Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Architecture of DNA elements mediating ARF transcription factor binding and auxin-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis
    Freire-Rios, Alejandra ; Tanaka, Keita ; Crespo, Isidro ; Wijk, Elmar Van der; Sizentsova, Yana ; Levitsky, Victor ; Lindhoud, Simon ; Fontana, Mattia ; Hohlbein, Johannes ; Boer, D.R. ; Mironova, Victoria ; Weijers, Dolf - \ 2020
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (2020)39. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 24557 - 24566.
    ARF transcription factors - Auxin - Plant biology - Protein-DNA interaction - Transcriptional regulation

    The hormone auxin controls many aspects of the plant life cycle by regulating the expression of thousands of genes. The transcriptional output of the nuclear auxin signaling pathway is determined by the activity of AUXIN RESPONSE transcription FACTORs (ARFs), through their binding to cis-regulatory elements in auxinresponsive genes. Crystal structures, in vitro, and heterologous studies have fueled a model in which ARF dimers bind with high affinity to distinctly spaced repeats of canonical AuxRE motifs. However, the relevance of this "caliper" model, and the mechanisms underlying the binding affinities in vivo, have remained elusive. Here we biochemically and functionally interrogate modes of ARF-DNA interaction. We show that a single additional hydrogen bond in Arabidopsis ARF1 confers high-affinity binding to individual DNA sites. We demonstrate the importance of AuxRE cooperativity within repeats in the Arabidopsis TMO5 and IAA11 promoters in vivo. Meta-analysis of transcriptomes further reveals strong genome-wide association of auxin response with both inverted (IR) and direct (DR) AuxRE repeats, which we experimentally validated. The association of these elements with auxininduced up-regulation (DR and IR) or down-regulation (IR) was correlated with differential binding affinities of A-class and B-class ARFs, respectively, suggesting a mechanistic basis for the distinct activity of these repeats. Our results support the relevance of highaffinity binding of ARF transcription factors to uniquely spaced DNA elements in vivo, and suggest that differential binding affinities of ARF subfamilies underlie diversity in cis-element function.

    Understanding variation in food oral processing behaviorof consumers differing in age, gender and ethnicity : a physiological perspective
    Ketel, Eva - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. Stieger; K. de Graaf, co-promotor(en): R. de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463954952 - 183
    Food security in rural Burkina Faso: The importance of consumption of own-farm sourced food versus purchased food
    Fraval, Simon ; Yameogo, Viviane ; Ayantunde, Augustine ; Hammond, James ; Boer, Imke J.M. De; Oosting, Simon J. ; Wijk, Mark T. Van - \ 2020
    Agriculture & Food Security 9 (2020)1. - ISSN 2048-7010
    Market-orientated agriculture - Nutrition-sensitive interventions - Resilient systems

    Background: The number of undernourished people and the risk of micro-nutrient deficiency remain high in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Decades of policy designed to reverse the trends of food insecurity have illustrated that the causal pathways of intervention to end-point outcomes, such as nutrition, are not necessarily straightforward. Utilising proxies for dimensions of food security, this study investigates the relative importance of different pathways to food security in two subtly contrasting communities in the Sahelian and Sudanian Savanna zones of Burkina Faso. Results: In Yatenga province, approximately 31% of households were classified as 'severely food insecure' in the 'lean' period. In contrast, over 84% of households sampled in Seno province were classified as being 'severely food insecure' in the 'lean' period. There were statistically significant associations between food security indicators and off-farm income, farm income and production diversity. The source of income had significantly different associations with diet diversity in the two provinces. In Yatenga province, higher gross farm income in the absence of off-farm income was predicted to result in more diverse diets; in Seno province, however, gross farm income was only predicted to result in more diverse diets when households are also earning off-farm income. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that households were most differentiated by income generating pathways to food security in the 'lean' period. This finding should not detract from the essential role played by home-produced foods in improving food security. Rather, market-orientated agriculture and production for home consumption, as shown by households in this study, can be combined as part of a more resilient livelihood strategy. Policy needs to be targeted towards agro-ecological conditions, as well as socioeconomic factors in order to facilitate improved on-farm income, farm resilience and off-farm employment opportunities.

