Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Understanding variation in food oral processing behaviorof consumers differing in age, gender and ethnicity : a physiological perspective
    Ketel, Eva - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. Stieger; K. de Graaf, co-promotor(en): R. de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463954952 - 183
    Food security in rural Burkina Faso: The importance of consumption of own-farm sourced food versus purchased food
    Fraval, Simon ; Yameogo, Viviane ; Ayantunde, Augustine ; Hammond, James ; Boer, Imke J.M. De; Oosting, Simon J. ; Wijk, Mark T. Van - \ 2020
    Agriculture & Food Security 9 (2020)1. - ISSN 2048-7010
    Market-orientated agriculture - Nutrition-sensitive interventions - Resilient systems

    Background: The number of undernourished people and the risk of micro-nutrient deficiency remain high in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Decades of policy designed to reverse the trends of food insecurity have illustrated that the causal pathways of intervention to end-point outcomes, such as nutrition, are not necessarily straightforward. Utilising proxies for dimensions of food security, this study investigates the relative importance of different pathways to food security in two subtly contrasting communities in the Sahelian and Sudanian Savanna zones of Burkina Faso. Results: In Yatenga province, approximately 31% of households were classified as 'severely food insecure' in the 'lean' period. In contrast, over 84% of households sampled in Seno province were classified as being 'severely food insecure' in the 'lean' period. There were statistically significant associations between food security indicators and off-farm income, farm income and production diversity. The source of income had significantly different associations with diet diversity in the two provinces. In Yatenga province, higher gross farm income in the absence of off-farm income was predicted to result in more diverse diets; in Seno province, however, gross farm income was only predicted to result in more diverse diets when households are also earning off-farm income. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that households were most differentiated by income generating pathways to food security in the 'lean' period. This finding should not detract from the essential role played by home-produced foods in improving food security. Rather, market-orientated agriculture and production for home consumption, as shown by households in this study, can be combined as part of a more resilient livelihood strategy. Policy needs to be targeted towards agro-ecological conditions, as well as socioeconomic factors in order to facilitate improved on-farm income, farm resilience and off-farm employment opportunities.

    Verkenning van de zelf voedselproducerende consument in Almere | Flevo Campus Livecast
    Jansma, Jan-Eelco - \ 2020
    Jan-Eelco Jansma heeft onderzoek gedaan naar inwoners van Almere die ook zelf voedsel produceren: de prosument. De kern van prosumptie is dat consumenten (een deel van) de verantwoordelijkheid gaan overnemen. Stadslandbouw is een van de speerpunten in de nieuwe wijk Oosterwold in Almere; Jan-Albert Blaauw is bezig met een concept om de productie van Oosterwold te vermarkten. Moderatie door Joris Lohman.
    Communicatie van statistische informatie over onzekerheid bij de beheersing van risico’s van wateroverlast
    Poortvliet, P.M. ; Knotters, M. ; Verstoep, Joël ; Wijk, Jiska van; Bergsma, Petra - \ 2020
    Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 26 (2020)2. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 1 - 16.
    Onzekerheidsanalyse is niet vanzelfsprekend bij de onderbouwing van beslissingen in het strategisch kwantitatief waterbeheer. Toch is informatie over onzekerheid nuttig, omdat inzicht in risico’s en daaraan gerelateerde kosten en baten bijdraagt aan de doelmatigheid van beslissingen. We onderzochten daarom de rol van statistische informatie over onzekerheid bij strategische beslissingen van waterschappen bij het beheersen van risico’s van wateroverlast: hoe wordt deze informatie gepresenteerd, geïnterpreteerd en benut, en ook of de communicatie over statistisch gekwantificeerde onzekerheid kan worden verbeterd.
    Zorg-sportinitiatieven in de wijk. Wonen en leven in een gezonde wijk. Projectencatalogus Gezonde Wijk
    Mulderij, L.S. ; Verkooijen, K.T. ; Wagemakers, A. - \ 2020
    ZonMw
    Integrale lokale zorg-sportinitiatieven onder de loep: wat is de impact op deelnemers? Wat zijn de werkzame elementen in praktijk en beleid? En hoe wordt een initiatief ook organisatorisch en financieel een succes?
    Modelling food security : Bridging the gap between the micro and the macro scale
    Müller, Birgit ; Hoffmann, Falk ; Heckelei, Thomas ; Müller, Christoph ; Hertel, Thomas W. ; Polhill, J.G. ; Wijk, Mark van; Achterbosch, Thom ; Alexander, Peter ; Brown, Calum ; Kreuer, David ; Ewert, Frank ; Ge, Jiaqi ; Millington, James D.A. ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Webber, Heidi - \ 2020
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 63 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Agent-based models - Crop models - Economic equilibrium models - Food security - Land use - Model integration - Multi-scale interactions - Social-ecological feedbacks

    Achieving food and nutrition security for all in a changing and globalized world remains a critical challenge of utmost importance. The development of solutions benefits from insights derived from modelling and simulating the complex interactions of the agri-food system, which range from global to household scales and transcend disciplinary boundaries. A wide range of models based on various methodologies (from food trade equilibrium to agent-based) seek to integrate direct and indirect drivers of change in land use, environment and socio-economic conditions at different scales. However, modelling such interaction poses fundamental challenges, especially for representing non-linear dynamics and adaptive behaviours. We identify key pieces of the fragmented landscape of food security modelling, and organize achievements and gaps into different contextual domains of food security (production, trade, and consumption) at different spatial scales. Building on in-depth reflection on three core issues of food security – volatility, technology, and transformation – we identify methodological challenges and promising strategies for advancement. We emphasize particular requirements related to the multifaceted and multiscale nature of food security. They include the explicit representation of transient dynamics to allow for path dependency and irreversible consequences, and of household heterogeneity to incorporate inequality issues. To illustrate ways forward we provide good practice examples using meta-modelling techniques, non-equilibrium approaches and behavioural-based modelling endeavours. We argue that further integration of different model types is required to better account for both multi-level agency and cross-scale feedbacks within the food system.

    De hittebestendige stad : Een koele kijk op de inrichting van de buitenruimte
    Kluck, Jeroen ; Klok, Lisette ; Solcerová, Anna ; Kleerekoper, Laura ; Wilschut, Liesbeth ; Jacobs, Cor ; Loeve, Ronald ; Daniels, E.E. ; Dankers, Rutger - \ 2020
    Amsterdam : Hogeschool van Amsterdam - ISBN 9789492644800 - 128
    openbare ruimte - klimaatadaptatie - warmte - zorg - groene infrastructuur - public space - climate adaptation - heat - care - green infrastructure
    Het klimaat verandert. Het wordt natter en heter. Nederland moet zich aanpassen aan het veranderende klimaat. Daarom staan de gemeenten voor de uitdaging om er vanaf 2020 voor te zorgen dat een (her)inrichting van een straat of wijk klimaatbestendig is. Voor wateroverlast en waterveiligheid weten we ongeveer hoe dat moet. Voor hitte is eigenlijk nog niet duidelijk wat er moet gebeuren. En dat is zorgelijk, want hitte kan grote problemen geven. Hitte kan leiden tot extra sterfte en zal het leven in de stad bovendien steeds vaker onaangenaam maken. Duidelijk is dat er aandacht nodig is op het sociale vlak (o.a. in de zorg), voor gebouwen (koele binnenruimtes) en voor de buitenruimte. Dit rapport richt zich op dat laatste: op het hittebestendig inrichten van de buitenruimte, omdat daar nog veel kennis ontbreekt.
    Towards actionable farm typologies : Scaling adoption of agricultural inputs in Rwanda
    Hammond, Jim ; Rosenblum, Nathaniel ; Breseman, Dana ; Gorman, Léo ; Manners, Rhys ; Wijk, Mark T. van; Sibomana, Milindi ; Remans, Roseline ; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Schut, Marc - \ 2020
    Agricultural Systems 183 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Adoption of agricultural innovations - Intensification - Rural development - Scaling - Smallholders - Typologies

