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Fifty Years of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Research at Cabauw Serving Weather, Air Quality and Climate
Bosveld, Fred C. ; Baas, Peter ; Beljaars, Anton C.M. ; Vilà-guerau De Arellano, Jordi ; De Wiel, Bas J.H. Van - \ 2020
Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2020). - ISSN 0006-8314 - 30 p.
An overview is given of 50-year Cabauw observations and research on the structure and dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer. It is shown that over time this research site with its 200-m meteorological tower has grown into an atmospheric observatory with a comprehensive observational program encompassing almost all aspects of the atmospheric column including its boundary conditions. This is accomplished by the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) a consortium of research institutes. CESAR plays an important role in the educational programs of the CESAR universities. The current boundary-layer observational program is described in detail, and other parts of the CESAR observational program discussed more briefly. Due to an open data policy the CESAR datasets are used by researchers all over the world. Examples are given of the use of the long time series for model evaluation, satellite validation, and process studies. The role of tall towers is discussed in relation to the development of more and better ground-based remote sensing techniques. CESAR is now incorporated into the Ruisdael observatory, the large-scale atmospheric research infrastructure in the Netherlands. With Ruisdael the embedding of the Dutch atmospheric community in national policy landscape, and in the European atmospheric research infrastructures is assured for the coming decade
Outcome prediction of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by MRI radiomic signatures
Mes, Steven W. ; Velden, Floris H.P. van; Peltenburg, Boris ; Peeters, Carel F.W. ; Beest, Dennis E. te; Wiel, Mark A. van de; Mekke, Joost ; Mulder, Doriene C. ; Martens, Roland M. ; Castelijns, Jonas A. ; Pameijer, Frank A. ; Bree, Remco de; Boellaard, Ronald ; Leemans, C.R. ; Brakenhoff, Ruud H. ; Graaf, Pim de - \ 2020
European Radiology (2020). - ISSN 0938-7994
Factor analysis - Head and neck neoplasms - Magnetic resonance imaging - Prognosis
Objectives: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) shows a remarkable heterogeneity between tumors, which may be captured by a variety of quantitative features extracted from diagnostic images, termed radiomics. The aim of this study was to develop and validate MRI-based radiomic prognostic models in oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Materials and Methods: Native T1-weighted images of four independent, retrospective (2005–2013), patient cohorts (n = 102, n = 76, n = 89, and n = 56) were used to delineate primary tumors, and to extract 545 quantitative features from. Subsequently, redundancy filtering and factor analysis were performed to handle collinearity in the data. Next, radiomic prognostic models were trained and validated to predict overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). Radiomic features were compared to and combined with prognostic models based on standard clinical parameters. Performance was assessed by integrated area under the curve (iAUC). Results: In oral cancer, the radiomic model showed an iAUC of 0.69 (OS) and 0.70 (RFS) in the validation cohort, whereas the iAUC in the oropharyngeal cancer validation cohort was 0.71 (OS) and 0.74 (RFS). By integration of radiomic and clinical variables, the most accurate models were defined (iAUC oral cavity, 0.72 (OS) and 0.74 (RFS); iAUC oropharynx, 0.81 (OS) and 0.78 (RFS)), and these combined models outperformed prognostic models based on standard clinical variables only (p < 0.001). Conclusions: MRI radiomics is feasible in HNSCC despite the known variability in MRI vendors and acquisition protocols, and radiomic features added information to prognostic models based on clinical parameters. Key Points: • MRI radiomics can predict overall survival and relapse-free survival in oral and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer. • MRI radiomics provides additional prognostic information to known clinical variables, with the best performance of the combined models. • Variation in MRI vendors and acquisition protocols did not influence performance of radiomic prognostic models.