    Verkenning van de zelf voedselproducerende consument in Almere | Flevo Campus Livecast
    Jansma, Jan-Eelco - \ 2020
    Jan-Eelco Jansma heeft onderzoek gedaan naar inwoners van Almere die ook zelf voedsel produceren: de prosument. De kern van prosumptie is dat consumenten (een deel van) de verantwoordelijkheid gaan overnemen. Stadslandbouw is een van de speerpunten in de nieuwe wijk Oosterwold in Almere; Jan-Albert Blaauw is bezig met een concept om de productie van Oosterwold te vermarkten. Moderatie door Joris Lohman.
    Communicatie van statistische informatie over onzekerheid bij de beheersing van risico’s van wateroverlast
    Poortvliet, P.M. ; Knotters, M. ; Verstoep, Joël ; Wijk, Jiska van; Bergsma, Petra - \ 2020
    Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 26 (2020)2. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 1 - 16.
    Onzekerheidsanalyse is niet vanzelfsprekend bij de onderbouwing van beslissingen in het strategisch kwantitatief waterbeheer. Toch is informatie over onzekerheid nuttig, omdat inzicht in risico’s en daaraan gerelateerde kosten en baten bijdraagt aan de doelmatigheid van beslissingen. We onderzochten daarom de rol van statistische informatie over onzekerheid bij strategische beslissingen van waterschappen bij het beheersen van risico’s van wateroverlast: hoe wordt deze informatie gepresenteerd, geïnterpreteerd en benut, en ook of de communicatie over statistisch gekwantificeerde onzekerheid kan worden verbeterd.
    Zorg-sportinitiatieven in de wijk. Wonen en leven in een gezonde wijk. Projectencatalogus Gezonde Wijk
    Mulderij, L.S. ; Verkooijen, K.T. ; Wagemakers, A. - \ 2020
    Integrale lokale zorg-sportinitiatieven onder de loep: wat is de impact op deelnemers? Wat zijn de werkzame elementen in praktijk en beleid? En hoe wordt een initiatief ook organisatorisch en financieel een succes?
    Modelling food security : Bridging the gap between the micro and the macro scale
    Müller, Birgit ; Hoffmann, Falk ; Heckelei, Thomas ; Müller, Christoph ; Hertel, Thomas W. ; Polhill, J.G. ; Wijk, Mark van; Achterbosch, Thom ; Alexander, Peter ; Brown, Calum ; Kreuer, David ; Ewert, Frank ; Ge, Jiaqi ; Millington, James D.A. ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Webber, Heidi - \ 2020
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 63 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Agent-based models - Crop models - Economic equilibrium models - Food security - Land use - Model integration - Multi-scale interactions - Social-ecological feedbacks

    Achieving food and nutrition security for all in a changing and globalized world remains a critical challenge of utmost importance. The development of solutions benefits from insights derived from modelling and simulating the complex interactions of the agri-food system, which range from global to household scales and transcend disciplinary boundaries. A wide range of models based on various methodologies (from food trade equilibrium to agent-based) seek to integrate direct and indirect drivers of change in land use, environment and socio-economic conditions at different scales. However, modelling such interaction poses fundamental challenges, especially for representing non-linear dynamics and adaptive behaviours. We identify key pieces of the fragmented landscape of food security modelling, and organize achievements and gaps into different contextual domains of food security (production, trade, and consumption) at different spatial scales. Building on in-depth reflection on three core issues of food security – volatility, technology, and transformation – we identify methodological challenges and promising strategies for advancement. We emphasize particular requirements related to the multifaceted and multiscale nature of food security. They include the explicit representation of transient dynamics to allow for path dependency and irreversible consequences, and of household heterogeneity to incorporate inequality issues. To illustrate ways forward we provide good practice examples using meta-modelling techniques, non-equilibrium approaches and behavioural-based modelling endeavours. We argue that further integration of different model types is required to better account for both multi-level agency and cross-scale feedbacks within the food system.