    Rollout of development interventions using a one-size-fits-all model can achieve economies of scale but neglects to account for variability in farm and farmer characteristics. A data-driven approach to incorporate farmer diversity in scaling strategies may help to achieve greater development impact. However, interpreting the multiplicity of smallholder characteristics is complex, time-consuming, and the ways in which the insights gained can be implemented is poorly understood. Navigating these tensions, we present a farm typology study carried out in collaboration with a large development organisation (the “scaling partner”) promoting agricultural inputs in Rwanda. This study was conducted late in the scaling pathway, in order to finesse the scaling strategy, rather than to target intervention selection. Drawing on nearly 3000 interviews from 17 districts of the Western, Southern, and Eastern Provinces of Rwanda, the typology differentiates households along two axes: 1. prosperity (a cornerstone of conventional typologies), and 2. adoption of inputs (fertilisers and improved crop varieties). We used an efficient household survey tool, a minimum-variable approach, and concepts from the study of adoption of agricultural innovations. Through an action-research collaboration with the scaling organisation we adapted the methods and the findings to be “actionable. Approximately two-thirds of the study population were using fertilisers and improved seed to some extent. Along each prosperity stratum, however, there were multiple degrees of adoption, demonstrating the value of including adoption information in typology constructions. Ten farm types were identified, where the key differences along the prosperity axis were land area cultivated and livestock owned, and the key differences along the adoption axis were perceptions of input efficacy, access to training, and education level. We also present a simple decision tree model to assign new households to a farm type. The findings were used in three ways by the scaling organisation: (i) characterisation of the population into discrete groups; (ii) prioritisation, of farm types for engagement, and geographical locations for further investment; and (iii) design of decision support tools or re-design of packages to support technology adoption for specific farm types. The need for field-level validation of the typologies was also stressed by the scaling organisation.

    Does the face show what the mind tells? A comparison between dynamic emotions obtained from facial expressions and Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE)
    Bommel, Roelien van; Stieger, Markus ; Visalli, Michel ; Wijk, Rene de; Jager, Gerry - \ 2020
    Food Quality and Preference 85 (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
    Explicit measures - FaceReader™ (FR) - Facial expressions - Implicit measures - Multiple bite assessment - Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE)

    Measuring food-evoked emotions dynamically during consumption can be done using explicit self-report methods such as Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE), and implicit methods such as recording facial expressions. It is not known whether or how dynamic explicit and implicit emotion measures correspond. This study investigated how explicit self-reported food-evoked emotions evaluated with TDE are related to implicit food-evoked emotions determined from facial expressions. Fifty-six participants evaluated six yogurts with granola pieces varying in size, hardness and concentration, using multiple bite assessment employing TDE for the first, third and fifth bite of consumption. Consumers were video recorded during each bite of consumption and facial expressions were analysed using FaceReader™. Happy, interested, disgusted and bored were similar descriptors measured explicitly and implicitly. Little overlap was observed regarding the type of emotion characterization by FaceReader™ and TDE. Products were mainly discriminated along the valence dimension (positive – negative), and directly reflected product discrimination in terms of liking. FaceReader™ further differentiated the least liked products from each other on arousal and negative facial expressions. Our results indicated little dynamics in food-evoked emotions within and between bites. Facial expressions seemed more dynamic within bites, while explicit food-evoked emotion responses seemed more dynamic between bites. We conclude that FaceReader™ intensities of emotions and dominance durations observed in TDE are not directly comparable and show little overlap. Moreover, food-evoked emotion responses were fairly stable from first to last bite and only very limited changes were observed using implicit and explicit emotions measures.

    Consumer preferences for different formats of personalised nutrition and health services
    Bouwman, Emily ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Hogenelst, Koen ; Reinders, M.J. ; Taufik, D. ; Wijk, R.A. de - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research - 60 p.
    Concordance of SNP-and allele-based typing workflows in the context of a large-scale international Salmonella enteritidis outbreak investigation
    Coipan, Claudia E. ; Dallman, Timothy J. ; Brown, Derek ; Hartman, Hassan ; Voort, Menno van der; Berg, Redmar R. van den; Palm, Daniel ; Kotila, Saara ; Wijk, Tom van; Franz, Eelco - \ 2020
    Microbial Genomics 6 (2020)3. - ISSN 2057-5858
    Epidemiology - Hierarchical clustering - Infectious disease - Surveillance - Unsupervised machine learning - Whole-genome sequencing

    A large European multi-country Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis outbreak associated with Polish eggs was character-ized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based analysis, with various European institutes using different analysis workflows to identify isolates potentially related to the outbreak. The objective of our study was to compare the output of six of these different typing workflows (distance matrices of either SNP-based or allele-based workflows) in terms of cluster detection and concordance. To this end, we analysed a set of 180 isolates coming from confirmed and probable outbreak cases, which were representative of the genetic variation within the outbreak, supplemented with 22 unrelated contemporaneous S. enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates. Since the definition of a cluster cut-off based on genetic distance requires prior knowledge on the evolutionary processes that govern the bacterial populations in question, we used a variety of hierarchical clustering methods (single, average and complete) and selected the optimal number of clusters based on the consensus of the silhouette, Dunn2, and McClain–Rao internal validation indices. External validation was done by calculating the concordance with the WGS-based case definition (SNP-address) for this outbreak using the Fowlkes–Mallows index. Our analysis indicates that with complete-linkage hierarchical clustering combined with the optimal number of clusters, as defined by three internal validity indices, the six different allele-and SNP-based typing workflows generate clusters with similar compositions. Furthermore, we show that even in the absence of coordinated typing procedures, but by using an unsupervised machine learning methodology for cluster delineation, the various workflows that are currently in use by six European public-health authorities can identify concordant clusters of genetically related S. enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates; thus, providing public-health researchers with compara-ble tools for detection of infectious-disease outbreaks.

    Implementing immersive technologies in consumer testing : Liking and Just-About-Right ratings in a laboratory, immersive simulated café and real café
    Zandstra, E.H. ; Kaneko, D. ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Vennik, E. ; Wijk, R.A. De - \ 2020
    Food Quality and Preference 84 (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
    Context - Engagement - Immersive technology - Just-About-Right ratings - Liking

    Initial research indicates that the use of immersive technologies may improve the predictive validity and reliability of liking scores in consumer testing. However, how immersive technologies impact Just-About-Right ratings is hardly known. Forty-five participants took part in three tasting sessions, each in a different context: 1) laboratory, 2) immersive context simulating a café using audiovisual cues, and 3) real café. Each session, participants tasted four tomato soups varying in salt content preceded by a warm-up sample. Liking, optimal levels of sensory attributes (JAR) and engagement were measured. Results showed that there were no differences in liking or JAR ratings on sensory attributes of the soups across the three contexts. Nevertheless, participants felt more engaged in the real café and simulated café than in the laboratory. These results contribute to a better understanding of how sensory differences as assessed in a laboratory or immersive context relate to sensory differences that consumers would notice when they use the products in real-life.

    IgE cross-reactivity measurement of cashew nut, hazelnut and peanut using a novel IMMULITE inhibition method
    Bastiaan-Net, Shanna ; Batstra, Manou R. ; Aazamy, Nasrin ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Valk, Johanna P.M. Van Der; Gerth Van Wijk, Roy ; Schreurs, Marco W.J. ; Wichers, Harry J. ; Jong, Nicolette W. De - \ 2020
    Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (2020). - ISSN 1434-6621
    allergy diagnostics - cashew nut - hazelnut - IgE cross-reactivity - IMMULITE technology - peanut

    Tree nut-allergic individuals are often sensitised towards multiple nuts and seeds. The underlying cause behind a multi-sensitisation for cashew nut, hazelnut, peanut and birch pollen is not always clear. We investigated whether immunoglobulin E antibody (IgE) cross-reactivity between cashew nut, hazelnut and peanut proteins exists in children who are multi-allergic to these foods using a novel IMMULITE®-based inhibition methodology, and investigated which allergens might be responsible. In addition, we explored if an allergy to birch pollen might play a role in this co-sensitisation for cashew nut, hazelnut and peanut. Serum of five children with a confirmed cashew nut allergy and suffering from allergic symptoms after eating peanut and hazelnut were subjected to inhibition immunoassays using the IMMULITE® 2000 XPi. Serum-specific IgE (sIgE) to seed storage allergens and pathogenesis-related protein 10 (PR10) allergens were determined and used for molecular multicomponent allergen correlation analyses with observed clinical symptoms and obtained inhibition data. IgE cross-reactivity was observed in all patients. Hazelnut extract was a strong inhibitor of cashew nut sIgE (46.8%), while cashew nut extract was less able to inhibit hazelnut extract (22.8%). Peanut extract showed the least inhibition potency. Moreover, there are strong indications that a birch pollen sensitisation to Bet v 1 might play a role in the observed symptoms provoked upon ingestion of cashew nut and hazelnut. By applying an adjusted working protocol, the IMMULITE® technology can be used to perform inhibition assays to determine the risk of sIgE cross-reactivity between very different food components.

