor veel hooikoortspatiënten betekent dat een opleving van de hooikoortsklachten net nu de hoogste graspollenconcentraties achter de rug zijn. De pollen komen op een ongelukkig moment. Door de hitte kan de ozonconcentratie flink oplopen. De combinatie van hitte, ozon en pollen kan tot extra gezondheidseffecten leiden. Lees de tips om klachten te verminderen.
    Regulier hooikoortsseizoen voorbij; Hitte echter gunstig voor alsemambrosia
    Wezel, Jaco van; Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2019
    Nature Today
    De pollenconcentratie van gras en bijvoet is sterk teruggelopen. Daarmee is het reguliere hooikoortsseizoen zo goed als voorbij. De huidige zeer hoge temperaturen zijn echter ideaal voor alsemambrosia. Alsemambrosia komt nu pas in bloei en kan lokaal hooikoortsklachten veroorzaken. Vooral bij vogelvoederplaatsen kan de alsemambrosia aanwezig zijn.
    Pathogen-induced activation of disease-suppressive functions in the endophytic root microbiome
    Carrión, Víctor J. ; Perez-Jaramillo, Juan ; Cordovez, Viviane ; Tracanna, Vittorio ; Hollander, Mattias De; Ruiz-Buck, Daniel ; Mendes, Lucas W. ; Ijcken, Wilfred F.J. van; Gomez-Exposito, Ruth ; Elsayed, Somayah S. ; Mohanraju, Prarthana ; Arifah, Adini ; Oost, John van der; Paulson, Joseph N. ; Mendes, Rodrigo ; Wezel, Gilles P. van; Medema, Marnix H. ; Raaijmakers, Jos M. - \ 2019
    Science 366 (2019)6465. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 606 - 612.

    Microorganisms living inside plants can promote plant growth and health, but their genomic and functional diversity remain largely elusive. Here, metagenomics and network inference show that fungal infection of plant roots enriched for Chitinophagaceae and Flavobacteriaceae in the root endosphere and for chitinase genes and various unknown biosynthetic gene clusters encoding the production of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs). After strain-level genome reconstruction, a consortium of Chitinophaga and Flavobacterium was designed that consistently suppressed fungal root disease. Site-directed mutagenesis then revealed that a previously unidentified NRPS-PKS gene cluster from Flavobacterium was essential for disease suppression by the endophytic consortium. Our results highlight that endophytic root microbiomes harbor a wealth of as yet unknown functional traits that, in concert, can protect the plant inside out.

    Strengthen the European collaborative environmental research to meet European policy goals for achieving a sustainable, non-toxic environment
    Brack, Werner ; Ait-Aissa, Selim ; Backhaus, Thomas ; Birk, Sebastian ; Barceló, Damià ; Burgess, Rob ; Cousins, Ian ; Dulio, Valeria ; Escher, Beate I. ; Focks, Andreas ; Gils, Jos van; Ginebreda, Antoni ; Hering, Daniel ; Hewitt, Mark ; Hilscherová, Klára ; Hollender, Juliane ; Hollert, Henner ; Köck, Marianne ; Kortenkamp, Andreas ; Alda, Miren López de; Müller, Christin ; Posthuma, Leo ; Schüürmann, Gerrit ; Schymanski, Emma ; Segner, Helmut ; Sleeuwaert, Frank ; Slobodnik, Jaroslav ; Teodorovic, Ivana ; Umbuzeiro, Gisela ; Voulvoulis, Nick ; Wezel, Annemarie van; Altenburger, Rolf - \ 2019
    Environmental Sciences Europe 31 (2019)1. - ISSN 2190-4707