Measurement and genetic architecture of lifetime depression in the Netherlands as assessed by LIDAS (Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report)
Fedko, Iryna O. ; Hottenga, Jouke Jan ; Helmer, Quinta ; Mbarek, Hamdi ; Huider, Floris ; Amin, Najaf ; Beulens, Joline W. ; Bremmer, Marijke A. ; Elders, Petra J. ; Galesloot, Tessel E. ; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. ; Loo, Hanna M. Van; Picavet, H.S.J. ; Rutters, Femke ; Spek, Ashley Van Der; De Wiel, Anne M. Van; Duijn, Cornelia Van; Geus, Eco J.C. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Hartman, Catharina A. ; Oldehinkel, Albertine J. ; Smit, Jan H. ; Verschuren, W.M.W. ; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Bot, Mariska - \ 2020
Psychological Medicine (2020). - ISSN 0033-2917
LIDAS - Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report - major depressive disorder - online assessment tool - prevalence
BackgroundMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mood disorder, with a heritability of around 34%. Molecular genetic studies made significant progress and identified genetic markers associated with the risk of MDD; however, progress is slowed down by substantial heterogeneity as MDD is assessed differently across international cohorts. Here, we used a standardized online approach to measure MDD in multiple cohorts in the Netherlands and evaluated whether this approach can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression.MethodsWithin the Biobank Netherlands Internet Collaboration (BIONIC) project, we collected MDD data in eight cohorts involving 31 936 participants, using the online Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), and estimated the prevalence of current and lifetime MDD in 22 623 unrelated individuals. In a large Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) twin-family dataset (n 18 000), we estimated the heritability of MDD, and the prediction of MDD in a subset (n = 4782) through Polygenic Risk Score (PRS).ResultsEstimates of current and lifetime MDD prevalence were 6.7% and 18.1%, respectively, in line with population estimates based on validated psychiatric interviews. In the NTR heritability estimates were 0.34/0.30 (s.e. = 0.02/0.02) for current/lifetime MDD, respectively, showing that the LIDAS gives similar heritability rates for MDD as reported in the literature. The PRS predicted risk of MDD (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.32, R2 = 1.47%).ConclusionsBy assessing MDD status in the Netherlands using the LIDAS instrument, we were able to confirm previously reported MDD prevalence and heritability estimates, which suggests that this instrument can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression.
Genetic engineering at the heart of agroecology
Lotz, Lambertus A.P. ; Wiel, Clemens C.M. van de; Smulders, Marinus J.M. - \ 2020
Outlook on Agriculture 49 (2020)1. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 21 - 28.
Agroecosystems - CRISPR/Cas - ecology - gene editing - genetic modification - IPM
We discuss whether genetic engineering and agroecology are compatible. For this, we investigated three cases of genetically engineered crops and considered agroecology as scientific discipline as well as a social movement. One case was the use of cisgenic modifications to make potato durably resistant to late blight, the second was the use of CRISPR/Cas to make rice resistant to bacterial blight and as a third case, we evaluated experiences with cultivating transgenic Bt crops. These cases demonstrated that genetic engineering offers opportunities to grow crops in novel integrated pest management (IPM) systems with, as direct benefit, a decrease in the use of chemical crop protection agents, and as indirect effect that the role of predators and biological control agents can become more important than in present conventional systems based on pesticides. We used a framework based on four concerns (both cons and pros) that were gathered from an extensive societal interaction organized around the Dutch research project DuRPh, which produced a proof-of-concept of a cisgenic late blight-resistant potato. We concluded that genetic engineering and agroecology certainly have synergy in the context of agroecology as science, when applied to making crops less vulnerable to pests and diseases and when combined with cultivation using IPM. By contrast, within the movement context, genetically engineered varieties may be welcomed if they include traits that contribute to successful IPM schemes and are socially benign. Whether they would actually be deemed desirable or acceptable will, however, vary depending on the norms and values of the social movements. We propose that some concerns may be reconcilable in a dialogue. Deontological arguments such as naturalness are more difficult to reconcile, as they relate to deeply felt ethical or cultural values. A step forward would be when also for these arguments everyone can make an informed choice and when these choices can coexist in a respectful manner.
Strong future increases in Arctic precipitation variability linked to poleward moisture transport
Bintanja, R. ; Wiel, K. van der; Linden, E.C. van der; Reusen, J. ; Bogerd, L. ; Krikken, F. ; Selten, F.M. - \ 2020
Science Advances 6 (2020)7. - ISSN 2375-2548
The Arctic region is projected to experience amplified warming as well as strongly increasing precipitation rates. Equally important to trends in the mean climate are changes in interannual variability, but changes in precipitation fluctuations are highly uncertain and the associated processes are unknown. Here, we use various state-of-the-art global climate model simulations to show that interannual variability of Arctic precipitation will likely increase markedly (up to 40% over the 21st century), especially in summer. This can be attributed to increased poleward atmospheric moisture transport variability associated with enhanced moisture content, possibly modulated by atmospheric dynamics. Because both the means and variability of Arctic precipitation will increase, years/seasons with excessive precipitation will occur more often, as will the associated impacts.