    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey, data from 13,310 farm households in 21 countries
    Wijk, Mark van; Hammond, James ; Gorman, Leo ; Adams, Sam ; Ayantunde, Augustine ; Baines, David ; Bolliger, Adrian ; Bosire, Caroline ; Carpena, Pietro ; Chesterman, Sabrina ; Chinyophiro, Amon ; Daudi, Happy ; Dontsop, Paul ; Douxchamps, Sabine ; Emera, Willy Desire ; Fraval, Simon ; Fonte, Steven ; Hok, Lyda ; Kiara, Henry ; Kihoro, Esther ; Korir, Luke ; Lamanna, Christine ; Long, Chau T.M. ; Manyawu, Godfrey ; Mehrabi, Zia ; Mengistu, Dejene K. ; Mercado, Leida ; Meza, Katherin ; Mora, Vesalio ; Mutemi, Jacob ; Ng’endo, Mary ; Njingulula, Paulin ; Okafor, Chris ; Pagella, Tim ; Phengsavanh, Phonepaseuth ; Rao, James ; Ritzema, Randall ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Skirrow, Tom ; Steinke, Jonathan ; Stirling, Clare ; Gabriel Suchini, Jose ; Teufel, Nils ; Thorne, Peter ; Vanek, Steven ; Etten, Jacob van; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Wichern, Jannike ; Yameogo, Viviane - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463

    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) is a standardized farm household survey approach which collects information on 758 variables covering household demographics, farm area, crops grown and their production, livestock holdings and their production, agricultural product use and variables underlying standard socio-economic and food security indicators such as the Probability of Poverty Index, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, and household dietary diversity. These variables are used to quantify more than 40 different indicators on farm and household characteristics, welfare, productivity, and economic performance. Between 2015 and the beginning of 2018, the survey instrument was applied in 21 countries in Central America, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The data presented here include the raw survey response data, the indicator calculation code, and the resulting indicator values. These data can be used to quantify on- and off-farm pathways to food security, diverse diets, and changes in poverty for rural smallholder farm households.

    Relating oral physiology and anatomy of consumers varying in age, gender and ethnicity to food oral processing behavior
    Ketel, Eva C. ; Wijk, Rene A. de; Graaf, Cees de; Stieger, Markus - \ 2020
    Physiology and Behavior 215 (2020). - ISSN 0031-9384
    Age - Ethnicity - Gender - Oral anatomy - Oral physiology - Oral processing behavior

    The aim of this study was to link parameters describing oral physiology and anatomy of consumers varying in age, gender and ethnicity to food oral processing behavior. Three groups of healthy consumers were compared: Dutch, Caucasian adults (18–30 yrs, n =32), Chinese, Asian adults (18–30 yrs, n =32) and Dutch, Caucasian older adults (65–85 yrs, n =32). Mastication performance, salivary flow rate (stimulated and unstimulated) and dental status were quantified to characterize oral physiology. Volume of oral cavity, tongue dimensions, facial anthropometry, height and weight were quantified to characterize anatomy. Oral processing behavior of three solid foods (carrot, cheese and sausage) was quantified by video recordings and eating rate (g/s), average consumption time (s), chews per bite (-) and average bite size (g) were determined. Dutch, Caucasian older adults had smaller volume of oral cavity, lower number of teeth and larger head width compared to Dutch, Caucasian adults. Chinese, Asian adults showed significantly higher mastication performance and larger head width compared to Dutch, Caucasian consumers, while dental status did not significantly differ between groups. Males had significantly larger volumes of oral cavity and larger head height and width compared to females. Dutch, Caucasian adults had a shorter average consumption time (s), less chews per bite and consumed the three foods with higher eating rate (g/s) compared to Dutch, Caucasian older adults. Chinese, Asian adults had a significantly longer average consumption time (s), more chews per bite, smaller average bite size (g) and lower eating rate (g/s) compared to Dutch, Caucasian adults. Twenty-one significant relationships were found between oral physiological and anatomical parameters and oral processing behavior. Body weight resulted in the largest β-values, indicating to be the anatomical parameter of largest influence on oral processing behavior. We conclude that only few oral physiological and anatomical parameters related with food oral processing behavior. We suggest that other factors, including cultural factors contribute to variation in food oral processing behavior between different consumer groups more than saliva flow, volume of oral cavity, mastication performance and dental status.

    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) data of 13,310 farm households in 21 countries
    Wijk, Mark van; Hammond, James ; Gorman, Leo ; Adams, Sam ; Ayantunde, Augustine ; Baines, David ; Bolliger, Adrian ; Bosire, Caroline ; Carpena, Pietro ; Chesterman, Sabrina ; Chinyophiro, Amon ; Daudi, Happy ; Dontsop, Paul ; Douxchamps, Sabine ; Emera, Willy Desire ; Fraval, Simon ; Fonte, Steven ; Hok, Lyda ; Kiara, Henry ; Kihoro, Esther ; Korir, Luke ; Lamanna, Christine ; Long, Chau T.M. ; Manyawu, Godfrey ; Mehrabi, Zia ; Mengistu, Dejene K. ; Mercado, Leida ; Meza, Katherin ; Mora, Vesalio ; Mutemi, Jacob ; Ng’endo, Mary ; Njingulula, Paulin ; Okafor, Chris ; Pagella, Tim ; Phengsavanh, Phonepaseuth ; Rao, James ; Ritzema, Randall ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Skirrow, Tom ; Steinke, Jonathan ; Stirling, Clare ; Gabriel Suchini, Jose ; Teufel, Nils ; Thorne, Peter ; Vanek, Steven ; Etten, Jacob van; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Wichern, Jannike ; Yameogo, Viviane - \ 2019
    International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
    household surveys - food security - smallholders - agriculture
    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) is a standardized farm household survey approach which collects information on 753 variables covering household demographics, farm area, crops grown and their production, livestock holdings and their production, agricultural product use and variables underlying standard socio-economic and food security indicators like the Poverty Probability Index, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and dietary diversity. These variables are used to quantify more than 40 different aggregate indicators on farm household characteristics, welfare, productivity and economic performance. Between 2015 and the beginning of 2018, the survey instrument has been applied in 21 countries in Central America, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The data presented here cover the raw data, the indicator calculation code and the resulting indicator values, and can be used to quantify on- and off-farm pathways to food security, diverse diets and reduced poverty of rural smallholder farm households.
    Experiences and Drivers of Food Insecurity in Guatemala's Dry Corridor: Insights From the Integration of Ethnographic and Household Survey Data
    Beveridge, Louise ; Whitfield, Stephen ; Fraval, Simon ; Wijk, Mark van; Etten, Jacob van; Mercado, Leida ; Hammond, James ; Davila Cortez, Luz ; Gabriel Suchini, Jose ; Challinor, Andrew - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2019). - ISSN 2571-581X
    agriculture - Central America - climate - ethnography - food security - household survey - participatory - underlying drivers

    Eradicating hunger is a complex and multifaceted challenge, requiring evidence bases that can inform wide scale action, but that are also participatory and grounded to have local relevance and effectiveness. The Rural Household Multi-Indicator Surveys (RHoMIS) provides a broad assessment of household capabilities and food security outcomes, while ethnographic approaches evidence how individuals' perceptions, experiences and local socio-political context shape food security experiences and intervention outcomes. However, integrating these research approaches presents methodological and ontological challenges. We combine a quantitative approach with life history interviews to understand the drivers, experiences and outcomes of food insecurity in Guatemala's dry corridor region. We also reflect on the effectiveness and challenges of integrating the two methods for purposes of selective sampling, triangulating evidence, and producing a cohesive analyses of food insecurity in the region. Variables with a statistically significant association with severe food insecurity in the region are: coffee cultivation (when market participation is low), dependence on agricultural labor income, and poverty level. Drivers of food insecurity experiences most commonly identified by participants are: consecutive drought; ill health and displacement of income for medicine; social marginalization; high start-up costs in production; absence or separation of a household head; and a lack of income and education opportunity. Ethnographic approaches identify a broader range of drivers contributing to food insecurity experiences, and add explanatory power to a statistical model of severe food insecurity. This integrated analysis provides a holistic picture of food insecurity in Guatemala's dry corridor region.