    De hittebestendige stad : Een koele kijk op de inrichting van de buitenruimte
    Kluck, Jeroen ; Klok, Lisette ; Solcerová, Anna ; Kleerekoper, Laura ; Wilschut, Liesbeth ; Jacobs, Cor ; Loeve, Ronald ; Daniels, E.E. ; Dankers, Rutger - \ 2020
    Amsterdam : Hogeschool van Amsterdam - ISBN 9789492644800 - 128
    openbare ruimte - klimaatadaptatie - warmte - zorg - groene infrastructuur - public space - climate adaptation - heat - care - green infrastructure
    Het klimaat verandert. Het wordt natter en heter. Nederland moet zich aanpassen aan het veranderende klimaat. Daarom staan de gemeenten voor de uitdaging om er vanaf 2020 voor te zorgen dat een (her)inrichting van een straat of wijk klimaatbestendig is. Voor wateroverlast en waterveiligheid weten we ongeveer hoe dat moet. Voor hitte is eigenlijk nog niet duidelijk wat er moet gebeuren. En dat is zorgelijk, want hitte kan grote problemen geven. Hitte kan leiden tot extra sterfte en zal het leven in de stad bovendien steeds vaker onaangenaam maken. Duidelijk is dat er aandacht nodig is op het sociale vlak (o.a. in de zorg), voor gebouwen (koele binnenruimtes) en voor de buitenruimte. Dit rapport richt zich op dat laatste: op het hittebestendig inrichten van de buitenruimte, omdat daar nog veel kennis ontbreekt.
    Towards actionable farm typologies : Scaling adoption of agricultural inputs in Rwanda
    Hammond, Jim ; Rosenblum, Nathaniel ; Breseman, Dana ; Gorman, Léo ; Manners, Rhys ; Wijk, Mark T. van; Sibomana, Milindi ; Remans, Roseline ; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Schut, Marc - \ 2020
    Agricultural Systems 183 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Adoption of agricultural innovations - Intensification - Rural development - Scaling - Smallholders - Typologies

    Rollout of development interventions using a one-size-fits-all model can achieve economies of scale but neglects to account for variability in farm and farmer characteristics. A data-driven approach to incorporate farmer diversity in scaling strategies may help to achieve greater development impact. However, interpreting the multiplicity of smallholder characteristics is complex, time-consuming, and the ways in which the insights gained can be implemented is poorly understood. Navigating these tensions, we present a farm typology study carried out in collaboration with a large development organisation (the “scaling partner”) promoting agricultural inputs in Rwanda. This study was conducted late in the scaling pathway, in order to finesse the scaling strategy, rather than to target intervention selection. Drawing on nearly 3000 interviews from 17 districts of the Western, Southern, and Eastern Provinces of Rwanda, the typology differentiates households along two axes: 1. prosperity (a cornerstone of conventional typologies), and 2. adoption of inputs (fertilisers and improved crop varieties). We used an efficient household survey tool, a minimum-variable approach, and concepts from the study of adoption of agricultural innovations. Through an action-research collaboration with the scaling organisation we adapted the methods and the findings to be “actionable. Approximately two-thirds of the study population were using fertilisers and improved seed to some extent. Along each prosperity stratum, however, there were multiple degrees of adoption, demonstrating the value of including adoption information in typology constructions. Ten farm types were identified, where the key differences along the prosperity axis were land area cultivated and livestock owned, and the key differences along the adoption axis were perceptions of input efficacy, access to training, and education level. We also present a simple decision tree model to assign new households to a farm type. The findings were used in three ways by the scaling organisation: (i) characterisation of the population into discrete groups; (ii) prioritisation, of farm types for engagement, and geographical locations for further investment; and (iii) design of decision support tools or re-design of packages to support technology adoption for specific farm types. The need for field-level validation of the typologies was also stressed by the scaling organisation.

    Does the face show what the mind tells? A comparison between dynamic emotions obtained from facial expressions and Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE)
    Bommel, Roelien van; Stieger, Markus ; Visalli, Michel ; Wijk, Rene de; Jager, Gerry - \ 2020
    Food Quality and Preference 85 (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
    Explicit measures - FaceReader™ (FR) - Facial expressions - Implicit measures - Multiple bite assessment - Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE)

    Measuring food-evoked emotions dynamically during consumption can be done using explicit self-report methods such as Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE), and implicit methods such as recording facial expressions. It is not known whether or how dynamic explicit and implicit emotion measures correspond. This study investigated how explicit self-reported food-evoked emotions evaluated with TDE are related to implicit food-evoked emotions determined from facial expressions. Fifty-six participants evaluated six yogurts with granola pieces varying in size, hardness and concentration, using multiple bite assessment employing TDE for the first, third and fifth bite of consumption. Consumers were video recorded during each bite of consumption and facial expressions were analysed using FaceReader™. Happy, interested, disgusted and bored were similar descriptors measured explicitly and implicitly. Little overlap was observed regarding the type of emotion characterization by FaceReader™ and TDE. Products were mainly discriminated along the valence dimension (positive – negative), and directly reflected product discrimination in terms of liking. FaceReader™ further differentiated the least liked products from each other on arousal and negative facial expressions. Our results indicated little dynamics in food-evoked emotions within and between bites. Facial expressions seemed more dynamic within bites, while explicit food-evoked emotion responses seemed more dynamic between bites. We conclude that FaceReader™ intensities of emotions and dominance durations observed in TDE are not directly comparable and show little overlap. Moreover, food-evoked emotion responses were fairly stable from first to last bite and only very limited changes were observed using implicit and explicit emotions measures.