Electrochemical detection of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles on nanointerdigitated electrodes
Mathew, Dilu G. ; Beekman, Pepijn ; Lemay, Serge G. ; Zuilhof, Han ; Gac, Séverine Le; Wiel, Wilfred G. van der - \ 2020
Nano Letters 20 (2020)2. - ISSN 1530-6984 - p. 820 - 828.
enzymatic amplification - microfluidics - Nanoelectrodes - redox cycling - tumor-derived extracellular vesicles
Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tdEVs) are attracting much attention due to their essential function in intercellular communication and their potential as cancer biomarkers. Although tdEVs are significantly more abundant in blood than other cancer biomarkers, their concentration compared to other blood components remains relatively low. Moreover, the presence of particles in blood with a similar size as that of tdEVs makes their selective and sensitive detection further challenging. Therefore, highly sensitive and specific biosensors are required for unambiguous tdEV detection in complex biological environments, especially for decentralized point-of-care analysis. Here, we report an electrochemical sensing scheme for tdEV detection, with two-level selectivity provided by a sandwich immunoassay and two-level amplification through the combination of an enzymatic assay and redox cycling on nanointerdigitated electrodes to respectively enhance the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. Analysis of prostate cancer cell line tdEV samples at various concentrations revealed an estimated limit of detection for our assay as low as 5 tdEVs/μL, as well as an excellent linear sensor response spreading over 6 orders of magnitude (10-106 tdEVs/μL), which importantly covers the clinically relevant range for tdEV detection in blood. This novel nanosensor and associated sensing scheme opens new opportunities to detect tdEVs at clinically relevant concentrations from a single blood finger prick.
Comparing differently derived soil depth and bedrock strength inputs for landscape evolution modelling of the Bergantes catchment (Spain)
Gorp, W. van; Schoorl, J.M. ; Wiel, Marco van de; Cohen, K. - \ 2019
- p. 1910 - 1910.
Restoring nutrient circularity: A review of nutrient stock and flow analyses of local agro-food-waste systems
Wiel, Bernou Zoë van der; Weijma, Jan ; Middelaar, Corina Everarda van; Kleinke, Matthias ; Buisman, Cees Jan Nico ; Wichern, Florian - \ 2019
Resources, Conservation and Recycling: X 3 (2019). - ISSN 2590-289X
Agro-food-waste system - Circularity - Local scale - Nutrient stock and flow analysis - Stoichiometry
To reduce environmental issues resulting from excess nutrients, conserve valuable resources and safeguard future food security, natural nutrient cycles in agro-food-waste systems need to be restored. To this end, nutrient stock and flow analyses of the agro-food-waste system can be undertaken. There is currently no standardized method for the systematic analysis of nutrient stocks and flows to support nutrient circularity of those systems at a local scale. This review of 57 studies summarizes the current knowledge on nutrient stock and flow analysis of agro-food-waste systems in local areas and proposes a six-step framework. About a third of the reviewed studies analyzed the complete agro-food-waste system, including crop production, animal production, food and feed processing industry, consumption and waste management. Furthermore, the main focus tends to be on phosphorus (P), and to a lesser extent on nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and (organic) carbon (C). Only a few studies combined the analyses of different nutrients, even though nutrient use efficiency relies on obtaining the optimal stoichiometric balance. The proposed framework for nutrient stock and flow analyses encompasses the inclusion of the complete agro-food-waste system and simultaneous analysis of N, P, K and C to facilitate assessment of the full potential to restore local nutrient circularity. Moreover, the local study area needs to be sufficiently large to include all the subsystems and sufficiently small to facilitate transportation of nutrients. Following this six-step framework, analyses will be able to identify hotspots, based on which effective measures to restore local nutrient circularity can be developed.