    Food Access Deficiencies in Sub-saharan Africa: Prevalence and Implications for Agricultural Interventions
    Fraval, Simon ; Hammond, James ; Bogard, Jessica R. ; Ng'endo, Mary ; Etten, Jacob van; Herrero, Mario ; Oosting, Simon J. ; Boer, Imke J.M. de; Lannerstad, Mats ; Teufel, Nils ; Lamanna, Christine ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Pagella, Tim ; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Dontsop-Nguezet, Paul M. ; Baines, David ; Carpena, Pietro ; Njingulula, Paulin ; Okafor, Christopher ; Wichern, Jannike ; Ayantunde, Augustine ; Bosire, Caroline ; Chesterman, Sabrina ; Kihoro, Esther ; Rao, Elizaphan J.O. ; Skirrow, Tom ; Steinke, Jonathan ; Stirling, Clare M. ; Yameogo, Viviane ; Wijk, Mark T. van - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2019). - ISSN 2571-581X
    Bayesian - crops - diet diversity - farm systems - livestock - nutrition-sensitive - rural development

    Our understanding of food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been hampered by limitations in the temporal and spatial representativeness of data. Food balance sheets provide scalable estimates of per capita food availability, but fail to represent food access, stability and their causal linkages. In contrast, rural household surveys represent detailed conditions for one or multiple points in time, but are influenced by survey timing and are often limited in geographical coverage. This study draws on a large sample of rural land-holding households in SSA (n = 6,353) to identify household level food access deficiencies and to understand the associations with rural livelihoods and food sourcing behavior throughout the year. Food access deficiencies were identified using food security of access and diet diversity indicators. Dietary diversity and channel of access (farm or purchased) were enumerated for the “flush” and “lean” periods and food security of access was enumerated for the lean period only - making the results of this study independent of survey timing. As many as 39% of households were classified as severely food insecure (in terms of food access) and as many as 49% of households were likely to be deficient in micronutrients in the lean period. Vulnerability to food insecurity and micronutrient deficiencies differed by household composition, agricultural livelihood characteristics and agro-ecological zone. Dairy, fruit and vitamin A-rich produce were predominantly accessed through the farm channel. Households with a livestock component to their farm had a lower prevalence of severe food insecurity and higher diet diversity scores. These findings have implications for the development of nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific interventions. Interventions need to be tailored to agro-ecological zone, household composition, scale of operation and production mix. Increasing income will not necessarily result in improved diet diversity or healthy dietary choices. Interventions focused on income generation should monitor and promote crop and livestock production diversity and provide nutrition education.

    Implementing immersive technologies in consumer testing: Taste perception and liking in a laboratory, immersive simulated café and real café
    Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Kaneko, D. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Zoggel, M. van; Schiona, Irene ; Zandstra, E.H. - \ 2019
    Implementing immersive technologies in consumer testing: Taste perception and liking in a laboratory, immersive simulated café and real café
    Zandstra, Liesbeth ; Kaneko, D. ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. de; Vennik, E. van; Wijk, R.A. de; Zandstra, E.H. - \ 2019
    Food perception and emotion measured over time in-lab and in-home
    Wijk, R.A. De; Kaneko, D. ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Zoggel, M. van; Schiona, I. ; Visalli, M. ; Zandstra, Liesbeth - \ 2019
    Eating context - Facial expressions - Heart rate - Repeated sensory tests
    Background: Real-life human eating behaviour does not take place in a vacuum, rather it happens in context. The context in which consumers eat their foods influences the acceptance of the consumed foods. Consequently, consumers’ hedonic and sensory ratings elicited in a natural consumption context will differ from those elicited under controlled sensory laboratory conditions. Moreover, foods are rarely consumed on one single occasion but are typically consumed repeatedly and ratings may change over repeated consumptions as well. Often, consumer acceptance is tested explicitly, for example with liking ratings, especially when the testing is done outside the laboratory. Implicit tests such as facial expressions and physiological measurements of the autonomic nervous system can provide additional information on consumer acceptance. As a result of technological advantages, such tests are no longer limited to the laboratory but can also be used in natural consumption contexts. Method: Eighteen healthy Dutch consumers (18–65 years of age) tested four test foods plus a warm-up sample ten times on consecutive weekdays and on similar hours using their own laptop and webcam. Test locations alternated between the sensory laboratory and the participant's own home. Explicit measures included liking scores and scores on ten sensory taste/flavour/texture attributes, and implicit measures included facial expressions, heart rate and consumption duration using Face Reader TM . This study was the first to validate the Face Reader TM for usage at home. Results: The liking scores and sensory profiles varied between test foods (p < 0.05), but not between test locations and only some specific sensory attributes showed systematic variation over repeated consumption. In contrast, implicit measures showed systematic effects of test foods, test locations, and repeated consumptions (p < 0.05). Compared to consumption in the laboratory, consumption at home was faster, triggered higher heart rates, and triggered more intense facial expressions of happiness, contempt, disgust and boredom. Conclusions: Implicit tests were more sensitive to effects of test location and repeated consumption than explicit tests. Additional research is required to investigate the relevance of these measures to long term consumer acceptance of food products.
    Effects of eating context on food perception are not caused by the eating location itself
    Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Kaneko, D. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Zoggel, M. van; Schiona, Irene ; Zandstra, Liesbeth - \ 2019
    Effects of eating context on food perception are not caused by the eating location itself
    Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Kaneko, D. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Zoggel, M. van; Schiona, Irene ; Zandstra, E.H. - \ 2019
    PPS-project onderzoekt effect omgeving op voedselgewoonten
    Wijk, Rene de; Dijksterhuis, Garmt - \ 2019
    Impact of on-pack visual cues on household premeditated food waste
    Janssen, A.M. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. ; Schnabel, S.K. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Tromp, S.O. - \ 2019
    Gezonde Wijk en SEGV Lokale aanpak
    Mulderij, Lisanne ; Wagemakers, Annemarie - \ 2019
    Gezonde Wijk
    Mulderij, Lisanne ; Verkooijen, Kirsten - \ 2019
    Minder ADHD in groene wijk
    Vries, S. de - \ 2019
    In wijken met meer groen gebruiken minder kinderen ADHD-medicatie, blijkt uit Wagenings onderzoek. Dit geldt vooral voor armere wijken. Ook zijn de verschillen in mentale gezondheid tussen mensen met lagere en hogere inkomens aanzienlijk kleiner in een groene woonomgeving dan wanneer de woonomgeving minder groen is. Met adviezen aan overheden, projectontwikkelaars en stedenbouwkundigen dragen Wageningse onderzoekers bij aan een gezondere leefomgeving. Denk je dat we meer kunnen investeren in groen voor onze gezondheid?

    Schone wiet telen: deze onderzoeker bewijst dat het kan
    Poot, E.H. - \ 2019
    A perspective on water quality in connected systems: modelling feedback between upstream and downstream transport and local ecological processes
    Teurlincx, Sven ; Wijk, Dianneke van; Mooij, Wolf M. ; Kuiper, Jan J. ; Huttunen, Inese ; Brederveld, Robert J. ; Chang, Manqi ; Janse, Jan H. ; Woodward, Ben ; Hu, Fenjuan ; Janssen, Annette B.G. - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 40 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 21 - 29.

    Food production for a growing world population relies on application of fertilisers and pesticides on agricultural lands. However, these substances threaten surface water quality and thereby endanger valued ecosystem services such as drinking water supply, food production and recreational water use. Such deleterious effects do not merely arise on the local scale, but also on the regional scale through transport of substances as well as energy and biota across the catchment. Here we argue that aquatic ecosystem models can provide a process-based understanding of how these transports by water and organisms as vectors affect – and are affected by – ecosystem state and functioning in networks of connected lakes. Such a catchment scale approach is key to setting critical limits for the release of substances by agricultural practices and other human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Thereby, water and food production and the trade-offs between them may be managed more sustainably.

    Integrated modelling and management of water resources: the ecosystem perspective on the nexus approach
    Hülsmann, Stephan ; Sušnik, Janez ; Rinke, Karsten ; Langan, Simon ; Wijk, Dianneke van; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Mooij, Wolf M. - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 40 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 14 - 20.

    Addressing challenges of water, energy and food security, nexus approaches towards resources management are being developed and starting to be implemented. However, the ecosystem perspective, essential for sustainable resources management, has been identified as a missing element within earlier nexus assessments. With regard to water they have mainly focused on the allocation to different sectors and users, while ecosystem services were rarely explicitly addressed. Existing aquatic ecosystem models are capable of quantifying a wide range of ecosystem services, but have thus far not been comprehensively used in a nexus context. Recent developments in aquatic ecosystem modelling approaches provide opportunities to achieve the sought integration of ecosystem services in the nexus approach. Therefore, we argue for a stronger role of aquatic ecosystem models in nexus assessments.