    Consumer preferences for different formats of personalised nutrition and health services
    Bouwman, Emily ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Hogenelst, Koen ; Reinders, M.J. ; Taufik, D. ; Wijk, R.A. de - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research - 60 p.
    Concordance of SNP-and allele-based typing workflows in the context of a large-scale international Salmonella enteritidis outbreak investigation
    Coipan, Claudia E. ; Dallman, Timothy J. ; Brown, Derek ; Hartman, Hassan ; Voort, Menno van der; Berg, Redmar R. van den; Palm, Daniel ; Kotila, Saara ; Wijk, Tom van; Franz, Eelco - \ 2020
    Microbial Genomics 6 (2020)3. - ISSN 2057-5858
    Epidemiology - Hierarchical clustering - Infectious disease - Surveillance - Unsupervised machine learning - Whole-genome sequencing

    A large European multi-country Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis outbreak associated with Polish eggs was character-ized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based analysis, with various European institutes using different analysis workflows to identify isolates potentially related to the outbreak. The objective of our study was to compare the output of six of these different typing workflows (distance matrices of either SNP-based or allele-based workflows) in terms of cluster detection and concordance. To this end, we analysed a set of 180 isolates coming from confirmed and probable outbreak cases, which were representative of the genetic variation within the outbreak, supplemented with 22 unrelated contemporaneous S. enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates. Since the definition of a cluster cut-off based on genetic distance requires prior knowledge on the evolutionary processes that govern the bacterial populations in question, we used a variety of hierarchical clustering methods (single, average and complete) and selected the optimal number of clusters based on the consensus of the silhouette, Dunn2, and McClain–Rao internal validation indices. External validation was done by calculating the concordance with the WGS-based case definition (SNP-address) for this outbreak using the Fowlkes–Mallows index. Our analysis indicates that with complete-linkage hierarchical clustering combined with the optimal number of clusters, as defined by three internal validity indices, the six different allele-and SNP-based typing workflows generate clusters with similar compositions. Furthermore, we show that even in the absence of coordinated typing procedures, but by using an unsupervised machine learning methodology for cluster delineation, the various workflows that are currently in use by six European public-health authorities can identify concordant clusters of genetically related S. enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates; thus, providing public-health researchers with compara-ble tools for detection of infectious-disease outbreaks.

    Implementing immersive technologies in consumer testing : Liking and Just-About-Right ratings in a laboratory, immersive simulated café and real café
    Zandstra, E.H. ; Kaneko, D. ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Vennik, E. ; Wijk, R.A. De - \ 2020
    Food Quality and Preference 84 (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
    Context - Engagement - Immersive technology - Just-About-Right ratings - Liking

    Initial research indicates that the use of immersive technologies may improve the predictive validity and reliability of liking scores in consumer testing. However, how immersive technologies impact Just-About-Right ratings is hardly known. Forty-five participants took part in three tasting sessions, each in a different context: 1) laboratory, 2) immersive context simulating a café using audiovisual cues, and 3) real café. Each session, participants tasted four tomato soups varying in salt content preceded by a warm-up sample. Liking, optimal levels of sensory attributes (JAR) and engagement were measured. Results showed that there were no differences in liking or JAR ratings on sensory attributes of the soups across the three contexts. Nevertheless, participants felt more engaged in the real café and simulated café than in the laboratory. These results contribute to a better understanding of how sensory differences as assessed in a laboratory or immersive context relate to sensory differences that consumers would notice when they use the products in real-life.