    To meet the United Nations (UN) sustainable development goals and the European Union (EU) strategy for a non-toxic environment, water resources and ecosystems management require cost-efficient solutions for prevailing complex contamination and multiple stressor exposures. For the protection of water resources under global change conditions, specific research needs for prediction, monitoring, assessment and abatement of multiple stressors emerge with respect to maintaining human needs, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. Collaborative European research seems an ideal instrument to mobilize the required transdisciplinary scientific support and tackle the large-scale dimension and develop options required for implementation of European policies. Calls for research on minimizing society’s chemical footprints in the water–food–energy–security nexus are required. European research should be complemented with targeted national scientific funding to address specific transformation pathways and support the evaluation, demonstration and implementation of novel approaches on regional scales. The foreseeable pressure developments due to demographic, economic and climate changes require solution-oriented thinking, focusing on the assessment of sustainable abatement options and transformation pathways rather than on status evaluation. Stakeholder involvement is a key success factor in collaborative projects as it allows capturing added value, to address other levels of complexity, and find smarter solutions by synthesizing scientific evidence, integrating governance issues, and addressing transition pathways. This increases the chances of closing the value chain by implementing novel solutions. For the water quality topic, the interacting European collaborative projects SOLUTIONS, MARS and GLOBAQUA and the NORMAN network provide best practice examples for successful applied collaborative research including multi-stakeholder involvement. They provided innovative conceptual, modelling and instrumental options for future monitoring and management of chemical mixtures and multiple stressors in European water resources. Advancement of EU water framework directive-related policies has therefore become an option.

    Estimation of the water cycle related to shale gas production under high data uncertainties : Dutch perspective
    Butkovskyi, Andrii ; Cirkel, Gijsbert ; Bozileva, Elvira ; Bruning, Harry ; Wezel, Annemarie P. Van; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. - \ 2019
    Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 483 - 493.
    Fracturing fluid - Posidonia shale - Produced water - Shale gas - Wastewater recycling

    The potential water demand for fracturing fluids along with the possible flowback and produced water production is assessed for the Dutch Posidonia shale. Total water demand estimated for 25 years of the field development using historic data from the U.S. plays varies between 12.2 and 36.9 Mm3. The maximal annual water consumption of 0.95–2.88 Mm3 is expected in the peak years of shale gas production. These figures are much lower than the availability of any potential water sources, which include drinking water, fresh and brackish groundwater, river water, effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and sea water. River water is considered the most promising water source for fracturing fluids in the Dutch Posidonia shale based on its availability (>6·104 Mm3/year) and quality (only bacterial composition needs to be controlled). Total wastewater production for the whole period of the field development is estimated between 6.6 and 48.0 Mm3. Wastewater recycling can cover significant part of the source water demand for fracturing fluid. However, high mineral content of the wastewater as well as temporal and spatial discrepancies between wastewater production and water demand will form obstacles for wastewater recycling. The assessment framework developed in this study may be applied for other shale gas fields with high uncertainties regarding subsurface properties, connate formation water characteristics and future legislative framework.