    A Generically Parameterized model of Lake eutrophication (GPLake) that links field-, lab- and model-based knowledge
    Chang, Manqi ; Teurlincx, Sven ; DeAngelis, Donald L. ; Janse, Jan H. ; Troost, Tineke A. ; Wijk, Dianneke van; Mooij, Wolf M. ; Janssen, Annette B.G. - \ 2019
    Science of the Total Environment 695 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Consumer-resource interactions - Nutrient versus light limitation - PCLake - Phytoplankton - Vollenweider - Water quality management

    Worldwide, eutrophication is threatening lake ecosystems. To support lake management numerous eutrophication models have been developed. Diverse research questions in a wide range of lake ecosystems are addressed by these models. The established models are based on three key approaches: the empirical approach that employs field surveys, the theoretical approach in which models based on first principles are tested against lab experiments, and the process-based approach that uses parameters and functions representing detailed biogeochemical processes. These approaches have led to an accumulation of field-, lab- and model-based knowledge, respectively. Linking these sources of knowledge would benefit lake management by exploiting complementary information; however, the development of a simple tool that links these approaches was hampered by their large differences in scale and complexity. Here we propose a Generically Parameterized Lake eutrophication model (GPLake) that links field-, lab- and model-based knowledge and can be used to make a first diagnosis of lake water quality. We derived GPLake from consumer-resource theory by the principle that lacustrine phytoplankton is typically limited by two resources: nutrients and light. These limitations are captured in two generic parameters that shape the nutrient to chlorophyll-a relations. Next, we parameterized GPLake, using knowledge from empirical, theoretical, and process-based approaches. GPLake generic parameters were found to scale in a comparable manner across data sources. Finally, we show that GPLake can be applied as a simple tool that provides lake managers with a first diagnosis of the limiting factor and lake water quality, using only the parameters for lake depth, residence time and current nutrient loading. With this first-order assessment, lake managers can easily assess measures such as reducing nutrient load, decreasing residence time or changing depth before spending money on field-, lab- or model- experiments to support lake management.

    Wageningen University meet hitte boven Amsterdam met weerballon
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. - \ 2019

    Onderzoekers van Wageningen University lieten woensdag meerdere weerballonnen op vanaf de Dam in Amsterdam. Het uiteindelijke doel: een weerbericht per wijk.

    Household-level drivers of dietary diversity in transitioning agricultural systems : Evidence from the Greater Mekong Subregion
    Ritzema, R.S. ; Douxchamps, S. ; Fraval, S. ; Bolliger, A. ; Hok, L. ; Phengsavanh, P. ; Long, C.T.M. ; Hammond, J. ; Wijk, M.T. van - \ 2019
    Agricultural Systems 176 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Agricultural transition - Cambodia - Dietary diversity - Greater Mekong Subregion - Household Dietary Diversity Score - Laos - Vietnam

    Over the past four decades, agricultural systems in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have largely evolved from a subsistence orientation toward commercial production, but the multi-faceted changes behind this evolution vary in substance and degree. Despite connoting economic progress, effects of these changes on household welfare indicators such as dietary diversity have been unclear. By taking a comprehensive view of the farm household, this study discerns the drivers of household dietary diversity in this transitional context by linking the Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS), as an indicator of dietary diversity, to key household characteristics, livelihood strategies and indicators of farm performance in three study sites in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. The Rural Household Multi-Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) tool, a combined survey and analysis platform, was employed to collect data from over 1300 farm households. HDDS is found to increase among the sites in a way that is roughly associated with their state of agricultural transition, though differing combinations of market orientation, specialisation, and intensification traits that describe such a transition suggest that the pathway to commercialisation, and dietary diversity, is not a linear one. Drivers of dietary diversity vary markedly between the sites. In the Laos site, HDDS is most closely correlated to a set of variables closely linked with agricultural transition, while in the Cambodia site it is associated more with other farm and household characteristics. In the Vietnam site, dietary diversity is correlated to the overall value of crop production. Findings point to the need to contextualise site-specific knowledge of linkages between dietary diversity and ongoing agricultural transition in the GMS, as well as policy and interventions seeking to improve dietary diversity in the face of such transition.

    Vulnerability and adaptation options to climate change for rural livelihoods – A country-wide analysis for Uganda
    Wichern, Jannike ; Descheemaeker, Katrien ; Giller, Ken E. ; Ebanyat, Peter ; Taulya, Godfrey ; Wijk, Mark T. van - \ 2019
    Agricultural Systems 176 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Crop suitability - East Africa - Household food security - Impact assessment - Multi-level

    Rural households in sub-Saharan Africa earn a substantial part of their living from rain-fed smallholder agriculture, which is highly sensitive to climate change. There is a growing number of multi-level assessments on impacts and adaptation options for African smallholder systems under climate change, yet few studies translate impacts at the individual crop level to vulnerability at the household level, at which other livelihood activities need to be considered. Further, these assessments often use representative household types rather than considering the diversity of households for the identification of larger-scale patterns at sub-national and national levels. We developed a framework that combines crop suitability maps with a household food availability analysis to quantify household vulnerability to climate-related impacts on crop production and effects of adaptation options. The framework was tested for Uganda, identifying four hotspots of household vulnerability across the country. Hotspots were visually identified as areas with a relatively high concentration of vulnerable households, experiencing a decline in household crop suitability. About 30% of the households in the hotspots in (central) southwest were vulnerable to a combination of 3 °C temperature increase and 10% rainfall decline through declining suitability for several key crops (including highland banana, cassava, maize and sorghum). In contrast only 10% of the households in West Nile and central northern Uganda were negatively affected, and these were mainly affected by declining suitability of common beans. Households that depended on common beans and lived at lower elevations in West Nile and central north were vulnerable to a 2 to 3 °C temperature increase, while households located at higher elevations (above 1100–2000 m.a.s.l. depending on the crop) benefited from such an increase. Options for adaptation to increasing temperatures were most beneficial in northern Uganda, while drought-related adaptation options were more beneficial in the southwest. This framework provides a basis for decision makers who need information on where the vulnerable households are, what crops drive the vulnerability at household level and which intervention efforts are most beneficial in which regions.

    On the communication of statistical information about uncertainty in flood risk management
    Poortvliet, P.M. ; Knotters, Martin ; Bergsma, Petra ; Verstoep, Joël ; Wijk, Jiska van - \ 2019
    Safety Science 118 (2019). - ISSN 0925-7535 - p. 194 - 204.
    Decision analysis - Flood risk management - Risk communication - Uncertainty

    Uncertainty analysis is not typically performed in hydrological and hydraulic modelling. This is problematic because this may lead to inefficient decision making in water management. We therefore explored the role of statistical knowledge on uncertainty in decision-making processes in long term flood risk management within the context of regional water boards in the Netherlands. Research questions were: (1) in which parts of flood risk management statistical information about uncertainty is presented to professionals of district water boards, and in which forms?; (2) how is this information interpreted and used by these professionals, and how does this influence decision-making processes in district water boards?; and (3) how can communication about statistically quantified uncertainty be improved? To answer these questions we conducted interviews and surveys among professionals and board members of Dutch district water boards. Results suggest that statistical information on uncertainty is hard to interpret by professionals. The amount of statistical information on uncertainty strongly reduces during the decision making process, during which the information transforms from quantitative to qualitative. As a result the statistical information on uncertainty is not utilized to solve flood risk management decision problems. These decision problems are not formulated within statistical frameworks for decision making, and statistical information on uncertainty is not collected and presented with the purpose to be input of such frameworks. Practical recommendations for long term flood risk management are discussed.

    Food security in a changing world : disentangling the diversity of rural livelihood strategies across Uganda
    Wichern, Jannike - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K.E. Giller, co-promotor(en): K.K.E. Descheemaeker; Mark T. van Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439411 - 224

    Climate change increasingly challenges smallholder farming and our ability to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 2 (Zero Hunger) in sub-Saharan Africa. Agricultural interventions are needed that aim at improving the food insecurity of the most vulnerable rural households. Interventions must fit the local context of a diverse population of rural households, and a key challenge is to identify which kinds of interventions work in which regions and for which households. Micro-level information can account for this diversity, but is an underused source of information for planning of interventions at national and sub-national levels.