    IgE cross-reactivity measurement of cashew nut, hazelnut and peanut using a novel IMMULITE inhibition method
    Bastiaan-Net, Shanna ; Batstra, Manou R. ; Aazamy, Nasrin ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Valk, Johanna P.M. Van Der; Gerth Van Wijk, Roy ; Schreurs, Marco W.J. ; Wichers, Harry J. ; Jong, Nicolette W. De - \ 2020
    Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (2020). - ISSN 1434-6621
    allergy diagnostics - cashew nut - hazelnut - IgE cross-reactivity - IMMULITE technology - peanut

    Tree nut-allergic individuals are often sensitised towards multiple nuts and seeds. The underlying cause behind a multi-sensitisation for cashew nut, hazelnut, peanut and birch pollen is not always clear. We investigated whether immunoglobulin E antibody (IgE) cross-reactivity between cashew nut, hazelnut and peanut proteins exists in children who are multi-allergic to these foods using a novel IMMULITE®-based inhibition methodology, and investigated which allergens might be responsible. In addition, we explored if an allergy to birch pollen might play a role in this co-sensitisation for cashew nut, hazelnut and peanut. Serum of five children with a confirmed cashew nut allergy and suffering from allergic symptoms after eating peanut and hazelnut were subjected to inhibition immunoassays using the IMMULITE® 2000 XPi. Serum-specific IgE (sIgE) to seed storage allergens and pathogenesis-related protein 10 (PR10) allergens were determined and used for molecular multicomponent allergen correlation analyses with observed clinical symptoms and obtained inhibition data. IgE cross-reactivity was observed in all patients. Hazelnut extract was a strong inhibitor of cashew nut sIgE (46.8%), while cashew nut extract was less able to inhibit hazelnut extract (22.8%). Peanut extract showed the least inhibition potency. Moreover, there are strong indications that a birch pollen sensitisation to Bet v 1 might play a role in the observed symptoms provoked upon ingestion of cashew nut and hazelnut. By applying an adjusted working protocol, the IMMULITE® technology can be used to perform inhibition assays to determine the risk of sIgE cross-reactivity between very different food components.

    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey, data from 13,310 farm households in 21 countries
    Wijk, Mark van; Hammond, James ; Gorman, Leo ; Adams, Sam ; Ayantunde, Augustine ; Baines, David ; Bolliger, Adrian ; Bosire, Caroline ; Carpena, Pietro ; Chesterman, Sabrina ; Chinyophiro, Amon ; Daudi, Happy ; Dontsop, Paul ; Douxchamps, Sabine ; Emera, Willy Desire ; Fraval, Simon ; Fonte, Steven ; Hok, Lyda ; Kiara, Henry ; Kihoro, Esther ; Korir, Luke ; Lamanna, Christine ; Long, Chau T.M. ; Manyawu, Godfrey ; Mehrabi, Zia ; Mengistu, Dejene K. ; Mercado, Leida ; Meza, Katherin ; Mora, Vesalio ; Mutemi, Jacob ; Ng’endo, Mary ; Njingulula, Paulin ; Okafor, Chris ; Pagella, Tim ; Phengsavanh, Phonepaseuth ; Rao, James ; Ritzema, Randall ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Skirrow, Tom ; Steinke, Jonathan ; Stirling, Clare ; Gabriel Suchini, Jose ; Teufel, Nils ; Thorne, Peter ; Vanek, Steven ; Etten, Jacob van; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Wichern, Jannike ; Yameogo, Viviane - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463

    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) is a standardized farm household survey approach which collects information on 758 variables covering household demographics, farm area, crops grown and their production, livestock holdings and their production, agricultural product use and variables underlying standard socio-economic and food security indicators such as the Probability of Poverty Index, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, and household dietary diversity. These variables are used to quantify more than 40 different indicators on farm and household characteristics, welfare, productivity, and economic performance. Between 2015 and the beginning of 2018, the survey instrument was applied in 21 countries in Central America, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The data presented here include the raw survey response data, the indicator calculation code, and the resulting indicator values. These data can be used to quantify on- and off-farm pathways to food security, diverse diets, and changes in poverty for rural smallholder farm households.