    Removal of organic compounds from shale gas flowback water
    Butkovskyi, A. ; Faber, Ann-Hélène ; Wang, Yue ; Grolle, K.C.F. ; Hofman-Caris, Roberta ; Bruning, H. ; Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2018
    Water Research 138 (2018). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 47 - 55.
    Shale gas - Hydraulic fracturing - Flowback water - Dissolved organic carbon; - Aerobic degradation
    Ozonation, sorption to granular activated carbon and aerobic degradation were compared as potential treatment methods for removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions and selected organic compounds from shale gas flowback water after pre-treatment in dissolved air flotation unit. Flowback water was characterised by high chemical oxygen demand and DOC. Low molecular weight (LMW) acids and neutral compounds were the most abundant organic fractions, corresponding to 47% and 35% of DOC respectively. Ozonation did not change distribution of organic carbon fractions and concentrations of detected individual organic compounds significantly. Sorption to activated carbon targeted removal of individual organic compounds with molecular weight >115 Da, whereas LMW compounds remained largely unaffected. Aerobic degradation was responsible for removal of LMW compounds and partial ammonium removal, whereas formation of intermediates with molecular weight of 200–350 Da was observed. Combination of aerobic degradation for LMW organics removal with adsorption to activated carbon for removal of non-biodegradable organics is proposed to be implemented between pre-treatment (dissolved air floatation) and desalination (thermal or membrane desalination) steps.
    Closing the gap between small and smaller: Towards a framework to analyse nano- and microplastics in aqueous environmental samples
    Mintenig, Svenja ; Bäuerlein, Patrick S. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Decker, S.C. ; Wezel, A.P. van - \ 2018
    Environmental Science: Nano covers the benefits... 5 (2018)7. - ISSN 2051-8153 - p. 1640 - 1649.
    Measuring concentrations and sizes of micro- and nanoplastics in the environment is essential to assess the risks plastic particles could pose. Microplastics have been detected globally in a variety of aquatic ecosystems. The determination of nanoplastics, however, is lagging behind due to higher methodological challenges. Here, we propose a framework that can consistently determine a broad spectrum of plastic particle sizes in aquatic environmental samples. Analytical evidence is provided as proof of principle. FTIR microscopy is applied to detect microplastics. Nanoplastics are studied using field-flow-fractionation and pyrolysis GC-MS that gives information on the particle sizes and polymer types. Pyrolysis GC-MS is shown to be promising for the detection of nanoplastics in an environmental samples as a mass of approximately 100 ng is required to identify polystyrene. Pre-concentrating nanoplastics by crossflow ultrafiltration enables polystyrene to be identified when the original concentration in an aqueous sample is > 20 µg L-1. Finally, we present an approach to estimate polymer masses based on the two-dimensional microplastic shapes recorded during the analysis with FTIR microscopy. Our suite of techniques demonstrates that analysis of the entire size spectrum of plastic debris is feasible.
    Inter- and intracellular colonization of Arabidopsis roots by endophytic actinobacteria and the impact of plant hormones on their antimicrobial activity
    Meij, Anne van der; Willemse, Joost ; Schneijderberg, Martinus A. ; Geurts, René ; Raaijmakers, Jos M. ; Wezel, Gilles P. van - \ 2018
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek: : Nederlandsch tijdschrift voor hygiëne, microbiologie en serologie 111 (2018)5. - ISSN 0003-6072 - p. 679 - 690.
    Cryptic antibiotics - Electron microscopy - Plant hormone - Plant–microbe interactions - Streptomyces
    Many actinobacteria live in close association with eukaryotes such as fungi, insects, animals and plants. Plant-associated actinobacteria display (endo)symbiotic, saprophytic or pathogenic life styles, and can make up a substantial part of the endophytic community. Here, we characterised endophytic actinobacteria isolated from root tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants grown in soil from a natural ecosystem. Many of these actinobacteria belong to the family of Streptomycetaceae with Streptomyces olivochromogenes and Streptomyces clavifer as well represented species. When seeds of Arabidopsis were inoculated with spores of Streptomyces strain coa1, which shows high similarity to S. olivochromogenes, roots were colonised intercellularly and, unexpectedly, also intracellularly. Subsequent exposure of endophytic isolates to plant hormones typically found in root and shoot tissues of Arabidopsis led to altered antibiotic production against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Taken together, our work reveals remarkable colonization patterns of endophytic streptomycetes with specific traits that may allow a competitive advantage inside root tissue.
    Erratum to: Modeling the Fate and Transport of Plastic Debris in Freshwaters: Review and Guidance
    Kooi, M. ; Besseling, E. ; Kroeze, C. ; Wezel, A.P. van; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2018
    In: Freshwater Microplastics / Wagner, Martin, Lambert, Scott, Cham : Springer (The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ) - ISBN 9783319616148 - p. E1 - E1.
    Risk analysis and technology assessment in support of technology development : Putting responsible innovation in practice in a case study for nanotechnology
    Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Lente, Harro van; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Vandeberg, Rens L.J. ; Sips, Adrienne J.A.M. - \ 2018
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 14 (2018)1. - ISSN 1551-3793 - p. 9 - 16.
    Responsible research and innovation - Risk analysis - Technology assessment
    Governments invest in “key enabling technologies,” such as nanotechnology, to solve societal challenges and boost the economy. At the same time, governmental agencies demand risk reduction to prohibit any often unknown adverse effects, and industrial parties demand smart approaches to reduce uncertainties. Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is therefore a central theme in policy making. Risk analysis and technology assessment, together referred to as “RATA,” can provide a basis to assess human, environmental, and societal risks of new technological developments during the various stages of technological development. This assessment can help both governmental authorities and innovative industry to move forward in a sustainable manner. Here we describe the developed procedures and products and our experiences to bring RATA in practice within a large Dutch nanotechnology consortium. This is an example of how to put responsible innovation in practice as an integrated part of a research program, how to increase awareness of RATA, and how to help technology developers perform and use RATA. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:9–16.
    Mitigation options for chemicals of emerging concern in surface waters operationalising solutions-focused risk assessment
    Wezel, Annemarie P. Van; Laak, Thomas L. Ter; Fischer, Astrid ; Bäuerlein, Patrick S. ; Munthe, John ; Posthuma, Leo - \ 2017
    Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology 3 (2017)3. - ISSN 2053-1400 - p. 403 - 414.