    In this thesis, I explored how micro-level information from cross-country household survey data can be used for effective planning of interventions. A further research aim was to understand within-country patterns of livelihood strategies in relation to food security and vulnerability to climate change of rural households in Uganda. Cross-country household data from the World Bank Living Standard Measurement Survey – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) were used to 1) aggregate household level information to higher levels (e.g. districts, regions, livelihood zones), 2) spatially interpolate household level information and 3) identify hotspot areas of household vulnerability. I used data that I collected from two sites in Uganda for an in-depth analysis on current coping strategies of households for climate and price variability. Household food security was approximated using a food availability indicator that quantified the contribution of livelihood activities to household food availability.

    Livelihood strategies of rural households across Uganda varied with household food availability. They changed from subsistence-oriented on-farm activities to market-oriented on-farm and off-farm activities as household food availability increased. Aggregation revealed spatial differences in food availability and livelihood activities. However, a geostatistical interpolation approach showed that local variability in food availability and livelihood activities was often larger than variability across larger areas. These findings stress that the large diversity in livelihood activities within any given area must be recognised in decision making at higher levels.

    Climate change scenarios were linked to the household livelihood activities to identify hotspot areas of vulnerable households in a country-wide assessment of climate change impacts on crop suitability. Groups of crop-related adaptation options were determined per hotspot area. Adaptation options related to temperature were suitable in the north, while drought-related adaptation options were more suitable in the southwest of Uganda. An in-depth analysis indicated that few ex-ante coping strategies were applied under current climate and price variability. Such coping strategies mostly required little financial investment such as switching crops, which was common for households with more land available. Households tended to react to shocks rather than taking preventive action. Better-off households compensated for crop losses by selling livestock or relying more on off-farm income, while the poor and food insecure lacked the resources to do so. These findings suggest that lack of resources can prevent households from adapting to climate change, even when adaptation options are useful from an agronomic perspective. Therefore, contextualised research is needed to understand local barriers to adoption, so that adaptation options can be tailored to local contexts and underpinned by enabling policies and institutional arrangements.

    Current top-down approaches to planning interventions ignore local diversity of livelihood strategies and food security. However, my results demonstrate that food security and vulnerability tend to be locally driven with large variability at small scale. Therefore, I propose a three-step approach for using micro-level information for multi-level planning. Step 1 disentangles livelihood diversity using cross-country household surveys. Step 2 locates important production activities (Pathway 2a) or vulnerable households and suitable adaptation options (Pathway 2b). Step 3 uses site-specific household surveys to assess which interventions work for which groups of households in the local context. This approach adds to existing approaches by generating spatially-explicit and quantitative information on livelihood activities for food availability and on household vulnerability, while accounting for the diversity of households within and across areas. It enables the exploration and tailoring of intervention options under different future scenarios. In this way, my work contributes to identifying pathways to achieve zero hunger by 2030 in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Success of lake restoration depends on spatial aspects of nutrient loading and hydrology
    Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Wijk, Dianneke van; Gerven, Luuk P.A. van; Bakker, Elisabeth S. ; Brederveld, Robert J. ; DeAngelis, Donald L. ; Janse, Jan H. ; Mooij, Wolf M. - \ 2019
    Science of the Total Environment 679 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 248 - 259.
    Alternative stable states - Diffuse source - Management - PCLake - Point source - Spatial heterogeneity

    Many aquatic ecosystems have deteriorated due to human activities and their restoration is often troublesome. It is proposed here that the restoration success of deteriorated lakes critically depends on hitherto largely neglected spatial heterogeneity in nutrient loading and hydrology. A modelling approach is used to study this hypothesis by considering four lake types with contrasting nutrient loading (point versus diffuse)and hydrology (seepage versus drainage). By comparing the longterm effect of common restoration measures (nutrient load reduction, lake flushing or biomanipulation)in these four lake types, we found that restoration through reduction of nutrient loading is effective in all cases. In contrast, biomanipulation only works in seepage lakes with diffuse nutrient inputs, while lake flushing will even be counterproductive in lakes with nutrient point sources. The main conclusion of the presented analysis is that a priori assessment of spatial heterogeneity caused by nutrient loading and hydrology is essential for successful restoration of lake ecosystems.

    Food security in rural sub-Saharan Africa : a household level assessment of crop-livestock systems
    Fraval, Simon - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): I.J.M. de Boer, co-promotor(en): S.J. Oosting; M.T. van Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435734 - 179

    Members of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are both vulnerable to the health burdens that stem from food insecurity and central to improving the availability and affordability of wholesome foods. It has been estimated that chronic and hidden hunger can be alleviated by implementing a suite of nutrition-specific interventions at a cost of US\$9.6 billion per annum. This can be accelerated with complementary food system-based interventions. However, such interventions are hampered by a limited understanding of food security status and its associations with rural livelihoods. Therefore, the primary objective of this thesis was to describe, analyse and understand food security in rural landholding households in predominantly mixed crop-livestock agricultural systems of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The secondary objective was to improve the methodological basis of household level food security studies.

    The rural household multi-indicator survey (RHOMIS) tool was developed to describe and analyse the circumstances of rural households. The RHOMIS tool aims to adhere to the principles of being time-efficient, utilitarian, user-friendly, flexible and reliable. The credibility, consistency and reliability of data collected using three different farm household surveys. The shorter and more targeted survey tool, RHOMIS, performed better in terms of staying within credible bounds. Measurements of maize yields and land area owned were found to be less reliable than other variables. Despite the limitations in data quality, our analysis shows that if the same farm households are followed over time, the sample sizes needed to detect substantial changes are in the order of hundreds of surveys, and not in the thousands.

    The RHOMIS tool was then used to quantify changes in livelihoods and food security status in an urban linked, high potential region of Tanzania. Households in the study site adaptively responded to local and national circumstances. Changes in land ownership, livestock-holdings and high value crop production were most likely related to market opportunities and personal circumstances, rather than to direct interventions. Several households made strategic changes by expanding land ownership, planting perennial crops and investing in exotic cattle breeds; many households tactically utilised their land for diversified, mixed crop-livestock production. A central finding of this study is that the complex risk management strategies and market responsiveness demonstrated by the `Rising' clusters are at odds with single focus activities that external organisations tend to promote.

    Subsequently, instances of chronic and hidden hunger were analysed in two provinces of Burkina Faso. The results of this study show that in both provinces, the ability to purchase food is what differentiates the more food secure households from their less food secure counterparts. This finding does not detract from the utility of subsistence production -- where consumption of own-farm sourced food catered for between 72\% and 91\% of the annual energy requirements. Further, households were observed to be pursuing market-oriented strategies in combination with production diversification -- likely to reduce risk exposure to climatic or economic shocks.

    In a large sample of households across SSA, we found that as many as 40\% of households were classified as chronically hungry in the lean period. Prevalence of micronutrient dietary gaps were high, ranging from 35\% of households to 68\%. Vulnerability to dietary gaps differed by household composition, livelihood characteristics and agro-ecological zone (AEZ). It is the combination of livelihood characteristics and the agro-ecological production potential that drive the availability of food and income. It was found that households fail to purchase food categories that nutritionally complement their own agricultural products. Furthermore, households with a livestock component to their farm were found to have a lower prevalence of chronic and hidden hunger.

    In extended analyses, the gender of household head and stage of life were found to be associated with the number of household inhabitants and thus influence nutritional requirements and food security status throughout the year. The high prevalence of food insecurity, the complexity of associations and the failure to nutritionally complement own-production with purchases have implications for developing effective interventions. Programs can be designed as `packages' of agricultural and non-agricultural interventions to maximise adoption and maximise the positive impact on food and nutrition security throughout the year.