Dutch fog: On the observed spatio-temporal variability of fog in the Netherlands
Izett, Jonathan G. ; Wiel, Bas J.H. van de; Baas, Peter ; Hooft, J.A. van; Schulte, Ruben B. - \ 2019
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 145 (2019)723. - ISSN 0035-9009 - p. 2817 - 2834.
climatology - fog - land use - regional variability - weather
The Netherlands is characterized by highly variable land use within a small area, and a strong influence of the North Sea on national climate. Devoid of significant topography, it is an excellent location for assessing the relative influence of various factors on fog occurrence in the absence of terrain effects. Using observations from a dense network of weather stations throughout the country, the climatology of fog in the Netherlands is assessed over a period of 45 years. On a national scale, interannual variability is linked to changes in synoptic pressure-gradient forcing. Within the country, a comprehensive in-depth analysis of regional differences between fog occurrence is made, together with an assessment of local physical factors which could bias fog formation in one location over another. Regional variability is shown to be strongly related to the mesoscale influences of urbanization and the North Sea. In fact, some locations experience over twice as much fog as others. From this finding, a simple index is presented, which combines the water and urban fraction surrounding a station. This “Regionally Weighted Index” (RWI) is able to accurately sort the stations according to their relative fogginess. Its practical use is encouraged for assessing a given site's climatological favourability, even when in situ meteorological observations are unavailable.
Large-Eddy Simulations of the Steady Wintertime Antarctic Boundary Layer
Linden, Steven J.A. van der; Edwards, John M. ; Heerwaarden, Chiel C. van; Vignon, Etienne ; Genthon, Christophe ; Petenko, Igor ; Baas, Peter ; Jonker, Harmen J.J. ; Wiel, Bas J.H. van de - \ 2019
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 173 (2019)2. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 165 - 192.
Antarctic boundary layer - Large-eddy simulations - Long-lived stable boundary layer - Subsidence heating
Observations of two typical contrasting weakly stable and very stable boundary layers from the winter at Dome C station, Antarctica, are used as a benchmark for two centimetre-scale-resolution large-eddy simulations. By taking the Antarctic winter, the effects of the diurnal cycle are eliminated, enabling the study of the long-lived steady stable boundary layer. With its homogeneous, flat snow surface, and extreme stabilities, the location is a natural laboratory for studies on the long-lived stable boundary layer. The two simulations differ only in the imposed geostrophic wind speed, which is identified as the main deciding factor for the resulting regime. In general, a good correspondence is found between the observed and simulated profiles of mean wind speed and temperature. Discrepancies in the temperature profiles are likely due to the exclusion of radiative transfer in the current simulations. The extreme stabilities result in a considerable contrast between the stable boundary layer at the Dome C site and that found at typical mid-latitudes. The boundary-layer height is found to range from approximately 50m to just 5m in the most extreme case. Remarkably, heating of the boundary layer by subsidence may result in thermal equilibrium of the boundary layer in which the associated heating is balanced by the turbulent cooling towards the surface. Using centimetre-scale resolutions, accurate large-eddy simulations of the extreme stabilities encountered in Antarctica appear to be possible. However, future simulations should aim to include radiative transfer and sub-surface heat transport to increase the degree of realism of these types of simulations.
Green Plant Biotechnology at work
Bovy, A.G. ; Heusden, A.W. van; Kreike, C.M. ; Peer, A.F. van; Salentijn, E.M.J. ; Schouten, H.J. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de - \ 2019
Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
The pages below contain the topics, questions, and instruction of a course on Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Plant Breeding, which is taken by students at the Universities of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands who specialize in Green Biotechnology. In the course they learn about the use of molecular techniques for applications in plant breeding companies and in related research in The Netherlands.
The Glycaemic Index-Food-Frequency Questionnaire: Development and Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Designed to Estimate the Dietary Intake of Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load : An Effort by the PREVIEW Consortium
Brouwer, E.M. ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Sluik, D. ; Wiel, A.M. van de; Raben, Anne ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 2072-6643
Dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) are indices used to quantify the effect of carbohydrate quality and quantity on postprandial glycaemia. GI/GL-health associations are widely studied but data on the validity of integrated GI/GL measurements are scarce. We evaluated the performance of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specifically developed to assess GI/GL. In total, 263 Dutch men and 212 women (aged 55 ± 11 years) completed a 58-item GI-FFQ, an 183-item general-FFQ and a 2-day 24 h-recall and donated blood for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) determination. The level of agreement between these methods was evaluated by (1) cross-classification, (2) correlations and (3) Bland and Altman plots. The three dietary assessment methods provided comparable mean intake estimates for total carbohydrates (range: 214–237 g/day), mono/disaccharides (100–107 g/day), polysaccharides (114–132 g/day), as well as bread, breakfast cereals, potatoes, pasta, rice, fruit, dairy, cakes/cookies and sweets. Mean (±SD) GI estimates were also comparable between the GI-FFQ (54 ± 3), general-FFQ (53 ± 4) and 24 h-recalls (53 ± 5). Mean (±SD) GI-FFQ GL (117 ± 37) was slightly lower than the general-FFQ GL (126 ± 38) and 24 h-recalls GL (127 ± 37). Classification of GI in quartiles was identical for the GI-FFQ and general-FFQ for 43% of the population (r = 0.58) and with 24 h-recalls for 35% of the population (de-attenuated r = 0.64). For GL, this was 48% (r = 0.65) and 44% (de-attenuated r = 0.74). Correlations between GI and HbA1c were low (r = −0.09 for GI-FFQ, r = −0.04 for general-FFQ and r = 0.07 for 24 h-recalls). In conclusion, compared to a general-FFQ and 24 h-recalls, the GI-FFQ showed a moderate to good relative validity for carbohydrates, carbohydrate-rich foods and GI/GL. No metric predicted HbA1c.