    Relating oral physiology and anatomy of consumers varying in age, gender and ethnicity to food oral processing behavior
    Ketel, Eva C. ; Wijk, Rene A. de; Graaf, Cees de; Stieger, Markus - \ 2020
    Physiology and Behavior 215 (2020). - ISSN 0031-9384
    Age - Ethnicity - Gender - Oral anatomy - Oral physiology - Oral processing behavior

    The aim of this study was to link parameters describing oral physiology and anatomy of consumers varying in age, gender and ethnicity to food oral processing behavior. Three groups of healthy consumers were compared: Dutch, Caucasian adults (18–30 yrs, n =32), Chinese, Asian adults (18–30 yrs, n =32) and Dutch, Caucasian older adults (65–85 yrs, n =32). Mastication performance, salivary flow rate (stimulated and unstimulated) and dental status were quantified to characterize oral physiology. Volume of oral cavity, tongue dimensions, facial anthropometry, height and weight were quantified to characterize anatomy. Oral processing behavior of three solid foods (carrot, cheese and sausage) was quantified by video recordings and eating rate (g/s), average consumption time (s), chews per bite (-) and average bite size (g) were determined. Dutch, Caucasian older adults had smaller volume of oral cavity, lower number of teeth and larger head width compared to Dutch, Caucasian adults. Chinese, Asian adults showed significantly higher mastication performance and larger head width compared to Dutch, Caucasian consumers, while dental status did not significantly differ between groups. Males had significantly larger volumes of oral cavity and larger head height and width compared to females. Dutch, Caucasian adults had a shorter average consumption time (s), less chews per bite and consumed the three foods with higher eating rate (g/s) compared to Dutch, Caucasian older adults. Chinese, Asian adults had a significantly longer average consumption time (s), more chews per bite, smaller average bite size (g) and lower eating rate (g/s) compared to Dutch, Caucasian adults. Twenty-one significant relationships were found between oral physiological and anatomical parameters and oral processing behavior. Body weight resulted in the largest β-values, indicating to be the anatomical parameter of largest influence on oral processing behavior. We conclude that only few oral physiological and anatomical parameters related with food oral processing behavior. We suggest that other factors, including cultural factors contribute to variation in food oral processing behavior between different consumer groups more than saliva flow, volume of oral cavity, mastication performance and dental status.

    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) data of 13,310 farm households in 21 countries
    Wijk, Mark van; Hammond, James ; Gorman, Leo ; Adams, Sam ; Ayantunde, Augustine ; Baines, David ; Bolliger, Adrian ; Bosire, Caroline ; Carpena, Pietro ; Chesterman, Sabrina ; Chinyophiro, Amon ; Daudi, Happy ; Dontsop, Paul ; Douxchamps, Sabine ; Emera, Willy Desire ; Fraval, Simon ; Fonte, Steven ; Hok, Lyda ; Kiara, Henry ; Kihoro, Esther ; Korir, Luke ; Lamanna, Christine ; Long, Chau T.M. ; Manyawu, Godfrey ; Mehrabi, Zia ; Mengistu, Dejene K. ; Mercado, Leida ; Meza, Katherin ; Mora, Vesalio ; Mutemi, Jacob ; Ng’endo, Mary ; Njingulula, Paulin ; Okafor, Chris ; Pagella, Tim ; Phengsavanh, Phonepaseuth ; Rao, James ; Ritzema, Randall ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Skirrow, Tom ; Steinke, Jonathan ; Stirling, Clare ; Gabriel Suchini, Jose ; Teufel, Nils ; Thorne, Peter ; Vanek, Steven ; Etten, Jacob van; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Wichern, Jannike ; Yameogo, Viviane - \ 2019
    International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
    household surveys - food security - smallholders - agriculture
    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) is a standardized farm household survey approach which collects information on 753 variables covering household demographics, farm area, crops grown and their production, livestock holdings and their production, agricultural product use and variables underlying standard socio-economic and food security indicators like the Poverty Probability Index, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and dietary diversity. These variables are used to quantify more than 40 different aggregate indicators on farm household characteristics, welfare, productivity and economic performance. Between 2015 and the beginning of 2018, the survey instrument has been applied in 21 countries in Central America, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The data presented here cover the raw data, the indicator calculation code and the resulting indicator values, and can be used to quantify on- and off-farm pathways to food security, diverse diets and reduced poverty of rural smallholder farm households.
    Experiences and Drivers of Food Insecurity in Guatemala's Dry Corridor: Insights From the Integration of Ethnographic and Household Survey Data
    Beveridge, Louise ; Whitfield, Stephen ; Fraval, Simon ; Wijk, Mark van; Etten, Jacob van; Mercado, Leida ; Hammond, James ; Davila Cortez, Luz ; Gabriel Suchini, Jose ; Challinor, Andrew - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2019). - ISSN 2571-581X
    agriculture - Central America - climate - ethnography - food security - household survey - participatory - underlying drivers