    Food perception and emotion measured over time in-lab and in-home
    Wijk, R.A. De; Kaneko, D. ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. ; Zoggel, M. van; Schiona, I. ; Visalli, M. ; Zandstra, E.H. - \ 2019
    Food Quality and Preference 75 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 170 - 178.
    Eating context - Facial expressions - Heart rate - Repeated sensory tests
    Background: Real-life human eating behaviour does not take place in a vacuum, rather it happens in context. The context in which consumers eat their foods influences the acceptance of the consumed foods. Consequently, consumers’ hedonic and sensory ratings elicited in a natural consumption context will differ from those elicited under controlled sensory laboratory conditions. Moreover, foods are rarely consumed on one single occasion but are typically consumed repeatedly and ratings may change over repeated consumptions as well. Often, consumer acceptance is tested explicitly, for example with liking ratings, especially when the testing is done outside the laboratory. Implicit tests such as facial expressions and physiological measurements of the autonomic nervous system can provide additional information on consumer acceptance. As a result of technological advantages, such tests are no longer limited to the laboratory but can also be used in natural consumption contexts. Method: Eighteen healthy Dutch consumers (18–65 years of age) tested four test foods plus a warm-up sample ten times on consecutive weekdays and on similar hours using their own laptop and webcam. Test locations alternated between the sensory laboratory and the participant's own home. Explicit measures included liking scores and scores on ten sensory taste/flavour/texture attributes, and implicit measures included facial expressions, heart rate and consumption duration using Face Reader TM . This study was the first to validate the Face Reader TM for usage at home. Results: The liking scores and sensory profiles varied between test foods (p < 0.05), but not between test locations and only some specific sensory attributes showed systematic variation over repeated consumption. In contrast, implicit measures showed systematic effects of test foods, test locations, and repeated consumptions (p < 0.05). Compared to consumption in the laboratory, consumption at home was faster, triggered higher heart rates, and triggered more intense facial expressions of happiness, contempt, disgust and boredom. Conclusions: Implicit tests were more sensitive to effects of test location and repeated consumption than explicit tests. Additional research is required to investigate the relevance of these measures to long term consumer acceptance of food products.
    Food security in rural sub-Saharan Africa: a household level assessment
    Fraval, S. ; Oosting, S.J. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Lannerstad, Mats ; Wijk, M.T. van - \ 2019
    In: Trade-offs in Science - Keeping the Balance. - Wageningen University & Research - p. 14 - 14.
    Rural households in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are both vulnerable to the health burdens that stem from food insecurity and central to improving the availability and affordability of food. In order to understand the occurrence of food insecurity in rural landholding households, this study draws on 6,353 Household interviews, conducted in eight SSA countries. Multiple indicators of food security were enumerated alongside farm and socio-economic variables. As many as 38% of households were classified as chronically hungry in the months of food scarcity. Prevalence of micronutrient dietary gaps were high, ranging from 40% of households lacking daily sources of vitamin B6, to 73% lacking daily sources of calcium. Chronic and hidden hunger were associated with market participation, livestock product diversity, crop product diversity and gross income, where the direction of association differed by agro-ecological zone (AEZ). These livelihood characteristics – in isolation – had limited impact on food security indicators. Rather, it is the combination of these livelihood characteristics and AEZ that drive food security status throughout the year.The high prevalence of food insecurity and the complexity of associations have implications for developing effective nutrition specific and nutrition sensitive interventions. Interventions need to be tailored to agroecological zone, household composition, scale of operation and production mix. Increasing income will not necessarily result in improved diet diversity or healthy dietary choices. Interventions focused on income generation can maximise nutritional impact by promoting crop and livestock production diversity and by providing nutrition education.
    Age, gender, ethnicity and eating capability influence oral processing behaviour of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods differently
    Ketel, Eva C. ; Aguayo-Mendoza, Monica G. ; Wijk, René A. de; Graaf, Cees de; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
    Food Research International 119 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 143 - 151.
    Age - Eating capability - Ethnicity - Gender - Inter-individual variation - Oral processing

    Food oral processing depends on food properties and consumer characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender, ethnicity and eating capability on oral processing behaviour of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. Oral processing behaviour of 18 commercially available foods, ranging from liquids, semi-solids to solids, was compared between Dutch, Caucasian adults (18-30 yrs), Chinese, Asian adults (18-30 yrs), Dutch, Caucasian elderly (60-80 yrs), and consumers with mild swallowing problems and/or low mastication efficiency (18-80 yrs). Participants were video recorded during food consumption and six oral processing parameters extracted. Elderly consumed all foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than young adults by increasing consumption time (s). Females consumed solid foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than males by reducing bite size (g). Chinese, Asian consumers consumed liquid and solid foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than Dutch, Caucasian consumers by reducing bites size (g). Chinese, Asian consumers consumed semi-solid foods with lower eating rates (g/s) than Dutch, Caucasian consumers by reducing bite size (g) and increasing consumption time (s). Consumers with decreased mastication efficiency or mild swallowing problems showed similar oral processing behaviour than healthy consumers, probably because reduction in eating capability was limited in the group. This demonstrates that different consumer groups adapt eating rate (g/s) in different ways by modifying bite size (g), consumption time (s) or both. To conclude, age, gender and ethnicity influence oral processing behaviour of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods differently. Understanding differences in oral processing behaviour of specific consumer groups can assist in steering sensory perception, food choice and energy intake of specific consumer groups such as the elderly.

    Making the most of imperfect data: a critical evaluation of standard information collected in farm household surveys
    Fraval, Simon ; Hammond, James ; Wichern, Jannike ; Oosting, Simon J. ; Boer, Imke J.M. De; Teufel, Nils ; Lannerstad, Mats ; Waha, Katharina ; Pagella, Tim ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Giller, Ken E. ; Herrero, Mario ; Harris, David ; Wijk, Mark T. van - \ 2019
    Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)2. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 230 - 250.
    Household surveys are one of the most commonly used tools for generating insight into rural communities. Despite their prevalence, few studies comprehensively evaluate the quality of data derived from farm household surveys. We critically evaluated a series of standard reported values and indicators that are captured in multiple farm household surveys, and then quantified their credibility, consistency and, thus, their reliability. Surprisingly, even variables which might be considered ‘easy to estimate’ had instances of non-credible observations. In addition, measurements of maize yields and land owned were found to be less reliable than other stationary variables. This lack of reliability has implications for monitoring food security status, poverty status and the land productivity of households. Despite this rather bleak picture, our analysis also shows that if the same farm households are followed over time, the sample sizes needed to detect substantial changes are in the order of hundreds of surveys, and not in the thousands. Our research highlights the value of targeted and systematised household surveys and the importance of ongoing efforts to improve data quality. Improvements must be based on the foundations of robust survey design, transparency of experimental design and effective training. The quality and usability of such data can be further enhanced by improving coordination between agencies, incorporating mixed modes of data collection and continuing systematic validation programmes.
    Towards a global model for wetlands ecosystem services
    Janse, Jan H. ; Dam, Anne A. van; Hes, Edwin M.A. ; Klein, Jeroen J.M. de; Finlayson, C.M. ; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Wijk, Dianneke van; Mooij, Wolf M. ; Verhoeven, Jos T.A. - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 11 - 19.

    Wetlands play an important role in the provision of important ecosystem services like the provision of clean water to the world, adaptation to climate change, and support for biodiversity; although they are sometimes also associated with adverse climate effects. Wetlands are, however, currently grossly underrepresented in global environmental models. In this paper, we explore the required functionality of a generic model of the effects of climate and land-use changes on wetlands ecosystem services worldwide. We briefly review existing models to identify elements which can be combined to compile a generic wetland model. The proposed global wetland model should be integrated into and receive data from existing hydrology and climate models. Wetland delineation can be based on local hydrological and topographical conditions and verified with global wetland databases. We conclude that an integrated approach combining hydrology, biogeochemistry and vegetation for wetlands is not available yet, however, useful building blocks exist that can be combined.

    How to model algal blooms in any lake on earth
    Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Janse, Jan H. ; Beusen, Arthur H.W. ; Chang, Manqi ; Harrison, John A. ; Huttunen, Inese ; Kong, Xiangzhen ; Rost, Jasmijn ; Teurlincx, Sven ; Troost, Tineke A. ; Wijk, Dianneke van; Mooij, Wolf M. - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 1 - 10.

    Algal blooms increasingly threaten lake and reservoir water quality at the global scale, caused by ongoing climate change and nutrient loading. To anticipate these algal blooms, models to project future algal blooms worldwide are required. Here we present the state-of-the-art in algal projection modelling and explore the requirements of an ideal algal projection model. Based on this, we identify current challenges and opportunities for such model development. Since most building blocks are present, we foresee that algal projection models for any lake on earth can be developed in the near future. Finally, we think that algal bloom projection models at a global scale will provide a valuable contribution to global policymaking, in particular with respect to SDG 6 (clean water and sanitation).