How are macronutrient intake, BMI, ethnicity, age, and gender related to the composition of unstimulated saliva? A case study
Mosca, Ana Carolina ; Stieger, Markus ; Neyraud, Eric ; Brignot, Hélène ; Wiel, Anne van de; Chen, Jianshe - \ 2019
Journal of Texture Studies 50 (2019)1. - ISSN 0022-4901 - p. 53 - 61.
amylase - food oral processing - lipase - nutrient intake - saliva - salivary proteins
This study investigated how macronutrient intake, BMI, ethnicity, age, and gender are related to the composition of unstimulated saliva. First, two groups of Caucasian, Dutch subjects varying in daily intake of carbohydrate, fat, and protein were selected. The daily intake of macronutrients differed by two- to threefold between the low (n = 14) and high (n = 16) macronutrient intake groups. The same subjects were divided into two groups based on BMI: normal weight (n = 14, 22.5 ± 2.0 kg/m2) and overweight (n = 16, 28.1 ± 3.4 kg/m2). Second, one group of Caucasian, Dutch (n = 15) and one group of Asian, Chinese (n = 15) subjects were selected. Unstimulated saliva was collected from all groups. Protein concentration, amylolytic activity, lipolytic activity, and saliva flow rate were determined. None of the salivary parameters varied according to macronutrient intake and BMI. An effect of ethnicity on protein concentration was observed (p <.01; η2 = 0.142), with Asians having a 45% higher protein concentration in unstimulated saliva than Caucasians. Age had a significant effect on all salivary parameters. Protein concentration (p <.01; η2 = 0.256), amylolytic activity (p <.01; η2 = 0.234), and lipolytic activity (p <.05; η2 = 0.207) increased with age, while saliva flow rate decreased (p <.01; η2 = 0.262). Gender had a significant effect on saliva flow rate (p <.01; η2 = 0.130), with male subjects having a 32% higher flow rate than females. Age was the factor that had the greatest impact on the characteristics of unstimulated saliva. As the modulation of saliva composition according to diet has been reported previously, the extent to which macronutrient intake can affect saliva composition needs to be further investigated. Practical applications: Saliva plays an important role in food oral processing. From the breakdown of food structures to the binding of flavor compounds and the formation of a swallowable bolus, saliva is essential for the perception and appreciation of foods. Identifying the factors that affect saliva composition is, therefore, necessary to understand the differences in eating behavior, food perception, and preference across different consumer groups. This article aims to highlight the importance of considering saliva variability when designing food products that meet the needs of specific consumer groups.
How to Assure That Farmers Apply New Technology According to Good Agricultural Practice: Lessons From Dutch Initiatives
Lotz, L.A.P. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Environmental Science 6 (2018). - ISSN 2296-665X - 5 p.
The application of Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) contributes to many aspects of sustainable farming, including integrated control of weeds, diseases, and pests, and optimization of fertilization and irrigation. It is a relatively neglected issue in debates regarding the application of new technology, such as genetic modification (GM), which often revolve around the intrinsic properties of a GM crop allegedly leading to unsatisfactory performance. However, the performance largely depends on the agronomic and institutional embedding of applying new technology, which generally applies to all crops, whether conventional or GM. We describe and discuss four cases in which the government or private partners in the production chain regulate this, using legalmeasures, incentives, ormutual agreements, or a combination thereof. These cases serve as a starting point for a discussion on how GAP can be stimulated, organized, and guaranteed. We argue that next to the government, also seed suppliers, NGOs, and buyers, as well as farmers can be drivers for the application of GAP when tools are available that enable farmers to make optimal farming choices.