    The water system provides many services to society; industries, municipalities and agriculture all withdraw, use and return water and demand a water quality fit for the intended purposes. Both global production of chemicals and global water withdrawal grow faster than human population. This implies increased chemical threats to water, and creates a strong driver for mitigation to protect human health, ecosystem integrity and ecosystem services. Here we connect the perspectives of the water cycle and the chemical life cycle and review possible mitigation options. We categorize mitigation options in various stages of the chemicals' life cycle, taking various sectors and environmental pathways into account. More technologically oriented versus other types of mitigation options are discerned, and their relevance on spatial and temporal scale is discussed. We review various water treatment techniques in relation to physical-chemical properties of chemicals. Finally we discuss how a mitigation database can be used to assess the effectiveness of interventions, by coupling them to regional or global hydrological models. A solution-focused and systems-oriented perspective combined with a mitigation database offers a common perspective amongst actors on the effects for water quality of possible mitigation options throughout the chemical's life cycle, in various sectors and at various places in the water system. This can stimulate coherent implementation of effective mitigation options, cross-sectoral learning and further innovations to improve water quality.

    Risks of Plastic Debris : Unravelling Fact, Opinion, Perception, and Belief
    Koelmans, Albert A. ; Besseling, Ellen ; Foekema, Edwin ; Kooi, Merel ; Mintenig, Svenja ; Ossendorp, Bernadette C. ; Redondo-Hasselerharm, Paula E. ; Verschoor, Anja ; Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Scheffer, Marten - \ 2017
    Environmental Science and Technology 51 (2017)20. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 11513 - 11519.
    Researcher and media alarms have caused plastic debris to be perceived as a major threat to humans and animals. However, although the waste of plastic in the environment is clearly undesirable for aesthetic and economic reasons, the actual environmental risks of different plastics and their associated chemicals remain largely unknown. Here we show how a systematic assessment of adverse outcome pathways based on ecologically relevant metrics for exposure and effect can bring risk assessment within reach. Results of such an assessment will help to respond to the current public worry in a balanced way and allow policy makers to take measures for scientifically sound reasons.
    Drivers of adoption of agroecological practices for winegrowers and influence from policies in the province of Trento, Italy
    Garini, C.S. ; Vanwindekens, F. ; Scholberg, J.M.S. ; Wezel, A. ; Groot, J.C.J. - \ 2017
    Land Use Policy 68 (2017). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 200 - 211.
    Adoption of farming practices - Agroecology - Cognitive mapping - Common Agricultural Policy - Self-determination theory - Viticulture practices
    Many agricultural practices are negatively impacting the environment and threatening the ecological foundations of the global food system. Therefore, agroecological practices are being proposed as viable and desirable alternatives. Biophysical, economic, social, and political factors, matched with farmers’ psychological attributes, may all be governing the choice of agricultural practices. Public policies can play a significant role as they can stimulate the adoption of innovative farming practices. The main objective of this research was the evaluation of farmers’ motivations for the adoption of agroecological practices in the viticulture sector in the province of Trento, Italy. A specific focus was laid on the influences from the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) measures. For the evaluation of farmers’ perceptions of their systems of practices, the Cognitive Mapping Approach for Analysing Actors’ Systems Of Practices (CMASOP) was applied. Based on information collected during in-depth interviews, Individual and Social Cognitive Maps were generated, representing the most frequently adopted agroecological practices and the major drivers of adoption of such practices, as mentioned by farmers. Drivers of adoption were categorized according to the self-determination theory of human motivations. Farmers reported that adoption of agroecological practices was mainly driven by existence of site-specific pedoclimatic conditions, followed with decreasing importance by requirements from wineries, availability of material, appreciation for aesthetics, health concerns, influence from irrigation consortia, and legal requirements, among which a local legislation for integrated pest management based on a CAP measure. Overall, results show that farmers reported to adopt agroecological practices mainly because of autonomous choices rather than coercion. Therefore, wineries and local policy-makers might incentivize the adoption of agroecological practices by promoting autonomy-supportive policies that foster farmers’ identified and intrinsic motivations.
    Organic Pollutants in Shale Gas Flowback and Produced Waters : Identification, Potential Ecological Impact, and Implications for Treatment Strategies
    Butkovskyi, Andrii ; Bruning, Harry ; Kools, Stefan A.E. ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. ; Wezel, Annemarie P. van - \ 2017
    Environmental Science and Technology 51 (2017)9. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 4740 - 4754.