    Eradicating hunger is a complex and multifaceted challenge, requiring evidence bases that can inform wide scale action, but that are also participatory and grounded to have local relevance and effectiveness. The Rural Household Multi-Indicator Surveys (RHoMIS) provides a broad assessment of household capabilities and food security outcomes, while ethnographic approaches evidence how individuals' perceptions, experiences and local socio-political context shape food security experiences and intervention outcomes. However, integrating these research approaches presents methodological and ontological challenges. We combine a quantitative approach with life history interviews to understand the drivers, experiences and outcomes of food insecurity in Guatemala's dry corridor region. We also reflect on the effectiveness and challenges of integrating the two methods for purposes of selective sampling, triangulating evidence, and producing a cohesive analyses of food insecurity in the region. Variables with a statistically significant association with severe food insecurity in the region are: coffee cultivation (when market participation is low), dependence on agricultural labor income, and poverty level. Drivers of food insecurity experiences most commonly identified by participants are: consecutive drought; ill health and displacement of income for medicine; social marginalization; high start-up costs in production; absence or separation of a household head; and a lack of income and education opportunity. Ethnographic approaches identify a broader range of drivers contributing to food insecurity experiences, and add explanatory power to a statistical model of severe food insecurity. This integrated analysis provides a holistic picture of food insecurity in Guatemala's dry corridor region.

    Food Access Deficiencies in Sub-saharan Africa: Prevalence and Implications for Agricultural Interventions
    Fraval, Simon ; Hammond, James ; Bogard, Jessica R. ; Ng'endo, Mary ; Etten, Jacob van; Herrero, Mario ; Oosting, Simon J. ; Boer, Imke J.M. de; Lannerstad, Mats ; Teufel, Nils ; Lamanna, Christine ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Pagella, Tim ; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Dontsop-Nguezet, Paul M. ; Baines, David ; Carpena, Pietro ; Njingulula, Paulin ; Okafor, Christopher ; Wichern, Jannike ; Ayantunde, Augustine ; Bosire, Caroline ; Chesterman, Sabrina ; Kihoro, Esther ; Rao, Elizaphan J.O. ; Skirrow, Tom ; Steinke, Jonathan ; Stirling, Clare M. ; Yameogo, Viviane ; Wijk, Mark T. van - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2019). - ISSN 2571-581X
    Bayesian - crops - diet diversity - farm systems - livestock - nutrition-sensitive - rural development

    Our understanding of food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been hampered by limitations in the temporal and spatial representativeness of data. Food balance sheets provide scalable estimates of per capita food availability, but fail to represent food access, stability and their causal linkages. In contrast, rural household surveys represent detailed conditions for one or multiple points in time, but are influenced by survey timing and are often limited in geographical coverage. This study draws on a large sample of rural land-holding households in SSA (n = 6,353) to identify household level food access deficiencies and to understand the associations with rural livelihoods and food sourcing behavior throughout the year. Food access deficiencies were identified using food security of access and diet diversity indicators. Dietary diversity and channel of access (farm or purchased) were enumerated for the “flush” and “lean” periods and food security of access was enumerated for the lean period only - making the results of this study independent of survey timing. As many as 39% of households were classified as severely food insecure (in terms of food access) and as many as 49% of households were likely to be deficient in micronutrients in the lean period. Vulnerability to food insecurity and micronutrient deficiencies differed by household composition, agricultural livelihood characteristics and agro-ecological zone. Dairy, fruit and vitamin A-rich produce were predominantly accessed through the farm channel. Households with a livestock component to their farm had a lower prevalence of severe food insecurity and higher diet diversity scores. These findings have implications for the development of nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific interventions. Interventions need to be tailored to agro-ecological zone, household composition, scale of operation and production mix. Increasing income will not necessarily result in improved diet diversity or healthy dietary choices. Interventions focused on income generation should monitor and promote crop and livestock production diversity and provide nutrition education.

    Implementing immersive technologies in consumer testing: Taste perception and liking in a laboratory, immersive simulated café and real café
    Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Kaneko, D. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Zoggel, M. van; Schiona, Irene ; Zandstra, E.H. - \ 2019
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