Higher Mediterranean Diet scores are not cross-sectionally associated with better cognitive scores in 20- to 70-year-old Dutch adults: The NQplus study
Brouwer, E.M. ; Benati, Anita ; Wiel, A.M. van de; Lee, L. van; Vries, J.H.M. de; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Rest, O. van de - \ 2018
Nutrition Research 59 (2018). - ISSN 0271-5317 - p. 80 - 89.
Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has been suggested to reduce
the risk of age-related cognitive decline. Therefore, we hypothesized that
adults consuming a more Mediterranean-like diet were more likely to have
better cognitive scores. We investigated cross-sectional associations between
MedDiet adherence and cognitive performance using data of 1607 Dutch men
and women aged 20–70 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 183-item
Food Frequency Questionnaire. MedDiet adherence was defined by a 0–9 point
scale; which was based on intakes of vegetables, legumes, fruits/nuts, cereals,
fish/seafood, meat/poultry, dairy, ethanol and the MUFA:SFA ratio. Cognitive
function was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery. Linear regression
analyses adjusted for relevant covariates showed a significant inverse association
between MedDiet adherence and everyday memory: specifically β = −0.107
± 0.046 points (P = .02) for the total population and β = −0.139 ± 0.055 points
(P = .01) for those aged ≥50 years. Further exploration of the individual MedDiet
food groups suggested that the association between MedDiet and everyday
memory was predominantly driven by the MUFA:SFA ratio. Moreover, associations were observed between higher ethanol intake better semantic memory and language production (β = 0.016 ± 0.008 P = .05), higher
vegetable intake with better processing speed (β = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = .02), and
higher legumes intake with poorer processing speed (β = −0.014 ±0.006, P = 03). Thus, in this Dutch cohort, higher MedDiet adherence was associated with poorer everyday memory.
Correction to: New traits in crops produced by genome editing techniques based on deletions
Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Schaart, J.G. ; Lotz, L.A.P. ; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2018
Plant Biotechnology Reports 12 (2018)5. - ISSN 1863-5466 - p. 375 - 375.
In the original publication of the article, Li et al. has been incorrectly cited in the following sentence “Interestingly, a complex trait par excellence, yield, was also shown to be amenable to an SDN-1 approach. Li et al. (2017) used CRISPR-Cas9 in rice to mutate the regulatory genes Gna1, DEP1, and GS3 and obtained plants with increased grain numbers, dense erect panicles plus semi-dwarf phenotype, and larger grains, respectively.”.
Survival analysis of brown plant hoppers (Nilaparvata lugens) in rice using video recordings of predation events
Hemerik, Lia ; Bianchi, Felix ; Wiel, Inge van de; Fu, Daomeng ; Zou, Yi ; Xiao, Haijun ; Werf, Wopke van der - \ 2018
Biological Control 127 (2018). - ISSN 1049-9644 - p. 155 - 161.
Biocontrol - Pest management - Survival analysis - Visual observation
The brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is a major rice pest in South-East Asia. While brown plant hopper (BPH) populations can be regulated by natural enemies, there is limited quantitative information available about the contribution of different predator species to BPH mortality. Our study has three aims: (i) assess the relative contribution of different predator species to BPH mortality in rice fields, (ii) assess diurnal patterns in BPH predation, and (iii) assess the seasonal variation in BPH predation. We quantified predation of live mobile BPH in three rice fields using video recording and assessed densities frogs, a major predator group, by direct counts. In 864 h of video recording, 102 mortality events were observed. Frogs (Ranidae), wolf spiders (Lycosidae) and jumping spiders (Salticidae) were the main predators, accounting for 76%, 13% and 9% of the BPH predation events, respectively. There were large differences in frog density across fields, and there was more predation during the evening (63% predation events) than during the day (37%). Survival analysis indicated that predation risk quickly decreased with time after the onset of recording sessions and that most predation happened within the first 10 min. The results confirm the often overlooked contribution of frogs to BPH predation, but also highlight the substantial variation in predator pressure and frog abundance across farmers’ fields. While camera observations provide compelling information on the identity and relative importance of natural enemies in predation of pests, further development of methods is needed to minimize possible biases resulting from disturbance when making camera observations to quantify predation risk.