    Organic contaminants in shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) are traditionally expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), though these parameters do not provide information on the toxicity and environmental fate of individual components. This review addresses identification of individual organic contaminants in FPW, and stresses the gaps in the knowledge on FPW composition that exist so far. Furthermore, the risk quotient approach was applied to predict the toxicity of the quantified organic compounds for fresh water organisms in recipient surface waters. This resulted in an identification of a number of FPW related organic compounds that are potentially harmful namely those compounds originating from shale formations (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates), fracturing fluids (e.g., quaternary ammonium biocides, 2-butoxyethanol) and downhole transformations of organic compounds (e.g., carbon disulfide, halogenated organic compounds). Removal of these compounds by FPW treatment processes is reviewed and potential and efficient abatement strategies are defined.

    Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources
    Brack, Werner ; Dulio, Valeria ; Ågerstrand, Marlene ; Allan, Ian ; Altenburger, Rolf ; Brinkmann, Markus ; Bunke, Dirk ; Burgess, Robert M. ; Cousins, Ian ; Escher, Beate I. ; Hernández, Félix J. ; Hewitt, L.M. ; Hilscherová, Klára ; Hollender, Juliane ; Hollert, Henner ; Kase, Robert ; Klauer, Bernd ; Lindim, Claudia ; Herráez, David López ; Miège, Cécil ; Munthe, John ; O'Toole, Simon ; Posthuma, Leo ; Rüdel, Heinz ; Schäfer, Ralf B. ; Sengl, Manfred ; Smedes, Foppe ; Meent, Dik van de; Brink, Paul J. van den; Gils, Jos van; Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Vethaak, A.D. ; Vermeirssen, Etienne ; Ohe, Peter C. von der; Vrana, Branislav - \ 2017
    Science of the Total Environment 576 (2017). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 720 - 737.
    Chemical legislation - Effect-based tools - Passive sampling - Prioritization of contaminants - Solution-oriented management - Water Framework Directive review

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of European freshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has faced some challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the European monitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science and suggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensive prioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters. The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integrated strategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approaches to advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic “chemical status” assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historical burdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessment of contamination. Solution-oriented management should apply a tiered approach in investigative monitoring to identify toxicity drivers, strengthen consistent legislative frameworks and apply solutions-oriented approaches that explore risk reduction scenarios before and along with risk assessment.

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