    Modulation of sensory perception of cheese attributes intensity and texture liking via ortho- and retro-nasal odors
    Han, Pengfei ; Fark, Therese ; Wijk, Rene A. de; Roudnitzky, Natacha ; Iannilli, Emilia ; Seo, Han Seok ; Hummel, Thomas - \ 2019
    Food Quality and Preference 73 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 7.
    Cheese - Congruency - Cross-modal sensory enhancement - Orthonasal - Retronasal - Texture

    Cross-modal sensory integration plays a key role in food flavor perception and acceptance during consumption. The current study investigated the effect of a butter odor, delivered at various stages of the oral processing cycle, on modulating the sensory properties of cheese. Twenty healthy volunteers (aged between 25 and 29 years, 12 women) were measured for their detection thresholds for the butter odor. In the sensory evaluation sessions, participants chewed and swallowed three types of cheese (low-fat, 20% fat content, LF; a medium-fat, 30% fat content, MF; high-fat, 40% fat content, HF, served in 16 × 16 × 12 mm3 cubes) while the butter odor was presented ortho- and retronasally in two concentrations at various points of the oral processing cycle. After swallowing, participants rated on a visual analogue scale for the intensities of cheese creaminess, butter note, overall flavor, and the pleasantness for cheese texture. Enhancement of added butter odor on perceived sensory attributes differed as a function of the delivery routes and timings. Creaminess intensity increased significantly when butter odor presented retro-nasally at the start of chewing. Butter note was enhanced when the retro-nasal odor was added during chewing. The texture pleasantness was increased with ortho-nasal odor presentation. In addition, for the creaminess intensity and texture liking enhancement, the observed effects were more pronounced with butter odor presentation at the lower concentration. Taken together, these findings suggested the importance of temporal congruency for cross-modal sensory enhancement in food flavor perception. The findings help to better understand flavor perception during oral processing of solid food and add value for future development of foods with nutritional benefits.

    Modeling water quality in the Anthropocene: directions for the next-generation aquatic ecosystem models
    Mooij, W.M. ; Wijk, Dianneke van; Beusen, A.H.W. ; Brederveld, R.J. ; Chang, M. ; Cobben, Marleen M.P. ; DeAngelis, D.L. ; Downing, A.S. ; Janssen, A.B.G. ; Hengeveld, G.M. - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 85 - 95.
    Everything changes and nothing stands still” (Heraclitus). Here we review three major improvements to freshwater aquatic ecosystem models — and ecological models in general — as water quality scenario analysis tools towards a sustainable future. To tackle the rapid and deeply connected dynamics characteristic of the Anthropocene, we argue for the inclusion of eco-evolutionary, novel ecosystem and social-ecological dynamics. These dynamics arise from adaptive responses in organisms and ecosystems to global environmental change and act at different integration levels and different time scales. We provide reasons and means to incorporate each improvement into aquatic ecosystem models. Throughout this study we refer to Lake Victoria as a microcosm of the evolving novel social-ecological systems of the Anthropocene. The Lake Victoria case clearly shows how interlinked eco-evolutionary, novel ecosystem and social-ecological dynamics are, and demonstrates the need for transdisciplinary research approaches towards global sustainability.
    IgE Cross-Reactivity of Cashew Nut Allergens
    Bastiaan-Net, Shanna ; Reitsma, Marit ; Cordewener, Jan H.G. ; Valk, Johanna P.M. van der; America, Twan A.H.P. ; Dubois, Anthony E.J. ; Gerth van Wijk, Roy ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Jong, Nicolette W. de; Wichers, Harry J. - \ 2019
    International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 178 (2019)1. - ISSN 1018-2438 - p. 19 - 32.
    Allergenicity - Cashew nut - Food allergy - IgE cross-reactivity - Immunoblotting - Tree nut allergy

    Background: Allergic sensitisation towards cashew nut often happens without a clear history of eating cashew nut. IgE cross-reactivity between cashew and pistachio nut is well described; however, the ability of cashew nut-specific IgE to cross-react to common tree nut species and other Anacardiaceae, like mango, pink peppercorn, or sumac is largely unknown. Objectives: Cashew nut allergic individuals may cross-react to foods that are phylogenetically related to cashew. We aimed to determine IgE cross-sensitisation and cross-reactivity profiles in cashew nut-sensitised subjects, towards botanically related proteins of other Anacardiaceae family members and related tree nut species. Method: Sera from children with a suspected cashew nut allergy (n = 56) were assessed for IgE sensitisation to common tree nuts, mango, pink peppercorn, and sumac using dot blot technique. Allergen cross-reactivity patterns between Anacardiaceae species were subsequently examined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot inhibition, and IgE-reactive allergens were identified by LC-MS/MS. Results: From the 56 subjects analysed, 36 were positive on dot blot for cashew nut (63%). Of these, 50% were mono-sensitised to cashew nuts, 19% were co-sensitised to Anacardiaceae species, and 31% were co-sensitised to tree nuts. Subjects co-sensitised to Anacardiaceae species displayed a different allergen recognition pattern than subjects sensitised to common tree nuts. In pink peppercorn, putative albumin- and legumin-type seed storage proteins were found to cross-react with serum of cashew nut-sensitised subjects in vitro. In addition, a putative luminal binding protein was identified, which, among others, may be involved in cross-reactivity between several Anacardiaceae species. Conclusions: Results demonstrate the in vitro presence of IgE cross-sensitisation in children towards multiple Anacardiaceae species. In this study, putative novel allergens were identified in cashew, pistachio, and pink peppercorn, which may pose factors that underlie the observed cross-sensitivity to these species. The clinical relevance of this widespread cross-sensitisation is unknown.

    Sensory analysis of characterising flavours : Evaluating tobacco product odours using an expert panel
    Krüsemann, Erna J.Z. ; Lasschuijt, Marlou P. ; Graaf, C. de; Wijk, René A. de; Punter, Pieter H. ; Tiel, Loes van; Cremers, Johannes W.J.M. ; Nobelen, Suzanne van de; Boesveldt, Sanne ; Talhout, Reinskje - \ 2019
    Tobacco Control 28 (2019). - ISSN 0964-4563 - p. 152 - 160.
    advertising and promotion - prevention - public policy

    Objectives: Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco [⋯]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling. Methods: An expert panel (n=18) evaluated the smell of 20 tobacco products using self-defined odour attributes, following Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The panel was trained during 14 attribute training, consensus training and performance monitoring sessions. Products were assessed during six test sessions. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering (four and six clusters) and Hotelling's T-tests (95% and 99% CIs) were used to determine differences and similarities between tobacco products based on odour attributes. Results: The final attribute list contained 13 odour descriptors. Panel performance was sufficient after 14 training sessions. Products marketed as unflavoured that formed a cluster were considered reference products. A four-cluster method distinguished cherry-flavoured, vanilla-flavoured and menthol-flavoured products from reference products. Six clusters subdivided reference products into tobacco leaves, roll-your-own and commercial products. Conclusions: An expert panel was successfully trained to assess characterising odours in cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco. This method could be applied to other product types such as e-cigarettes. Regulatory decisions on the choice of reference products and significance level are needed which directly influences the products being assessed as having a characterising odour.

    Using household survey data to identify large-scale food security patterns across Uganda
    Wichern, Jannike ; Heerwaarden, Joost van; Bruin, Sytze de; Descheemaeker, Katrien ; Asten, Piet J.A. van; Giller, Ken E. ; Wijk, Mark T. van - \ 2018
    PLoS ONE 13 (2018)12. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 23 p.
    To target food security interventions for smallholder households, decision makers need large-scale information, such as maps on poverty, food security and key livelihood activities. Such information is often based on expert knowledge or aggregated data, despite the fact that food security and poverty are driven largely by processes at the household level. At present, it is unclear if and how household level information can contribute to the spatial prediction of such welfare indicators or to what extent local variability is ignored by current mapping efforts. A combination of geo-referenced household level information with spatially continuous information is an underused approach to quantify local and large-scale variation, while it can provide a direct estimate of the variability of welfare indicators at the most relevant scale. We applied a stepwise regression kriging procedure to translate point information to spatially explicit patterns and create country-wide predictions with associated uncertainty estimates for indicators on food availability and related livelihood activities using household survey data from Uganda. With few exceptions, predictions of the indicators were weak, highlighting the difficulty in capturing variability at larger scale. Household explanatory variables identified little additional variation compared to environmental explanatory variables alone. Spatial predictability was strongest for indicators whose distribution was determined by environmental gradients. In contrast, indicators of crops that were more ubiquitously present across agroecological zones showed large local variation, which often overruled large-scale patterns. Our procedure adds to existing approaches that often only show large-scale patterns by revealing that local variation in welfare is large. Interventions that aim to target the poor must recognise that diversity in livelihood activities for income generation within any given area often overrides the variability of livelihood activities between distant regions in the country.
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