Parameters for the collapse of turbulence in the stratified plane Couette flow
Hooijdonk, Ivo G.S. van; Clercx, Herman J.H. ; Ansorge, Cedrick ; Moene, Arnold F. ; Wiel, Bas J.H. van de - \ 2018
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 75 (2018)9. - ISSN 0022-4928 - p. 3211 - 3231.
Boundary conditions - Boundary layer - Numerical analysis/modeling - Turbulence
We perform direct numerical simulation of the Couette flow as a model for the stable boundary layer. The flow evolution is investigated for combinations of the (bulk) Reynolds number and the imposed surface buoyancy flux. First, we establish what the similarities and differences are between applying a fixed buoyancy difference (Dirichlet) and a fixed buoyancy flux (Neumann) as boundary conditions. Moreover, two distinct parameters were recently proposed for the turbulent-to-laminar transition: the Reynolds number based on the Obukhov length and the "shear capacity," a velocity-scale ratio based on the buoyancy flux maximum. We study how these parameters relate to each other and to the atmospheric boundary layer. The results show that in a weakly stratified equilibrium state, the flow statistics are virtually the same between the different types of boundary conditions. However, at stronger stratification and, more generally, in nonequilibrium conditions, the flow statistics do depend on the type of boundary condition imposed. In the case of Neumann boundary conditions, a clear sensitivity to the initial stratification strength is observed because of the existence of multiple equilibriums, while for Dirichlet boundary conditions, only one statistically steady turbulent equilibrium exists for a particular set of boundary conditions. As in previous studies, we find that when the imposed surface flux is larger than the maximum buoyancy flux, no turbulent steady state occurs. Analytical investigation and simulation data indicate that this maximum buoyancy flux converges for increasing Reynolds numbers, which suggests a possible extrapolation to the atmospheric case.
Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) study, a prospective study on dietary determinants and cardiometabolic health in Dutch adults
Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske Maria ; Lee, Linde Van; Streppel, Martinette T. ; Sluik, Diewertje ; De Wiel, Anne M. Van; Vries, Jeanne H.M. De; Geelen, Anouk ; Feskens, Edith J.M. - \ 2018
BMJ Open 8 (2018)7. - ISSN 2044-6055
During the past decades, the number of people with cardiometabolic conditions substantially increased. To identify dietary factors that may be responsible for this increase in cardiometabolic conditions, the Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) study was initiated. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the study design and baseline characteristics of the NQplus population.
The NQplus study is a prospective cohort study among 2048 Dutch men (52%) and women (48%) aged 20–70 years. Findings to date At baseline, we assessed habitual dietary intake, conducted physical examinations (measuring, eg, anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, advanced glycation end product accumulation, cognitive performance), collected blood and 24-hour urine and administered a variety of validated demographic, health and lifestyle questionnaires. Participants had a mean BMI of 26.0±4.2 kg/m2, were mostly highly educated (63%), married or having a registered partnership (72%) and having a paid job (72%). Estimated daily energy and macronutrient intakes (mean±SD) were 8581±2531 kJ, 15±2energy (en%) of protein, 43±6 en% of carbohydrates, 36±5 en% of fat and 11±13 g of alcohol. Mean systolic blood pressure was 126±15 mm Hg, total cholesterol 5.3±1.1 mmol/L and haemoglobin A1c 36±5 mmol/mol. A total of 24% of the participants reported to be diagnosed with hypertension, 18% with hypercholesterolaemia and 4% with diabetes mellitus. All measurements were repeated after 1 and 2 years of follow-up.
We endeavour to continue measurements on the long-term. Moreover, dietary assessment methods used in the NQplus study will be extensively validated, that is, Food Frequency Questionnaires, 24-hour recalls and urinary and blood biomarkers of exposure. As such, the NQplus study will provide a unique opportunity to study many cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between diet and cardiometabolic health outcomes using the best dietary assessment methods available so far.
|Ons dagelijks (afval)water
Temmink, B.G. - \ 2018
In: Afvalwater / van Loosdrecht, Mark, Stams, Alfons, Hoekstra, Wiel, van de Graaf, Astrid, Den Haag : Stichting BWM - ISBN 9789073196902 - p. 23 - 28.